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M aster Program M etallurgy and M aterial Engineering Universitas I ndonesia October 2012

Background Fish bone diagram Scope of investigations Examinations Results and discussions Conclusions Recommendations References

Component of a motorcycle that is "Gear Shift Shaft Com" produced by PT. Y which acts as a supplier of automotive components for PT. ISI has been damaged during use. Observations indicated that the damage occurred in the weld joint where the welds are not fused between the plates with the shaft. This causes the gearshift cannot be used for change the gear position, from position 1to position 2, 3and 4.







Heat Treatment

Welding Manufacture

Metal Forming People Filler





Welding Method

Surface Preparation

Visual examination Chemical composition using OES Micro-hardness testing (Vickers) Metallography testing (macro and microstructure) Examination using SEM Micro-chemical composition test using EDS

Figure 1. Sample Shaft Com Gear Shift as received

Plate Metal

Shaft Metal

Damage here

Figure 2. Sample Failed Shaft Com Gear Shift as received

Table 1. Chemical composition results on as received components Material


C (%)
0.420.48 0.50 0.12 max 0.10

Si (%)
0.150.35 0.197 0.009

Mn (%)

S (%)
0.035 max 0.010 0.045 max 0.013

P (%)

Cr (%)

Ni (%)

V (%)

Mo (%)

Cu (%)

Al (%)

0.661 0.5 max 0.348

0.015 0.04 max 0.005

0.067 0.023

0.057 0.020

0.001 0.001

0.025 0.005

0.134 0.044

0.006 0.045

Table 2. Hardness* testing results on welding components

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Base Metal 1 Plate surface Base Metal 2 Weld Metal Fusion Line HAZ

Hardness of Sample (HV)

166 613 243 367 689 396



Figure 3. Scheme of hardness testing on welding components

* Hardness testing was conducted by Vickers micro-hardness


Figure 4. Macroscopic of shaft com gear shift (good sample), magnification 7X, 2% nital etch

Figure 6. Macroscopic of shaft com gear shift on the right side (good sample), magnification 10X, 2% nital etch

Figure 5. Macroscopic of shaft com gear shift on the left side (good sample), magnification 10X, 2% nital etch

Figure 7. Macroscopic of failedshaft com gear shift (rejected), magnification 10X, 2% nital etch

The microstructure of base metal of the plate sample shows typical of ferritepearlite structures (Figure 8).

Bainite structure in HAZ area (Figure 12) and bainite structure in weld area (Figure 11) are imposed by the observation. The hardness of weld area and HAZ are approximately 367 and 396 HV, which indicated the range of hardness of bainite structure.

(Figure 8) The HAZ structure is taken from the near plate area, so the structure is also contain a number of carbon that diffused from the carbonitrided area of the plate during the performance of the weld.

(Figure 12)

(Figure 11)

Figure 13 indicates the formation of nitrides and carbide in the fusion line. These phases are produced by carbonitrided process during manufacture of the plate and ascertained by the hardness of the area, approximately 689 HV (see table 2), that value of hardnesstend to be large and isbrittle.

Figure 10. The microstructure of carbonitided plate surface. Nital etch


(Figure 13)

Weld area


Figure 9. SEM image in weld area (good sample) with Quadrant Back Scattering Detector (QBSD), 45X

Figure 10. SEM image in weld area with Secondary Electron Detector (SE1), 80X

Figure 11. SEM image in weld area with Secondary Electron Detector (SE1), 100X


Figure 12. SEM image in weld area with Secondary Electron Detector (SE1), 30X

Figure 13. SEM image in weld area with Secondary Electron Detector (SE1), 200X

The figure 9, 10, 11, and 12 are show that the specimen contains porosity and Zn that presence in the weld area. The gap between the specimen is prepared to allows the gas resulted by vaporization zinc to out from the weld. The porosity, spread uniformly in the welding area. This causesthe mechanical properties of the material decreases significantly .


To ascertain the presence of Zn in weld area, EDS is performed.

Table 3. EDS results on welding components


Element C O Si Cl Ca Ti Fe Zn

Element % 1.71 41.62 0.47 2.20 0.23 0.95 27.66 25.16



Galvanized steel is widely used for car bodies due to its corrosion resistance. It is associated with serious problems related to the welds quality when welding is applied as a process to a joint. In the shaft used for gear shaft com, material is galvanized. It may cause defects in weld area.


Zn has higher vapor pressure than Fe, the higher value of vapor pressure of Zn are tend to have contributed to the explosion (> 102 mmHg at T = 1300oC) The problem of welding continued-zinc coated products lies in the different of vaporization and melting point of Zn compared to steel. Arc can be contaminated by zinc in its vapor state, results in an unstable and erratic arc and produced a few of porosity in the weld bead, because zinc in its vaporized state cannot escape or trapped in the weld area. The pores resulting from the aforementioned process influence the mechanical characteristics, leading to defective welds.

Porosity in the weld bead



Tvapor = 900oC Tweld > 1300oC




Figure 21. Schematic of welding process

Figure 22. Fillet weld or lapped joint of continued-zinc product


The test result shows the presence of carbide hardness in fusion line (Brittle), with hardness approximately 689 HV. The fusion line contained nitride and carbide phase that cause high hardness and brittle materials. This causes the material have high sensitivity to crack. The carbon equivalents of each parent material are:

CE Shaft CE Plate

: 0.5 + 0.11 + 0,008 + 0.0134 + 0.00625 + 0.0038 = 0.64 : 0.1 + 0,058 + 0.000375 + 0.0046 + 0.00125 + 0.00133 = 0.16

Zn vapor trapped in the area of weld metal makes the porosity in the weld metal, coupled with the phases of carbide and brittle nitrides at the fusion line area, making a failure component on the connection between shaft and plate. When the product receives load, the connection between the shaft and the plate contained porosity and brittle phase in, will instantly broken.


The recommendations we conduct in this case are: Galvanizing steel should have special surface preparation, such as grinding the area subjected to be welded to remove the zinc layer on the surface. To avoid the porosity and leak of penetration of the material, the hybrid laser-arcwelding processcan be applied.

Cold Galvanizing after welding process (OPTIONAL-NOT RECOMMENDED)


Do preheat before weld the materials. All heat treatment must do at temperature under melting point of Zn. Because of carbon equivalent in shaft 0.64, preheat and interpass temperature should do between 250300oCin areas other than the plate.
Table 4. The relationship between carbon equivalent and preheat and interpass temperatures are recommended


The price comparisons of the recommendation given above are as shown inTable 4.
Type of Recommendation Surface preparation by grinding Use hybrid laser-arc welding Preheat before weld Cold Galvanizing after grinding Notes Low cost but will decrease production rate. High cost, High Investment High cost, decrease production rate High Cost

We have to eliminate the risk (defects) of the product ALARP.

Surface Preparation by Grinding


Table 5. List of material which can remove abrasively Zn layer and carbonitrided area, with hardness value and the price

Boron Carbide is recommended because the price as cheap as chromium carbide but boron carbide has more hardnessvalue than chromium carbide, so the longer life timesit takes to wear boron carbide than to wear chromium carbide.



Filler Welding


Welding Method

Surface Preparation


Process Design
Engineering concept Basic Design


Plate Metal Forming Shaft Welding Process Product Q.C of End product

Modified Process Design

Engineering concept Basic Design

Galvanizing Carbonitriding

Plate Metal Forming Shaft Grinding Process Welding Process Product Q.C of End product



Sperko Engineering Services, Inc. 1999. Welding Galvanized Steel Safely. Accessed September 25 2012, 11.14 WIB. Accessed September 25th 2012, 12.01 WIB. JIS S45C composition. Accessed September 25th 2012, 11.30 WIB. Welding Handbook. 2009. Kobe Steel, Ltd. Accessed September 16th 2012, 15.30 WIB. Cheolhee Kim, Woongyong Choi, Jeonghan Kim, and Sehun Rhee. 2008. Relationship between the Weldability and the Process Parameters for Laser-TIG Hybrid Welding of Galvanized Steel Sheets. Materials Transactions, Vol. 49, No. 1 (2008) pp. 179 to 186. M. Pouranvari. 2011. Analysis of Fracture Mode of Galvanized Low Carbon Steel Resistance Spot Welds. International Journal of Multidisciplinary sciences and engineering, vol.2, No.6, September 2011. Hongping Gu and BorisShulkin. Remote laser welding of zinc-coated sheet metal; component in a lap configuration utilizing humping effect. Stronach Centre for Innovation, Magna International Inc. Aurora, Ontario, L4G 7G6, Canada. Accessed October 6th 2012, 23.00 WIB. Accessed October 7th 2012, 00.11 WIB.