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# 19

19
Types of Footings
Bearing Pressure under Footing
Wall Footings
Column Footings
Reinforced Concrete Design
Reinforced Concrete Design
S U R A N A R E E INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Design of Footings 1
Types of Footings
Wall
Property line
Combined Footings
A B
Rectangular, P
A
= P
B
A B
Rectangular, P
A
< P
B
Property line
A B
Rectangular, P
A
< P
B
Property line
A B
Strap or Cantilever
Property line
Mat Footing
Pile cap
Piles
Weak soil
Bearing stratum
Bearing pressure under footings
Axially Loaded Footings : Assume uniform pressure
Actual pressure is not uniform due to:
1) Footing flexibility
2) Depth of footing below ground surface
3) Type of soil, e.g., clay or sand
R
p, bearing pressure
R
Cohesionless soil
Heave Heave
R
Cohesive soil
P Mc Pec
A I I
= =
I
e
Ac
=
For rectangular footing of length h and width b,
3
/ 12
( / 2) 6
I bh h
e
Ac bh h
= = =
x x
y
y
e
h
b
e
P
max
P Mc
p
A I
= +
min
P Mc
p
A I
=
Tensile stress cannot be transmitted between soil and concrete.
For full compression, setting p
min
= 0,
P
e
max
= h/6
h/3 h/3 h/3
Middle Third
Large eccentricity of load e > h/6
Centroid of soil pressure concurrent with applied load
a
3a
e
P
p
max R
max
1
(3 )
2
R ab p P = =
max
2
3
P
p
ab
=
where a = h/2 - e
o.aa++n +a.+ .vu ev:rve +.a :. +.. :. uv -vur ac .v:rr ::
c.+ :. .r vev.vu .n.e.evev.v rver are -u::.a
rv.ru c.+c :.
0.60 m
0.60 m
0.90 m 0.90 m
e
.en+ .va. e = 0.15 :. < [h/6 = 0.30 :.]
e:e:-v.'e|e.
max
3
2
80 80 0.15 0.9
1.8 1.2 1.2 1.8 / 12
37.0 18.5 55.5 t/m
p

= +

= + =
2
min
37.0 18.5 18.5 t/m p = =
.va. e = 0.40 :. > [h/6 = 0.30 :.] re:-v.e:.-e:
a = 0.90 0.40 = 0.50 :.
2
max
2 80
88.9 t/m
3 0.50 1.20
p

= =

12.1 . +.a:..a.. u.: +.:+.+. u+ :::
u.:.nnv
o+a+auon+v
(ov.o...r.,
!r!:oovv.ooovo|cooov:r.rooococooorcooroo-:o
eva av-ae ve:.vv..:r .
evuve-arv
ev.v v-ar-u +c
e-ae vev .c
-vevev .
-vu v-a- vr .c
-varvr':.uenn +cc
o.aa++n +a.a rve.evr-:e.e:.eve rtrvrave.-e:.. erve +. :.
-vv -vraev
s
..c .v.eu.:. .e:rav.
c
..+ .v.eu.:.
0.5 m
1.0 m 30x30 cm column
DL = 80 ton
LL = 40 ton
.en+ v -vurr-:euvv
v-vv (+.
.
)(c.)(..+) ... .v
v-v.e (..
.
)(+.c)(..+) c... .v
v-vev (+.c)(+.
.
c..
.
)(..c) +... .v
v-vur ac-+c +.c .v
v-v:r-:e +....+ .v
2
2
127.24
56.55 t/m
1.5
gr
p = =
.eve vr-:e
.eve vert|ee:.er:...:--vv-vrae v.e:rav .ra
p
n
= p
gr
v -ve ve +. .:. = 56.55 1.5(2.0) = 53.55 .v...:.
Wall Footings
1-m slice on which
design is based
Wall
Footing
w
w
Bending deformation
Critical Section for Moment in Isolated Footings
Concrete column,
pedestal or wall
Critical section
Masonry wall
b/2 b/2
b/4
Column with steel
base plate
s
s/2
Critical section
b
d
w
u
= 1.4w
DL
+1.7w
LL
d
L
q
u
u
t/m
Factored soil pressure, q
u
= (w
u
)/L
Required L = (w
DL
+w
LL
)/q
a
q
a
= Allowable soil pressure, t/m
2
Moment and Shear in Wall Footings
2
2
1 1
( )
2 2 8
u u u
L b
M q q L b

= =

2
u u
L b
V q d

=

Min t = 15 cm for footing on soil, 30 cm for footing on piles
Min A
s
= (14 / f
y
) (100 cm) d
EXAMPLE 12.3: Design of a Wall Footing to carries a dead load D of 12 t/m and a live
load L of 8 t/m. The max. soil pressure is 10 t/m
2
. f
c
= 240 kg/cm
2
, f
y
= 4000 kg/cm
2
, and

s
= 2.0 t/m
3
.
D = 12 t/m
L = 8 t/m
25 cm
L
8 cm
clear
5 cm
typical
D
f
= 1.50 m
Consider: 1-m strip
Assume footing t = 30 cm
Net soil pressure:
p
n
= 10 - [0.3(2.4) + 1.2(2.0)]
= 6.88 t/m
2
Reqd footing length:
L = (DL + LL) / p
n
= (12+8)/6.88
= 2.91 m USE 3.0 m
Ultimate soil pressure:
p
u
= (1.4 x 12 + 1.7 x 8) / 3.0 = 10.13 t/m
Check Shear:
115.5 cm
d = 22 cm
25 cm
10.13 t/m
2
30 cm
V
u
= 10.13(1)(1.155) = 11.70 .v
V
c
= 0.85(0.53)(100)(22)/1000
= 15.35 .v > V
u
OK
Flexural design:
137.5 cm 25 cm
10.13 t/m
2
M
u
= 0.510.13 1.375
2
= 9.58 .v.:.
5
2 2
9.58(10 )
0.9 100 22
u
n
M
R
bd
= =

= 21.98 ..r:.
.
] 0035 . 0 [ 0058 . 0
85 . 0
2
1 1
85 . 0
min
= > =

=
c
n
y
c
f
R
f
f
OK
.ear.-e DB12 @ 0.20 (A
s
= 5.65 r:.
.
..:.)
25 cm
3.00 m
30 cm
DB12
DB12@0.20m
DB16@0.15m
A
s
= 0.0058(100)(22) = 12.82 r:.
.
..:.
.ear.-e DB16 @ 0.15 (A
s
= 13.40 r:.
.
..:.)
aaoauu.naoo+ra+. r.na.vrv..
A
s
= 0.0018(100)(30) = 5.4 r:.
.
..:.
Column Footings
1
d/2 d
d
3
2
1
3
2
Punching shear
Beam-shear short direction
Beam-shear long direction
Critical section for shear
Weight of footing 4-8 % of column load
1
2
Critical section for moment
1
2
Moment short direction
Moment long direction
Two-Way Action Shear (punching-shear)
P
On perimeter around column at distance d/2 from face of column
c
1
+ d
c
2
c
2
+ d
c
1
d/2
b
0
0
4
0.27 2
n c c
c
V V f b d

= = +

Two-Way Action: cracking occur around column with periphery b
0
at
distance d / 2 outside column. V
n
is the smallest of
0
0
0.27 2
s
n c c
d
V V f b d
b

= = +

0
1.06
n c c
V V f b d

= =
ACI Formula (11-35)
ACI Formula (11-36)
ACI Formula (11-37)
where
b
0
= perimeter of critical section at distance d /2 outside column

c
= ratio of long side to short side of column

s
= 40 for interior columns, 30 for edge columns and 20 for
corner columns
Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement
Footing Type
One-way
Two-way
Square Footing Rectangular Footing
L
B
s (typ.)
L
L
s (typ.)
L
B
B/2 B/2
A
s2
A
s2
A
s1
A
sL
A
sB
s

(
t
y
p
.
)
1
1
2
2
1
2
s sL
sL s
s
A A
A A
A
L
B

=

+

=
=
Transfer of Forces at Base of Column
For a supported column, bearing capacity is
where A
1
= 0.70
1
(0.85 )
nb c
P f A

=
A
1
45
0
2
1
A
2
measured
on this plane
For a supporting footing,
2
1 1
1
(0.85 ) 2 (0.85 )
nb c c
A
P f A f A
A

=
where A
2
= area of lower base of the largest
pyramid cone contained within footing having
side slope 1 vertical to 2 horizontal
EXAMPLE 12.4: Design of a Square Footing to support a 40 cm square column.
The column carries a dead load D of 40 ton and a live load L of 30 ton. The
allowable soil pressure 10 t/m
2
. f
c
= 240 kg/cm
2
, f
y
= 4000 kg/cm
2
. Unit weight of
the soil above footing base = 2.0 t/m
3
.
D = 40 t
L = 30 t
40 cm
b
h
1
.
5
0

m
Assume footing depth = 40 cm
Soil net pressure:
p
n
= 10 [0.4(2.4) + 1.1(2.0)]
= 6.84 t/m
2
Required area = (40+30)/6.84 = 10.23 m
2
USE 3.2x3.2m square footing (10.24m
2
)
2
107
10.45 t/m
10.24
u
p = =
Ultimate pressure
(1) Determination of base area:
(2) Factored loads and soil reaction:
P
u
= 1.4(40) + 1.7(30) = 107 tons
40 cm
72 cm
d/2=16 cm
Punching shear:
V
u
= 10.45(3.2
2
0.72
2
) = 101.6 .v
b
o
= 4(72) = 288 r:.
V
c
= 0.85(1.06) (288)(32)/1000
= 128.6 .v > V
u
OK
240
Beam shear:
40 cm
108 cm
d=32 cm
V
u
= 10.45(1.08)(3.2) = 36.12 .v
V
c
= 0.85(0.53) (320)(32)/1000
= 71.47 .v > V
u
OK
240
Assume footing depth = 40 cm and effective depth d = 32 cm
Flexural Design:
3.20 m
0.40 m
15DB16 #
DB16 eau
4DB25
40 cm
M
u
= (0.5)(10.45)(3.2)(1.4)
2
= 32.77 .v.:.
R
n
= = 11.11 ..r:.
.
= 0.0029
A
s
= 0.0029(320)(32) = 29.70 r:.
.
A
s,min
= 0.0018(320)(40) = 23.04 r:.
.
< A
s
OK
USE 15DB16# (A
s
= 30.15 cm
2
)
5
2
32.77(10 )
0.9 320 32
Critical section
for moment
Check development of reinforcement
Critical section for development is the same as that for moment (at face of column)
0.28
y
d
b
tr c
b
f
l
d
c K f
d

=
+

Edge distance (bottom and side) = 8 cm
Center-to-center bar spacing = (320 - 2(8))/14 = 21.7 cm
c = minimum of
8 cm (control)
21.7 / 2 = 10.9 cm
K
tr
= 0 (no transverse reinforcement)
8 0
5.0 2.5 .
1.6
tr
b
c K
d
+ +
= = > USE 2 5
= 1.0 (bottom bars)
= 1.0 (uncoated reinforcement)
= 1.0 < 1.7
= 0.8 (DB20 and smaller)
= 1.0 (normal weight concrete)
4,000 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.0
0.28 23.1
2.5
240
d
b
l
d

= =
l
d
= 23.1 x 1.6 = 37.0 cm > 30 cm OK
Since l
d
= 37 cm < available embedment length (320/2 - 40/2 - 8 = 132 cm),
DB16 bars can be fully developed.
A
1
40 cm
3
2
0
c
m
Transfer of Force at Base of Column
8 cm cover
32 cm
column bars
footing dowels
(1) Bearing strength of column
P
nb
= (0.85f
c
A
1
)
= 0.70(0.85x240x40x40)/1,000
= 228.5 tons > 107 tons OK
(2) Bearing strength of footing
2
0
0
c
m
A
2
Bearing strength of footing increased by factor
2 1
2 A A
where A
2
is area of pyramid cone
having side slope 1 vertical to 2 horizontal
2
1
200 200
5 2, use 2
40 40
A
A

= = >

P
nb
= 2 (0.85f
c
A
1
)
= 2(0.70)(0.85x240x40x40)/1,000
= 457 tons > 107 tons OK
(3) Required dowel bars between column and footing:
Even though column and footing have enough bearing strength to transfer load,
area of reinforcement across interface 0.005(gross area of supported member)
A
s
(min) = 0.005(40x40) = 8.0 cm
2
Provide 4DB16 bars as dowels (A
s
= 8.04 cm
2
)
(4) Development of dowel reinforcement in compression:
In column & footing:
0.075
0.0043
b y
d b y
c
d f
l d f
f
=

## For DB16 bars:

(min)
0.075 1.6 4,000
31.0 cm (control)
240
0.0043 1.6 4,000 27.5 cm
d
d
l
l

= =
= =
Available length for development in footing
= footing thickness - cover - 2(footing bar dia.) - dowel bar dia.
= 40 - 8 - 2(1.6) - 1.6 = 27.2 cm 27.5 cm OK
Therefore, the dowels can be fully developed in the footing.
Home work: Design a square spread footing with the following design conditions:
1.5 m
Ground elev.