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Chapter 1: The Science of Life

What is biology? o o o Bios life

Logos knowledge The knowledge of life

Biologist o o Scientist who studies living things Questions What is life? What is the difference between a living thing and a non-living thing? How many types of living things exist in the world? How do these living things function?

o o

Use the term organism to refer to a living thins Study 1 particular type of organism & find out more about it Questions What is the organism made out of? How does the organism function? Where does the organism live, and why?

How does the organism interact with other organism and its surroundings?

Characteristics of life o o All living organism share this Cells Organisms are made out of simple units called cells Carry out activities necessary for the organisms to stay alive

Nutrition The process by which organisms take in food and convert them into new protoplasm Organisms gain the energy and materials they need from their food

Plants take in raw materials(CO2 and H2O)to make their food through photosynthesis Animals feed on plants and on other animals Non-living things can absorb things, but they cannot convert it

Respiration The oxidation of food substances release energy for our cell activities to

All organisms respires This energy is set free when these substances are broken down through respiration into CO2 and H2O Substances: carbohydrate & fats

C6H12O6+6O26CO2+6H2O+large amount of energy

Movement Ability to move body parts and/or exhibit locomotion Independent of external forces such as wind or water currents Some living things cant do locomotion, but they still can move some of their body parts

Excretion Removal of metabolic waste formed inside living cells products

Substance to be removed: excretory product Most animals have special organs to remove their excretory products

Homeostasis Maintenance environment of a constant internal

Because cells require a constant chemical and physical environment in order to carry their functions

Reproduction Production of new individuals for the survival of the species Some characters are passed on from the parents to the offspring Necessary for all species to survive, because all living things are mortal

Sensitivity Ability to respond to changes in the environment They often react to the changes in ways that are beneficial for themselves A change in the environment or an external influence causes the organisms to react in a predictable way

Growth & development Permanent increase in size with changes in form and structure May make an organism more complex or even change its form

Adaptability

Ability of organism to change so as to improve its chances of survival

Classifying living organism o Biologist group living organisms according to their similarities and differences Artificial classification According to properties meaningful to humans that are

Natural system of classification Kingdom (animal, plant, fungi, ect) Phylum/ division (seed, seedless) Class (fish, birds, mammals) Order (carnivore, herbivore, omnivore) Family Genus Species

Binominal Naming System 1st name = genus Starts with a capital letter

2nd name= species name Starts with a small letter

Scientific Method o o o o Observations Make hypothesis Conduct experiments Match= accept hypothesis Not match=start the whole process over

Chapter 2: Cell
Robert Hooke introduced cell Consists of o Protoplasm Protos first Plasm form A jelly like substance 70% is made out of water 30% is protein, carbohydrate, fats Varies from each organisms and each parts of the body

Cell surface membranes Called also plasma membrane Surrounds the cytoplasm of the cell Partially permeable membrane Only certain substances can pass through

Cell membranes Made out of double phospholipids layers Surround the organelles It is bounded by a cell surface membrane

Cytoplasm Between the nucleus and the cell surface membrane Contains enzymes Contains organelles Mitochondria o Small organelles Where occurs sausage-shaped respirations

aerobic

During this, food substances are oxidized to release energy. This energy is used to perform cell activities

Ribosome o o Small round structures Attached to certain membranes or lies freely

Cell vacuoles o A fluid filled space enclosed by a membrane Store substances within the cell Animal=small but many o Exists temporarily

Plant=large, central Contains liquid called cell sap Enclosed by tonoplast

Chloroplasts(plant cells) o o Oval structures Contained a green pigment called chlorophyll Essential photosynthesis for

Centriole(animal cells) o Small hollow-like cylinders,

Exist in either sol(liquid) or gel(semi solid) state Outer regions of cell=gel state Inner regions=sol state

Nucleus Consists of a small round mass of denser protoplasm called nucleoplasm Surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope Separates the contents nucleus from the rest cytoplasm or more of of the the

Contains one chromatin

nucleoli

and

Plays a part in the proteins in the cell

making

of

Long, thread like structures found within the nucleus Made out of proteins deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and

When the cell is dividing, the chromatin threads condense and become highly coiled structures (chromosomes)

Controls cell activities Cell growth Repair of worn out parts

Essential for cell division

Cell wall(plants only)

Surrounding the cell surface membrane Made out of cellulose Fully permeable Any type of substances can enter through

Differences between plant and animal cell

Centriole absent Cell wall present Chloroplasts present A large central vacuole

Centriole present Cell wall absent Chloroplasts absent Vacuole are small and many

Specialized cells, tissues, organs and systems o Differentiation the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific function Adaption to function Contain haemoglobin, which transports oxygen from the lungs to the body Has no nucleus, enabling it to carry more haemoglobin and hence, more oxygen Has a circular biconcave shape, which increases the surface area Long hollow tubes made out of xylem cells Conduct water from the roots up to the stem and leaves Do not have cross walls or protoplasm, which enables water to move easily through the central space(lumen) Lignin is deposited on the walls of the xylem, to strengthen the walls and

Cell structure Red Blood

Xylem vessel

prevents the vessels from collapsing Root hair cell Long and narrow, which increases the surface area to volume ratio Water and mineral salts can be efficiently absorbed from the soil How do cells work together in a multicellular organism? o Cells are grouped together to form a tissue Simple and complex tissues o Complex are not made of the same types of cells

Tissues combine to form organs Stomach made out of glandular, muscular, connective, and nervous tissue

Organs combines to form organ systems Respiratory, digestive Skin

Largest organ

The blood is a tissue o A tissue

Chapter 3: Movement of Substances


Diffusion o The net movement of particles (atoms, ions, and molecules) from a region where they are of higher concentration to a region where they are of lower concentration, that is, down a concentration gradient Random movement of concentration gradient particles down a

Higher concentration concentration

solutionlower

Concentration gradient The difference in between two regions

The steeper the concentration gradient for a substance, the faster the rate of diffusion is for that substance

Diffusion across a membrane A permeable membrane substances to pass through it allows all

Eventually, there will be equal concentrations of ions on both sides of the membrane

Osmosis o Higher water potentiallower water potential The measure of the tendency of water to move from one place to another

o o

Only transports water Both of the substances will later contain the same number of water molecules after undergoing osmosis Uses partially permeable membrane

How does osmosis affect living organisms? o Plant cells With high water potential The plant cell became turgid/swollen Does not burst because of the cell wall The turgidity of the cell with water is called turgor

The pressure exerted by the water on the cell wall is the turgor pressure

With low water potential The cytoplasm shrinks away from the cell wall The cell decreases in becomes plasmolysed size and

The plant would not disappear, because the cell wall is still not destroyed

Animal cells With high water potential An animal cell will swell or burst

With low water potential The cell loose shrinks in size water and then

Its called crenation

Why is turgor important in plants? o o Turgor supports soft tissues in plants Keeps stems erect, and the leaves widely spread out If loosing the turgidity, the plant will wilt

The changes in the turgor of guard cells cause the opening and closing of the stomata

What is the effect of plasmolysis? o o It causes tissues to become limp or flaccid Cells will be killed if they remained plasmolysed for too long

Surface area to volume ratio o The greater the area of the cell surface membrane per unit volume, the faster the rate of diffusion of a substance for a given concentration gradient Some cells are specifically adapted to absorb materials Root hair cells and the epithelial cells Have long processes or folded cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area.

Active transport o The process in which energy is used to move the particles of a substance against the concentration gradient Lower concentration concentration solution solutionhigher

Occurs only in living cells, because living cells respire

The absorption of: Dissolved mineral salts by the root hairs Glucose and amino acids by cells

Chapter 4: Nutrients
The need for food o A source of energy and raw materials for organisms Provide energy for the vital activities of the body To synthesize new protoplasm for cell growth and repair of worn-out parts of the body To stay healthy

What are nutrients? o Chemical substances in food that provide energy and materials needed by the body Some of the nutrients in food are Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates, and water

Condensation reaction o A chemical reaction in which two simple molecules are joined together to form a larger molecule with the removal of one molecule of water

Hydrolysis reaction

A reaction in which a water molecule is needed to break up a complex molecule into smaller molecules

Water o o Made up 70% of the body As a medium in which chemical reactions occur in an organism o o Photosynthesis, respiration

Transport dissolved substances around the body A key component of Protoplasm Lubricants found in joints The digestive juice Blood Tissue fluid

o o o

Hydrolysis(break down of water) in digestion Control the body temperature How much do we need water? How active a person is How healthy a person is The environment conditions

Carbohydrates

o o o

Elements Formula

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen CnH2mOm

Monosaccharide Single sugars Made up of only one type of sugar Glucose(animals), galactose(milk) fructose(plants), and

Disaccharide Double sugars Made up of two molecules of single sugars Maltose(sprouting grains), sugar), sucrose(cane sugar) lactose(milk

Benedicts solution/test Blue-green traces of reducing sugar amount of

Blue-yellow/orange moderate reducing sugar Blue-brick red/orange red amount of reducing sugars

large

Polysaccharide Complex carbohydrates Consists of many monosaccharide molecules joined together

Starch(plants), glycogen(animals), cellulose(in the cell wall)

Iodine test If it does contain starch, the solution will turn into a blue-black solution

Fats o o o Made out of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Commonly used as a stored energy Fat molecule+3H2O(lipase)glycerol+3 fatty acids Saturated fats are mainly found in animals Unsaturated fats are found in plants o To reduce the cholesterol level in blood found together with

o o

Cholesterol is usually polysaturated fats

If too much, it may cause coronary heart disease Also, gallstones, which are made up of cholesterol

Ethanol (alcohol) emulsion test A cloudy white emulsion formed indicates the presence of fats

Proteins

Made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur The largest and most complicated molecules of all food substances

o o

Always present in protoplasm Amino shape acidspolypeptidesprotein with 3D

When the bonds are broken the protein loses its dimensional shape, the protein had been denatured The protein have to be broken down by enzymes because protein molecules are too large to pass through the living cell surface membranes Used in Synthesis of new protoplasm, growth and repair of worn out body cells Synthesis of enzymes and some hormones The formation of antibodies to combat disease

Biuret test The blue biuret solution would turn into violet if it contains proteins

Chapter 5: Enzymes
Biological catalyst o Catalyst A substance which speeds up the chemical reaction Biological made out of proteins

Reactions that enzymes catalyze o Digestion Because the food molecules needs to be converted into a smaller, simpler, and soluble substances in order to be absorbed

Break down or build up complex substances

Characteristics of enzymes o Required in minute amounts Very efficient, so only small amount is needed Since, they remain unchanged and the same enzyme molecule can be used over and over again

Specific

Each chemical reaction inside a cell is catalyzed by a unique enzyme The Lock and Key hypothesis Enzyme Substrate key lock

The shape of the substrate is specifically designed for a specific enzyme

Affected by temperature 40-60 degrees optimum temperature Extreme heat can cause destruction of a protein irreversible

Many proteins are completely denatured above 60 degrees When the protein is denatured, it lost its active site

Affected by pH Some enzymes work best in slightly acidic solutions pH 7 as the optimum pH of amylase denatured at pH less than 4.5 and more than 9 optimum pH 1-2

protease

extreme changes in pH breaks the bonds(hydrogen) in the enzyme molecule

catalyze reversible reactions they can proceed backward direction in the forward or

some enzymes catalyze both reactions until equilibrium is reached the formation of glucose during photosynthesis is an enzyme catalyzed reaction

some use coenzymes some enzymes require coenzymes to be bound to them before they can catalyze reactions

Chapter 6: Nutrition in Humans


processes of nutrition o feeding/ingestion o food is taken into the body

digestion large food molecules are broken down into smaller, simpler, and soluble substances

absorption in the large intestine digested food substances are absorbed into the body cells

assimilation some of the absorbed food substances are converted to new protoplasm or used to provide energy

the alimentary canal o mouth chemical digestion

amylasecarbohydrate with the help of salivary glands that secretes saliva into the mouth

physical digestion teeth and tongue

o pharynx connects the buccal cavity oseophagus and the larynx with the

have the epiglottis to prevent the food from going the wrong way(to the windpipe)

o oseophagus narrow muscular tube passes through the thorax diaphgram to join the stomach no digestion peristalsis movement longitudinal and circular muscles and the

o stomach the walls contains gastric glands which secrete gastric juice for digestion digestion of protein to polypeptides using protease

o Small intestine u shaped duodenum jejunum ileum the digestion of all the nutrients

organs and glands associated with the gut o The liver Hepatic artery Brings oxygenated blood from the liver

Hepatic vein Carries deoxygenated blood away from the liver

Hepatic portal vein Transports digested products from the intestine to the liver and the whole body

Regulation of blood glucose concentration Too much glucose will be converted to glycogen, and will cause the blood glucose level to fall Too little glucose, the glycogen will be converted into glucose, and the blood glucose level rises

Production of bile To emulsify large fats

Deamination of amino acids Excess amino acids are brought to the liver Their amino groups are removed and converted to the urea

Breaking down of alcohol Liver cells contains enzymes called alcohol dehydrogenase Prolonged alcohol abuse may lead to cirrhosis of the liver o A disease which the liver cells are destroyed and replaced with fibrous tissues

The gall bladder Where bile is temporarily stored Bile flows to the duodenum through the bile duct

The pancreas The gland attached to the duodenum by the pancreatic duct Produces pancreatic juice that contains amylase, protease, and lipase

Also produces 2 hormones called insulin and glucagon

The large intestine About 1.5 meters long Have villi for absorption Have the colon, rectum, anus and the appendix Faeces are stored temporarily in the rectum, then expelled through the anus

Intestinal juice o Contains glucose maltase which digests maltose to

Eterokinaseinactive trypsin

trypsinogen

to

active

Erepsinwhich digests polypeptides to amino acids Lipasedigest fats to fatty acids and glycerol