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MEM 1743 Modelling and Simulation of Dynamic Systems

Dr. Zaharuddin Mohamed


Faculty of Electrical Engineering, UTM zahar@fke.utm.my
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SYLLABUS
This course focuses on modeling and simulation of dynamic systems. The course covers techniques for modeling of various physical systems, solution and analysis of system response and development of simulation models.

SYLLABUS
1. Introduction to modelling and simulation. 2. Modelling: Review, mechanical systems, electrical systems, electromechanical systems, other systems, linearisation, other modelling techniques, case study. 3. System Response Analysis: Time response, solution using classical and time domain techniques, frequency response. 4. Numerical solution of Differential Equation: Eulers method, Runge-Kutta method, More accurate methods. 5. Simulation: Simulation using Matlab, building a simulation, Case study

SYLLABUS
REFERENCES:
1. R.L. Woods and K.L. Lawrence, Modeling and Simulation of Dynamic Systems, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, 1997. 2. B. T. Kulakowski, J.F. Gardner and J.L. Shearer, Dynamic Modeling and Control of Engineering Systems, Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, 2007. 3. N.S. Nise, Control Systems Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, USA, 2004.

ASSESSMENT
Final Examination Tests [2] Assignments 50 % (12 Jan 2013, 9.00 - 11.30 am) 40 % (23 Oct & 11 Dec 2012, 2pm, P16) 10 %

LECTURER
Dr. Zaharuddin Mohamed
PhD(Control Eng), Univ of Sheffield, UK Head, Dept. of Mechatronics & Robotic Eng Office: P02-217, FKE Email: zahar@fke.utm.my Tel: 07-5535204 Research: Control of flexible structures

INTRODUCTION
Control systems are important and are present almost everywhere in our daily lives. Examples of control systems: washing machine, radio antenna, rockets/missiles, robots, room air condition.

CONTROL SYSTEMS
A control system provides an output or response for a given input or stimulus. A Controlled Variable normally determines the input and output of a control system.

Example: Elevator buttons and the desired level (Input), actual level of elevator (Output), elevator level -> controlled variable.
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CONTROL SYSTEMS: Types


Position control: robot arm, crane systems, elevator, satellite tracking. Speed control: speed of airplane, washing machine, climbing robots. Temperature control: air condition, heater, furnace. Industrial control: Industrial processes are monitored and controlled in real-time.

Open-Loop Control Systems


The output signal of an OLCS is not fed back to influence the control action. Example:

Open-Loop Control Systems


With disturbance/noise, the desired response cannot be achieved, actual desired response/output. Examples: room temperature, toaster, washing machine, traffic light. Systems that work based on time are OLCS. The reference input corresponds to a fixed operating condition. The result may not be accurate.

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Closed-Loop Control Systems


The output signal of a CLCS is fed back to influence the control action and improve overall system performance.

The difference (actual and desired response) will be used to determine the control action.
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OLCS & CLCS


OLCS Structure Sensitivity to parameter variations Disturbance Applications Cost simple sensitive cannot handle limited cheap CLCS complicated less sensitive can handle various systems expensive

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Objectives of Control Systems


Control systems are dynamic: it responds to the input by going through a transient phase before settling to the steady state phase. Transient response: Transient response is the case when the plant is changing from one steady state to another, when there are changes in the input signal.

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Objectives of Control Systems


Stability: A system that can produce a consistent/steady output is a stable system. An unstable system is harmful to the plant and may cause serious accidents. Steady state response: Steady state response only exists for stable systems. An important characteristic for design is the steady state error.

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Objectives of Control Systems: Example


Elevator. Transient response: Slow: passenger impatient. Very fast: passenger uncomfortable. Oscillate for more than 1 sec: uncomfortable. Stability Steady-state response: an elevator that does not stop at the same level at the floor may cause serious accidents to its passengers.
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Objectives of Control Systems


6 G 1 2 Floor 5 3 4 7

Time, s
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Design Steps
Modelling to obtain a dynamic model Simulation [using CACSD] Analysis in time and frequency domains
Controller design based on specifications [PID, State feedback, robust, Intelligent control, etc]

Prototype

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MODELLING?
A process to obtain mathematical equations of a system

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TYPE OF MODELLING
Hard modelling
using scientific principles (Newtons Law, Kirchoffs Law, thermodynamic Laws, etc) to derive a dynamic model

Soft modelling

using fitting techniques to match a mathematical models behaviour to empirical data/observation

Model identification

Determining models structure and parameters based on input and output of a sytem.

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TESTING ACCURACY OF A SYSTEM MODEL?


Experiments: Compare simulation and experimental results. Published results: Compare simulation results with simulation/experimental results that have been published.

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SIMULATION?
A numerical solution of a set of differential equations to model the system behaviour in time.

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SIMULATION PROCESS
What language to employ to represent the model?

How to represent the dynamic model (differential equation)?

What algorithm to use to solve the model?


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MODELLING & SIMULATION


Modelling and Simulation is utilised to understand the behaviour and to improve the behaviour of dynamic systems.

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