Anda di halaman 1dari 42

BG/BRG Seebachergasse

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Methods


Fachbereichsarbeit aus dem Fach Physik

Martin Schnedlitz

Betreuungslehrer: Dr. Erich Reichel

Graz, 2010/2011

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

Index
Abstract ................................................................................................................................................... 4 Motivation .............................................................................................................................................. 5 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 6 1. Definition of Phantoms ...................................................................................................................... 7 1.1 The photoacoustic effect............................................................................................................... 7 1.2 Usage in Photonics ........................................................................................................................ 9 2. Production of Phantoms................................................................................................................... 10 2.1 Polyvinylchloride ......................................................................................................................... 10 2.2 Producing Phantoms ................................................................................................................... 10 2.3 Temperature and time of heating ............................................................................................... 11 2.4 Plastic hardener........................................................................................................................... 13 2.5 High temperatures and reheated phantoms .............................................................................. 13 2.6 Cooling process ........................................................................................................................... 14 2.7 Inserting objects .......................................................................................................................... 15 3. Acoustic characteristics .................................................................................................................... 18 3.1 Ultrasonic waves ......................................................................................................................... 18 3.2 Speed of sound and impedance of PVC ...................................................................................... 19 3.3 Impedance and interfaces ........................................................................................................... 21 4. Optical properties ............................................................................................................................. 24 4.1 Coloured phantoms ..................................................................................................................... 24 4.2 Absorption ................................................................................................................................... 25 4.3 Optical measurements ................................................................................................................ 26 5. Photoacoustic tomography .............................................................................................................. 30 5.1 Introduction to PAT ..................................................................................................................... 30 5.2 Setup of a photoacoustic tomograph ......................................................................................... 31 5.3 Photoacoustic Absorption Tomography (PAT) ............................................................................ 32 6. Applications in medicine and current state of research ................................................................. 34 6.1 Tumour detection........................................................................................................................ 34 6.2 Comparison with other methods ................................................................................................ 35 6.3 State of research ......................................................................................................................... 35 Summary and conclusions .................................................................................................................... 36 Attachment ........................................................................................................................................... 37 Declaration............................................................................................................................................ 38

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

Table of parameters ............................................................................................................................. 39 Literature .............................................................................................................................................. 40 Work Report ......................................................................................................................................... 42

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

Abstract
The Fachbereichsarbeit PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Methods describes the production and the properties of PVC phantoms for photoacoustic use. In this paper the influence of heat, BPC TiO2 and also the implementation of objects are discussed. Also the photoacoustic principle and definition and the use of phantoms are clarified. It presents a solution to the optical scattering properties A depending on the wavelength and the additional colour components. Moreover, the speed of sound c and the acoustic impedance z of PVC are studied and compared with those of water. In addition photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and the current state of research in photonics are mentioned and the application of PVC phantoms in this field is explained. Experimental data gathered at the institute of photonics at the KarlFranzens University Graz have been used in a MATLAB simulation. This work is based on my internship at the Karl-Franzens University Graz in summer 2010.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

Motivation
In summer 2010 I had the rare opportunity to do an internship at the Photoacoustic Institute at the Karl-Franzens University Graz. During the four weeks of this internship I was a member of the scientific staff and able to gather a lot of information about physical and scientific work. My task was to produce polyvinylchloride phantoms for photoacoustic tomography and implement several different objects inside the phantoms. In the first two weeks I had to find out experimentally which production process was necessary to obtain an optically and acoustically perfect phantom. During the last weeks we measured the characteristics and I was able to take a photoacoustic tomography and observe the results. I would not be able to write this Fachbereichsarbeit without the great help of Sybille Gratt, Robert Nuster, Klaus Passler and Prof. Gnther Paltauf, who were my colleagues and the people in charge of the Photoacoustic Institute. They assisted me during and after my internship and I would like to thank them here. Additionally, I would like to thank my physics teacher Dr. Erich Reichel, who made this internship possible and advised me on writing this paper.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

Introduction
With my Fachbereichsarbeit I would like to describe the production and the usage of polyvinylchloride PVC phantoms for photoacoustic methods. This paper is based on my work at the Karl-Franzens University Graz and includes several experimental and theoretical data from there. The usage of PVC phantoms in research has several positive aspects, for example PVC is resistant against acids, leaches, oil, and petrol and it is also cheap and durable and it was also one of the first thermoplastics which were industrially used. PVC also has low water absorption, which is necessary for photoacoustic measurements. The aim of this work is to describe the production, the properties of PVC phantoms and the usage of phantoms in photoacoustic tomography. At the beginning I would like to describe the photoacoustic effect which generates ultrasound by inducting short laser pulses inside the phantom from which we were able to generate an image of the phantom. Therefore it is important to describe the optical and acoustical properties of PVC phantoms and compare it with other kinds of phantoms. Furthermore I would like to focus on the production of phantoms, the insertion of objects inside the phantom and the production difficulties. In the end I intend to describe the usage of PVC phantoms in photoacoustics and also the current state of research.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

1. Definition of Phantoms
Before describing the characteristics and the production of phantoms, we should clarify what a phantom is. A phantom is mostly used in medicine for imaging human body parts to test injection needles, for body scanning, etc. The main reason why phantoms are used instead of dead body parts is that phantoms lead to exacter and more constant results, because they are not affected by biological processes. This is why phantoms are extremely popular, because inserting
Fig. 1.1: Typical phantom made of polyvinylchloride with an inserted fly.

objects like threads, liquids, metallic objects or even small animals is fairly easy. There are a lot of different types of phantoms with different ingredients because of the wide field of application, e.g. for imaging a human body part mostly TiO2 is used to reach the same scattering effect. Originally phantoms were applied for 2D X-ray imaging like radiography and fluoroscopy. In our case we used phantoms made of polyvinylchloride to obtain similar acoustic characteristics to water. This is important to diminish the loss of sound at the interface of PVC and water, so that the sensor receives a clear signal, but we will discuss the acoustic features in greater detail later on.

1.1 The photoacoustic effect


The photoacoustic effect is the creation of sound with light, which was firstly detected by Alexander Graham Bell in 1881. In his experiment he lighted up an absorbent plate, which was used to generate sound. Together with W. Rntgen, Bell detected that the photoacoustic principle not only works in gases, but also in liquids. Today short laser pulses are used as a light source, which is called laser inducted ultrasound [14]. If the laser pulses reach the object, part of the inducted laser beam is absorbed. This causes a change in temperature, which results in an expansion of volume. The pressure which is developed during the process transforms into a sound wave. Often this effect is also called the thermo-elastic effect, because it is connected with a change in temperature.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

The relation between pressure and temperature increase in liquids can be expressed by (1.1)

where K is the compression modulus, V is the volumes expansion coefficient. V and T are the changes in volume and temperature [4]. From eq. 1.1 we can see that the change in temperature must happen immediately before the volume can expand to guarantee a high pressure. This is why it is important to use short laser pulses instead of a long sustained beam. T can also be written as (1.2)

where W is the energy density,

is the density of the medium, and cV is the specific heat

capacity. However, the energy density is in general a location dependent function and can be written as ( ) ( ) ( ) (1.3)

F(r) is the location dependent radiant flux, and A is the absorption coefficient of the medium which will be discussed later in the optical properties. In photoacoustics the laser pulses are in the range of ns, so that the volumes expansion can be ignored. After the generation of the ultrasonic wave it spreads out spherical and reaches the sensor at position r and time t and can be described with [12]: ( ) ( | | ) |
(| | )

(1.4)

where H(r,t) is the heat function defined as the thermal energy per time and volume displaced by the energy source in a close proportion to the absorption coefficient of interest. So far we have discussed the appearance of an ultra sound caused by a small laser pulse, but it is also necessary to measure the ultrasound with a sensor. In most cases and also in our case this is done with a piezoelectric sensor, because they have a high sensitivity (see Fig. 1.2 c). However, I will not focus too much on sensors. More information can be found in [4, 5, 6].

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

1.2 Usage in Photonics


Now that the photoacoustic effect has been explained we can focus on the usage of phantoms in photonics. A phantom has one or more implemented objects like small spheres, hair loops, or for more interesting measurements objects like a mouse heart can be inserted. Therefore it should be easy to insert different types of objects into our type of phantom, secondly a phantom should have a significant absorption coefficient A to guarantee that an ultrasound develops, and finally a phantom should have nearly the same acoustic characteristics as water to minimize the reflected ultrasound beam at the interface. In fact the fastest way to get a phantom with these characteristics is with gelatine, so why should PVC be used for phantoms? The main reason why we
Fig. 1.2: Experimental setup for photoacoustic measurements; a) laser light source b) phantom with object c) piezoelectric sensor a) b) c)

have used PVC is that instead of gelatine PVC does not get dull after several hours in water and can be used more often and can also be taken for longer measurements. This is due to PVC having very low water absorption. Moreover, it is very easy to colour PVC, which is important for the optical measurements. In addition, PVC is not as elastic as gelatine, which is important because the phantom rotates during the measurement. Therefore we decided to use PVC phantoms.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

10

2. Production of Phantoms
2.1 Polyvinylchloride
The usage of polyvinylchloride (PVC) for making phantoms has several reasons. At first, polyvinylchloride is normally a solid substance which is used in construction, because it is cheap, durable, and easy to assemble. It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of
plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates.

PVC is one of the first thermoplastics which were industrially used, because of its physical and chemical features. Through the polymerisation of the monomer vinyl chloride (VC) in a substance, in a solution, with suspension polymerisation or with emulsion polymerisation PVC is generated (see Fig. 2.1).

Fig. 2.1: From vinyl chloride to polyvinylchloride. On the left we have vinyl chloride which is transformed into polyvinylchloride on the right. The right hand side shows us one section of the whole PVC chain.

In addition, it is also useful to know that PVC is resistant against acids, leach, oil, and petrol. PVC has very low heat conductivity and through the high chlorine content it is highly nonflammable. PVC is also often used for sealing joints inside and outside, because of its high sealing characteristics and its high strength, which are perfectly described in [7]. Informally PVC is also called Plastisol.

2.2 Producing Phantoms


At first we heated up the liquid PVC in a heater and stirred it with a magnetic stirrer at a low frequency. During the heating process the white liquid turned transparent and at higher temperatures it got a yellow colour component till it turned black and decomposed. After

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

11

heating up the liquid transparent PVC was poured into cylindrical Teflon and glass moulds. Three different sizes of moulds were used, a small mould of 0.9 1.5cm, a medium mould of 1.4 2cm and a big glass mould of 2.2 4cm ( ).

Our aims were to find out by varying several parameters, which temperature was necessary to obtain transparent PVC and at which temperature the PVC got a yellow colour component. We tried to find out the influence of the time of heating, the influence of the stirring frequency and the properties of reheated phantoms. We also studied how plastic hardener, Titanium dioxideTiO2 and Black Plastic Colour (BPC) influence the characteristics of the phantom. Basically, we tried to find a construction plan of a transparent phantom, without any yellow colour components and without air bubbles.

2.3 Temperature and time of heating


The first parameter we varied was the temperature and the time of heating. The first phantom was slowly heated to 180 Celsius and stirred rapidly. This phantom included too many air bubbles and was a little bit yellow. To eliminate air bubbles we slowed the stirring frequency and heated the PVC to 185 C. Then we decreased the temperature to 115 C and found out that the phantom was not transparent and was not solid. In our next attempts we decided to heat up the PVC to temperatures between 115 to 180C and finally found the ideal temperature between 160 and 170 C. This temperature seemed to be ideal, because the air bubbles which occurred during the mixing process could rise to the surface. It was also useful to keep the temperature afterwards constantly at about 120-160C and to slow the stirring frequency to have more time for the air to ascend. This is due to the lower density of air compared to PVC and can be expressed with Archimedes principle/buoyant forces [1] (2.1)

eq. 2.1 shows us the buoyant force which affects the air bubbles and gives them an upward lift, where is the density of PVC, g is the gravitational acceleration and VBubble is the

volume displaced by the air bubbles. If this force is bigger than the gravity force F=mg, then the air bubbles move upwards. In addition, the adiabatic processes occur during the heating, which compresses the air volume and can be expressed with:

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

12

( ) (2.2)

T2/T1 is the change in temperature and V2/V1 is the change in volume, whereas is the dimensionless adiabatic exponent of air (e.g. 1.4) [2]. From eq. 2.2 we get the following equation for the new volume of the air bubble(s)

(2.3)

This equation shows us that if


Buoynat Force [N]

4,5 4 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 Temperature [K]

the air is heated up during the heating process the

volume decreases and this finally reduces the buoyant force in eq. 2.1. In G 2.1 we can see the result of eq. 2.3 inserted in eq. 2.1: with increasing temperature the buoyant forces decrease and so the air bubbles need more time

G 2.1: With increasing temperature the buoyant forces are decreasing. Notice the unit of temperature is Kelvin. Values: =1.4; T1=300K; V1=0.0005m3; g=9.81m/s2; =837.5kg/m3

to rise up. Before PVC turns transparent we do not have problems with air, because the few air bubbles can escape easily, but while turning transparent a lot of air bubbles can occur in the mixing process. However, if the stirring frequency is slowed down and the time of heating is extended the air bubbles have more time to rise up after getting transparent. Before we gained this knowledge we heated up the phantoms very fast and immediately poured the liquid PVC into the moulds. As a matter of fact the surface of the PVC cooled down first and the air bubbles inside the phantom moved upwards till they reached the cooled surface. This was probably the main reason for air bubbles inside our first phantoms, especially in the small phantoms, because they had a smaller volume and could cool faster. On the one hand if the time of heating is increased fewer air bubbles occur, but on the other hand, the risk is higher that yellow colour components appear. In order to reduce the

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

13

appearance of small yellow colour components at these temperatures (120-160C) we added 2% per volume of heat stabiliser HS. However, at a temperature of around 180-185C the PVC even turns yellow despite the HS. Therefore we can say that HS can only reduce yellow colour components at temperatures under 180 C.

2.4 Plastic hardener


As the phantom is rotated during the photoacoustic measurements we tried to make the phantoms more solid to decrease the influence of centrifugal forces. We achieved this aim by inserting plastic hardener to make the phantom less elastic. At first we tried to mix PVC and plastic hardener at a ratio of 1:1, but this caused a lot more air bubbles, because the mixture was also a lot more viscous during the heating process. Afterwards we found out that the perfect amount of plastic hardener was 20 per cent per volumes and to decrease the amount of air bubbles we added the plastic hardener at a temperature of 150C. However, phantoms can also get hard without plastic hardener, if the phantom has a long time to cool (around 10-30 minutes depending on the size of the phantom). The main problem with plastic hardener is that it causes more air bubbles; respectively air bubbles cannot rise to the surface easily.

2.5 High temperatures and reheated phantoms


So far, we have discussed the ideal temperatures for making phantoms and the heating time. However, in order to observe all properties of PVC we also increased the heating temperature. At temperatures at around 180C the cooking PVC began to turn yellow and if the temperature climbed over 200 C the PVC and turned orange. We were able to increase the temperature to 260C, at which PVC began to turn red. The main problem why we were not able to increase the temperature further was that the decomposition process started at around 200 C. In addition, the glass forms could burst at these high temperatures, as a result of the high difference in temperature before and after pouring the hot PVC into the moulds. Thus, for safety reasons, we poured the hot PVC into Teflon moulds to prevent any possible damage. As we wanted to be more economical we tried out reheating phantoms. One big benefit was that in the second heating process the last air bubbles could rise up, but unfortunately the

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

14

PVC turned yellow during the heating process even at temperatures between 120 and 160C. We got totally different optical properties from normal phantoms, so for example the absorption coefficient A was totally different from not reheated phantoms. This may have been a result of the prolonged exposure to high temperatures. These optical characteristics will be discussed in chapter 4. So far we have found out that reheating a phantom changes the optical characteristics. However, A will not be changed if there is only a short period of reheating. This fact allowed us to use a hot wire to cut the phantom into shape, which was very useful for repairing production mistakes and also for inserting objects.

2.6 Cooling process


One of the most interesting processes is the cooling phase, which has a huge influence on the form and on the viscosity of the phantom. After pouring the hot and liquid PVC into forms the cooling process starts. The cooling down process to room temperature depends on the volume and surface of PVC, which is important to guarantee the elasticity of the phantom. The heat transport can be described with Fouriers equation for heat transport [1,2]: (2.4)

where Q is the heat energy and dQ/dt is the heat current which is proportional to the area and to the heat conductivity H. -dT/dx is the negative heat gradient, which tells us that the heat transport goes from hot to cold. Additionally, energy Q is released during the phase transition from liquid to air which can be derived from integration of the first law of thermodynamics [2]: (2.5) This equation shows us the dependence from the released energy Q with the specific heat capacity cw, solid of the solid PVC phantom and the mass m. T is of course the change in temperature during the process.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

15

Fig. 2.2: Appearance of a convex structure during the cooling phase. From the left to the right we see a horizontal boundary layer which turns convex during the cooling process.

Furthermore during the cooling down another very interesting process takes place. At the top of the cooling PVC the boundary layer of PVC and air is at the beginning horizontally orientated and during the cooling process it turns convex (see Fig. 2.2). This effect is caused by cohesion and adhesion forces, where the shape depends on the volume of PVC and the mould material. During the change of aggregate phase from solid to liquid and from liquid to solid a change in volume appears. When the PVC is cooked its volume increases. The liquid PVC is then poured into a mould and during the change of temperature the volume decreases and due to adhesion forces we can obtain a convex shape of the phantom. So far we have discussed the change in volume, as a result of the phase transition. The form of the convex phantom is a result of adhesion forces at the interface of PVC and the mould material. In the liquid state PVC moistens the mould, where the adhesion force depends on the material of the mould. During our production cycle we found out that phantoms out of glass moulds have a much more distinct convex form than phantoms made of Teflon moulds. This is caused by the much smaller interfacial tension of Teflon, whereas the interfacial tension between PVC and glass is a lot higher. For this reason the fact of a volume decrease and also the mould material and shape should be considered before making phantoms. In fact if you want to have a nearly cylindrical phantom, Teflon forms or different mould materials with a low interfacial tension should be used. However, do not forget the change in volume which will cause a decrease of the final height. Finally, a small convex form at the top of the phantom can be very useful for fixing the phantom (see Fig. 2.2), because the central axis is clearly given through adhesion forces.

2.7 Inserting objects


So far we have discussed how to make phantoms in the best possible way and next I would like to discuss how to insert objects. This was a fairly complicated procedure, because it was very likely to get additional air bubbles which could cause additional interfaces. We tried out

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

16

Fig. 2.3: Different objects inserted into the phantom. From left to right: 1.) Small tube filled with Orange G. 2.) Small Plastisol ball with black plastic colour BPC. 3.) An Orange G nut. 4.) Two crossed tubes filled with Orange G. 5.) Inserted fly.

different ways of inserting objects and liquids from Orange G droplets to small fish (See Fig. 2.3). At first we tried out to create small tubes in the phantoms, which we could later fill up with liquid. We fixed small rods and poured the liquid PVC into the mould and after the cooling process we removed the rod from the phantom, which left a small tube. We found out that it was important to use smooth rods, because otherwise the inside walls would get blurred. In the fourth illustration of Fig. 2.3 we can see a tube system which is orientated like an x and it is used for X-Ray scattering. This form was a little bit more complex to build, but it was based on the same principle. In addition we found out that it was possible to make small tunnels after the cooling process. For this purpose we used a wire or metal rod, heated it up with a Bunsen burner and then inserted it into the phantom. If this is done within a short period of time the phantom cannot get additional colour components and the problem of air bubbles does not arise either. With this method you can cut phantoms in the desired shape to correct production mistakes. The next step was to insert small objects, like small Plastisol balls with BPC or an orange G nut. Probably the main problems were that due to buoyant forces and due to the hot temperature it was very difficult that objects like a plastisol ball did not melt or a too high upward lift from buoyant forces occurred. For Plastisol balls we found out that it was ideal to insert them at temperatures at around 120-130, because at these temperatures the plastisol did not melt and the PVC was not solid. With Orange G droplets it was a little bit easier, because the droplet slowly descended into the phantom and a small Orange G sphere was created in the middle. As we can see in Fig. 2.3 we also tried to insert a nut and filled the cavity up with Orange G. This was done by placing a nut in the middle of the mould and then we poured PVC on this nut, till half of the mould was filled. After the PVC got solid we

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

17

removed the nut and turned the phantom upside down. We filled the gap up with Orange G and then again poured hot PVC into the mould to fill up the rest. With this method we were able to generate any shape inside the phantom. But the main problem with this method was that an interface was generated because of the two different phases of pouring in the PVC. From this fact we have learnt that it is necessary to insert an object without interrupting the pouring process. We have made several different experiments, for example inserting a hair loop, which is important to test the accuracy of the sensor (see chapter 5). The most interesting objects probably are biological objects. Before inserting such objects in the common way it is important that the animal is already dead and also that there is no air inside it. For this purpose the object is kept in a water bed for several hours. Only then the animal can be inserted similar to other objects In conclusion we can say that it is important to carry out the insertion in one pouring process to guarantee that there are no additional interfaces. Moreover, the inserted object must not contain additional air, because otherwise the sample cannot be used for photoacoustic usage.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

18

3. Acoustic characteristics
The most crucial properties of a PVC phantom are its acoustic properties. The goal of this chapter is to observe and to study these properties. We have seen in equation 1.1 that the photoacoustic effect triggers an ultrasonic wave in a phantom. In this chapter we are going to focus on ultrasonic waves, the acoustic impedance of phantoms, and how to measure the acoustic characteristics.

3.1 Ultrasonic waves


Ultrasonic waves are in general elastic waves with frequencies above the human hearing threshold, that means with frequencies over 20 kHz. With these high frequencies ultrasonic waves are sensitive to molecular characteristics. That is the reason why ultrasound has a wide range of applications in medicine, physics and other sciences. Ultrasound, for example, is used for underwater detection, in diagnosis, echolocation, etc. Like other acoustic waves ultrasonic waves are compression waves and the speed of these waves also depends on the medium. The speed of sound for ultrasonic waves is:

(3.1)

where c is the speed of sound,

is the density of the medium, and Kad is the adiabatic

compression modulus which is found as [1;8]: (3.2) The right side of the equation shows us the compression modulus for gases with being the adiabatic exponent (also mentioned in chapter 2) and the pressure p. From the previous equations the speed of ultrasonic waves in gases can be written as:

(3.3)

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

19

As we can see the speed of sound c does not depend on the frequency. Therefore we should mention that eq. 3.1 is only exact for waves with very low amplitude. This causes a deviation from reality, because the dispersion is missing. In fact, as the level of dispersion is very small it does not have a big influence. Therefore ultrasonic waves are nearly independent from frequency, because of their comparatively low amplitude. As mentioned above, the speed of sound in solids is different to calculate. In a solid the velocity of a sound wave depends on the bulk modulus G and its density . Often they are also called shear or compression waves (for example in earthquakes). The speed of sound in solids can be written as:

(3.4)

Using the formula mentioned above the values of c can now be calculated very easily. Next we should focus on the spreading resistances of an ultrasonic wave, which can be summed up as the so-called impedance. The acoustic impedance in a (free) homogenous sound field depends on the particle velocity v and on the sound pressure p [8]: (3.5) In a free sound field the impedance z depends on the properties of the affected medium and is given as: (3.6) The impedance is important to calculate the loss of sound at the interfaces of different media and it was important for our investigation that the impedance of a phantom was nearly the same as the impedance of water. However, before focusing on this effect it was necessary to obtain the values for PVC and water.

3.2 Speed of sound and impedance of PVC


In chapter 3.1 we have focused on the characteristics of ultrasonic waves in general. In this chapter we are going to look at the respective values for PVC and for water. One positive aspect was that the acoustic characteristics of water are very well observed and it was not necessary for us to find out these values ourselves. The speed of sound in water c = 1483 m/s and the density = 0.998 kg at 20C [1,2,8]. For PVC there are two different ways how

to obtain the value for c. The first method is to find out the compression modulus and from

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

20

this value and the density we can calculate the speed of sound, but this takes fairly long and is not that exact. Therefore we have decided to find out c experimentally (see Fig. 3.1). For our experimental setup we used a sensor as a transmitter and sound receiver which was connected to an oscillator, a plane parallel plastisol sample and a vessel of water. The plane parallel sample was produced with a

1 3 2

special cylindrical mould (diameter 5mm). This sample was also important for the optical measurement and will be discussed in detail in chapter 4. At first the sensor produced a sound wave, which spreads out into the water and reached the sample. The sound wave went through the PVC and at the bottom of the sample we had a glass plate which reflected the sound wave. So

Fig. 3.1: Experimental setup for impedance the sound wave went the same way back to the measurement; 1 transmitter/receiver; 2 vessel filled with water; 3 plastisol sample sensor and we observed a peak at the oscilloscope.

We also had to measure the distance of the travelled sound. We got from the oscilloscope the time the sound wave had travelled and
Water PVC

Fig. 3.2: Time till the sensor receives the sound wave. Left: Signal without plane parallel plastisol sample. Right: Signal with sample. Notice: lower amplitude of the sound wave at the plastisol sample, caused by losses at the interfaces between water and PVC. The data from the oscillator were converted with a MATLAB program.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

21

measured the distance. We carried out this experiment twice; the first time with a plane parallel sample and the second time without a sample (see Fig. 3.2). In picture 3.2 we can see the travelling time of sound which we got from the oscilloscope. On the left we see our first measurement without a plane parallel PVC sample at a distance of 30.89 mm. From the peak we get a travelling time of 24.5 s for this distance and so the speed of sound c in water equals 1500 m/s, which fits ideally with the results you find in literature [1; 2]. On the right we made the same measurement by adding a plane parallel PVC sample and we can see from the peak that the sound wave takes longer to arrive at the sample and it is clear that the speed of sound in plastisol is lower than in water. With MATLAB we have converted the data from the oscilloscope and found the speed of sound in plastisol to be 1370 m/s. The data we gathered by the experiment is listed in table T.3.1 and the value for the impedance was calculated with eq. 3.6. Basically, we can see that the impedance values of PVC and water vary slightly. Speed of sound c [m/s] Water PVC 1483 1370 Density 0.998 0.97672 [kg/m3] Impedance z ( 1480 1338 ) [kg/(m2s)]

T.3.1: Values for the density, speed of sound and impedance for water and PVC. The density of PVC was found

out by measuring the volume and the weight of different phantoms and plane parallel samples

3.3 Impedance and interfaces


So far we have obtained the values for the speed of sound, impedance of PVC and the spreading of ultrasonic waves. Next I would like to describe the propagation of an ultrasound wave when it reaches an interface and what happens to the wave there. When an

p v

p v

p v

Fig. 3.3: Passage and reflexion of an ultrasonic wave. On the left and on the right hand side there are two different media (different density and speed of sound) with an interface. The arrows show the ultrasonic waves. Green arrow: incoming wave, Blue arrow: continuous wave, red arrow: reflected wave.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

22

ultrasound wave reaches an interface between two different materials, one part of the wave is reflected and another part propagates into the other medium. Also the property of the wave changes and the absorbed wave has a different particle velocity v and a different pressure p. In Fig. 3.3 we can see an ultrasonic wave entering the interface between two different media, which normally show different p and v. Therefore both media differ in density and in speed of sound. For this reason the wave splits up into a reflected beam and a continuous beam. From Fig. 3.3 we can read the following conditions:

(3.7) where v is the velocity and p is the pressure. The indices can be seen in Fig. 3.3. From these relations we get the following results for the entering-, the absorbed- and the reflected wave (see Fig. 3.3):

(3.8)

If we insert these pressure values in eq. 3.7 we get:

(3.9)

z is the impedance, which is defined by eq. 3.6 and the indices describe the particular medium. If we express the sound particle velocity in eq. 3.8, we can write analogously for the pressure:

(3.10)

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

23

We can see that there is no loss of sound, just a splitting up in two different waves. Now we could introduce a permeability coefficient dp,v in dependence of p and v which expresses the permeability at the interface. From the equations 3.9 and 3.10 we get the following [8]: (3.11) From eq. 3.11 we can calculate the permeability of pressure and sound particle velocity. It is also possible to calculate the reflexion coefficient of p and v if we simply calculate 1-dp or 1dv. In line with energy conservation we have to calculate dtot. It is simply dp times dv

(3.12)

If the value of dtot is approximately 1, the phantom material can be used, because there is hardly any reflexion of the waves at the interface. So this equation shows us whether the material, in our case PVC, is acoustically perfect for the photoacoustic tomography. If we now insert the values from table T.3.1 into eq. 3.12 we find the value for dtot is 0.9975, which means that PVC has ideal acoustic properties. This is the crucial test for any material, because if dtot is far below 1 the phantom material cannot be used. In conclusion we can say that the impedance of PVC is slightly under the impedance of water, but finally we found that PVC is nearly a perfect material for phantoms.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

24

4. Optical properties
So far we have found out that PVC phantoms are acoustically perfect for photoacoustic tomography. We have also discussed in chapter 2 the inserting of objects. The next step was to make phantoms with nearly the same optical absorption properties like human tissue. This is very important, because finally the sensor is designed for measuring human tissue. If the phantoms have these properties, we nearly have the same effects as in medical applications. We do not know where the inserted object is and what form it has, but the sensor should detect the object inside the phantom. In this chapter we will investigate the dispersive behaviour of phantoms, then we will describe the scattering effect in comparison with human tissue, and afterwards we will focus on absorption measurements.

4.1 Coloured phantoms


We have seen in equations 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 that the pressure of the ultrasonic wave depends on the location dependent absorption coefficient A(r). If we sum up these formulas, we get ( ) ( ) (4.1)

From that we can see that unlike all constant coefficients (see table of parameters in chapter 1) A is crucial for the

photoacoustic effect. In order to change the value of A, we mixed BPC (black plastic colour) and TiO2 into the PVC (see Fig. 4.1). The absorption coefficient is a value that indicates how much light is absorbed by the medium. A depends on the wavelength and on the nature of the affected medium. It is
Fig. 4.1: Phantoms with colour components; Left: Phantom with BPC; Middle: transparent phantom without any additional colour component; Right: Phantom with TiO2.

important that a light beam is absorbed by the medium, but also that some light passes through the phantom. This is necessary to guarantee that the ultrasonic waves gather

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

25

information throughout the whole object. We made several different phantoms with different percentages of BPC and TiO2 and we found out experimentally that it is ideal to use 0.1% (per cent per volume) BPC and 3g/L TiO2 for a phantom. We made a doubled dilution of BPC to guarantee the 0.1% at normal cooking amounts to around 50ml of PVC. This process was also similar to methods we found in literature [10]. It is necessary to know that the cooking process should be prolonged if BPC or TiO2 is added to guarantee a homogenous spread.

4.2 Absorption
In chapter 4.1 and 4.2 we have mentioned that the absorption coefficient A depends on the nature of the affected medium and the wavelength. So if a light beam hits the phantom some parts are absorbed and the rest of the beam passes through the medium. This can be expressed by Lamberts law [9]: (4.2)

I0 is the radiant flux of the light beam before it reaches the

phantom, I is the radiant flux of the beam after it has gone through the phantom and d is the diameter of the phantom (see Fig. 4.2).
Fig. 4.2: Lamberts law: Decrease of radiant flux at a phantom

Additionally we should mention that the medium also has a significant

reflexion coefficient, which means that some parts of the beam receive a reflexion or a scattering. Therefore it is necessary to insert a scattering coefficient S which describes the amount of the scattered and reflected beam. We can add this in eq. 4.2 as follows: ( ) (4.3)

Actually we found in literature [10] and experimentally that the value of S is 0.04. If we now transform eq. 4.3 we obtain for the absorption coefficient A:

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

26

4 3

Fig. 4.3: Experimental setup for measuring the absorption coefficient A. 1: light source, 2: photo

spectrometer, 3: button for regulating the wavelength, 4: photodiode, 5: voltmeter. The blue
arrow shows the possible positions of the sample.

(4.4)

From this equation we can calculate the value for A. As a result we can see that it depends on the ratio of the radiant flux of the light beam before and after it passes through the phantom. We should mention that A is a reciprocal value and has the unit 1/m. For human tissue A varies between 0.2 and 25 cm-1 [11]. In conclusion we can say that the incident beam is partly absorbed and reflected by the affected medium and this leads to the development of an ultrasonic wave. This knowledge was essential for the measurements we carried out in the laboratory.

4.3 Optical measurements


Our first step was to measure the absorption coefficient A. For this purpose we used a white lamp as light source which emits a parallel beam with a radiant flux of I0. These light beams then reached the plane parallel sample (different amounts of BPC and TiO2), where the beam was partly absorbed. The propagated light beam then reached a photo spectrometer which separated a particular wavelength (variable from 200 to 999 nm). After

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

27

this separation the beam with a certain wavelength reached a photodiode which was connected to a voltmeter, with which we were able to measure the radiant flux I (see Fig. 4.3). Before making a measurement we had to make a plane parallel sample with a diameter of 5mm in most cases (important for calculating A). Secondly, we had to measure the dark current of the aperture before and several times during the measurement. This so-called dark current is the thermal noise of an electrical conductor which transfers optical energy into electrical energy. It is important to mention that because of this dark current the measured values are a little bit higher than the real values. At first we measured the absorption coefficient of normal PVC without any additional ingredients and also a sample with red colour components which were caused by temperatures of around 220C. It was important to study the influence of high temperatures on optical characteristics (compare left and right side of Fig. 4.4). In Fig. 4.4 we can see that I varies if PVC has red colour components and as a result we can also see this causes a lower absorption coefficient for such a phantom. For this reason it is important for phantoms that

Absorption measurements
300 250

Voltage [mV]

200 150 100 50 0 500 550 600 650 700 750

Wavelenght [nm]
Fig. 4.4: Absorption measurement; Blue: 5mm plane parallel PVC sample without additional colour components; Red: 5mm plane parallel PVC sample with red colour component caused by temperatures of 220C. Green: sample with 0.08% BPC; grey x: TiO2 sample with 0.1% BPC and 3g/L TiO2 Three different wavelengths: 532nm, 633nm and 700nm.Average values were taken and I includes error bars. For a better orientation trend lines are included.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

28

there is no change in colour during the cooking process. So far we have found out the differences in absorption are caused by different temperatures. The next step was to make the same measurements with the same wavelengths for phantoms with BPC and TiO2 (see also Fig. 4.4). After these measurements we were able to calculate the absorption coefficient A from the measured values. As mentioned above it is important to take the differences between the measured values of I0 and I with ID:

(4.5)

In order to keep it simple we will just use I and I0, but it is important to be aware of the differences between measured and real radiant fluxes, especially with regard to the TiO2 sample where the measured I is 12.9mV and the real I is 0.2mV. Moreover, we should mention that the radiant flux has the unit W/m2 and not W that we measured (see table of parameters). This fact can be neglected, because the light beam always reaches the same area and if we make the unit check for the upper right part of eq. 4.4 [(W/m)/(W/m)=1] we see that for that relation it does not make a difference whether we include the affected area or not. If we now insert our measured values into eq. 4.4 and take into account eq. 4.5 we obtain for A:

Absorption coefficient
7 6

A [1/cm]

5 4 3 2 1 0 500 550 600 650 700 750

Wavelenght [nm]
Fig. 4.5: Absorption coefficient: The same colours as in Fig .4.4 are used. Blue: normal PVC; Red: PVC with red colour components; Green: additional 0.08% BPC; Grey X: TiO2 sample. We can see here the absorption coefficient against the wavelength. Notice: A has the unit 1/cm.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

29

This table enables us to compare the different absorption values. It is interesting that the sample with red colour components has a lower absorption coefficient at a higher wavelength than the other samples. This can be explained by the spectrum, because 633 and 700nm are in the red section. However, in general we can see that with increasing wavelength the absorption coefficient also rises. From the observation of the optical characteristics of phantoms with different colour components we can conclude that there are huge optical differences depending on whether a phantom obtains red colour components during the cooking process or not. Therefore reheated phantoms are not convenient for our usage. TiO2 turns out to be ideal for photoacoustic effects, because of its high absorption coefficient, comparable to that of human tissue [11].

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

30

5. Photoacoustic tomography
Previously we have described how to produce phantoms and their acoustic and optical characteristics. With this knowledge we were able to make phantoms which were ideally suitable for photoacoustic usage. In this chapter I would like to describe photoacoustic tomography (PAT). At first I would like to give a brief introduction to PAT and afterwards describe a tomographic measurement.

5.1 Introduction to PAT


The principle of PAT is to hit an object (in our case a phantom with an inserted object) with laser pulses (duration in the range of ns). These laser pulses then hit the object, and an ultrasonic wave is produced by the thermo elastic effect (see chapter 1). These laser pulses are in the range of nanoseconds, so that the relaxation time (left part of eq. 1.1) can be neglected. For 2D imaging the object is scanned along a scan curve cS and a sensor (we used a piezoelectric sensor) receives the ultrasonic wave and generates an image of the pressure field p(x,y). For 3D imaging the object rotates around its axis, and the object is scanned till enough information of the whole angular section of 360 p(x,y,) is gathered. This scanning process takes a fairly long time and the object must not move, because otherwise there would be two different scan pictures from the same angular position. This is probably the main problem in medical usage (for example tumour detection), because if the observed object does not stand still it is difficult to detect the targeted object[4]. If an ultrasonic wave is generated it spreads out spherically, while the pressure of the wave decreases during this process till it reaches the sensor, which is connected to an oscilloscope, where the shape of the signal is displayed. There are also differences in the signal from different forms of the sensor which can be found in [4,5,6].
Fig. 5.1: Schematic picture of the PAT. Pressure signals from a rotating object (green) causes ultrasonic waves, which are measured to generate an image of the object. The sensor scans around the object at a significant scan curve.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

31

Fig. 5.2: Schematic image of our PA-tomograph. FL: focus lens; BS: beam splitter; M: Mirror; M+PT: mirror fixed on a piezo transducer; L: lens; BF: band-pass filter; PD: photo detector; AHPV: active- high-passamplifier.

5.2 Setup of a photoacoustic tomograph


The most important parts for a tomograph are the signal generation and measurement on different positions. Therefore it is important to scan along a scan curve (see Fig. 5.1). In our setup at the Karl-Franzens university we moved the sample and not the sensor. It is crucial that this is fully automated, to guarantee a controlled measurement. Now I would like to describe the parts of the tomograph in detail (see Fig. 5.2). In Fig. 5.2 we see the experimental setup of the tomograph. We should mention that there are two lasers in use: One laser is used to send short laser pulses (Nd:YAG-Laser) at the sample and one HeNe-Laser is used for the so-called Mach-Zehnder Interferometer. The HeNe-laser beam hits the beam extendor, where it firstly is extended. With a beam splitter (BS) the laser beam splits up into a signal- and a reference beam. Afterwards both beams travel through the water bed, where the signal beam is close to the probe. The focus lens (FL) is important to focus the signal beam on the probe, because the resolution capacity of the sonsor depends on the diameter of the beam. The two beams are joined together again

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

32

by the second beam splitter so that they can interfere with each other. The two new beams, which are opposite in phase are then measured with a photo detector. To prevent that stray light from the pulse laser reaches the photodiodes a band-pass-filter is installed. The ultrasonic waves caused by the laser cause a disturbance in the signal which is recorded and stored by a digital oscilloscope. These disturbances are caused by the change of the refractive index by the thermoelastic effect: ( ) (5.1)

We can see here that the change in refractive index n is proportional to the change of pressure. Therefore the sensitivity of the signal beam, depends on the inducted optical wavelength which is given through [4]:

(5.2)

where s is the displacement sensitivity of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. From this equation we can see that s depends on the diameter of the beam L and so it is important to focus the light beam to get useful measurements. We also see in Fig. 5.2 that the signal beam reaches a piezo transducer, which is installed to stabilise the diffence in wavelength. With the piezo control console and the PI-regulator we are able to filter out the mechanical disturbances. During the whole measurement the sample rotates around its y-axsis and every angular section a scan image in x- and y-direction is generated. We should also take care, as mentioned above, that the phantom is moved and not the tomograph for scanning in x and y-direction.

5.3 Photoacoustic Absorption Tomography (PAT)


In this chapter I want to describe the application of a photoacoustic tomograph. During my workplacement we scanned phantoms with different inserted objects. For 2D-imaging it was important to place the phantom at a favoured position so that the sensor could scan and generate an image of the favoured position. During the measurement the phantom moved in x- and y-direction so that each time the inducted laser beam hit a different position of the

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

33

object. Then the ultrasonic waves hit the signal beam and the oscilloscope measured the peak. After the measurement all data were converted into an image with a MATLAB programm (see Fig. 5.3).

Fig. 5.3: Left: The original phantom with implemented BPC balls. Right: Measured signal from the phantom generated with a MATLAB simulation [15].

First we observed phantoms with small black PVC balls (see chapter 2) which were able to rotate around the y-axis during the measurement. From the received signals we were then able to generate an image of the inserted object. Another measurement to test the accuracy of the sensor was to make phantoms with inserted hair loops and see if it was possible to see in the image a loop or just a single black line. 3D-imaging of a object is of course a lot more complex and the measurements need a lot more time. I myself have never done such a long measurement but at the institute observations of a mouse heart were done by rotating it around the y-axis and every 4.5 the heart was scanned. Pictures of a three dimensional scanning process can be seen in [4,5,6]. In conclusion, it can be said that the photoacoustic tomography works with the Mach-Zender interferometer very well. Short laser pulses from a Nd:YAG-Laser reach the object and ultrasonic waves are generated which disturb the light path within the Mach-Zender interferometer and a signal peak at the oscilloscope is dedected. From these peaks we are then able to generate an image of the scanned object.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

34

6. Applications in medicine and current state of research


In this chapter I want to describe the current state of research in photoacoustic tomography and its usage in medicine. So far most of my work has been based on my internship at the Karl-Franzens University Graz, but in this chapter I would also like to describe the research carried out by some other institutes in photoacoustics. It is also important to mention that photoacoustics (PA) is not only a physical field of research, but there are also mathematical, biological and medical institutes which search for new and better methods in PA.

6.1 Tumour detection One of the main fields of photoacoustic tomography research is tumour detection. At the Washington University in St. Louis, for example, a team of scientists collaborate to further develop this method (see Fig.6.1).

Fig.6.1: Tumour detection with a photoacoustic tomograph in a mouse brain. From left to right we can see the increase of the tumour over a period of time. In the background we can see that the arteries are also affected by the thermo elastic principle [13].

This method is based on the photoacoustic principle, where short laser pulses reach the object and the generated ultrasonic wave is measured. There are several ways how to measure the ultrasonic wave. As mentioned in chapter 5 and Fig. 5.2 we used a MachZehnder interferometer to measure the ultrasonic beam. Another very common method to measure the ultrasonic beam is to use a hydrophone which is connected to a digital oscilloscope. The principle how ultrasonic waves are caused is nearly the same at different institutes, but the main difference is how to measure the ultrasonic waves and which sensor is ideal.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

35

6.2 Comparison with other methods There are several methods for tumour detection, for example computer tomography (CT), where the whole body is scanned with X-rays. Different body tissues vary in permeability to waves. This method is often used for tumour detection in brain, chest, stomach and pelvis. The main problem with this method is that the x-rays are a significant health risk. In comparison to other methods photoacoustic tomography is safer. There are also several different methods in radiology such as fluoroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, radiography, etc. PAT is one very new method which has a lot of positive aspects and probably the most positive aspect is that it does not have any health risks for human beings.

6.3 State of research The institute for photonics at the Karl-Franzens University Graz collaborates in a project network with the Computational Science Center at the University of Vienna, the Department of Radiology of the Medical University Innsbruck, and the Research Center for Non Destructive Testing in Linz to generate methods for 3D photoacoustic imaging [16]. Today biological objects like small fish or mice are scanned to test biological imaging and to observe the accuracy of this method (see Fig 6.2). The aim of the photoacoustic research is to be able to generate a 3D image in the tumour detection process which can then be used in medical applications.
Fig.6.2: Example image of a biological object. We see here a fish scanned in summer 2010 at the Karl-Franzens University.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

36

Summary and conclusions


The Fachbereichsarbeit PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Methods describes the production and the application in photoacoustics of polyvinylchloride phantoms. This work was based on my internship at the Karl-Franzens University Graz in summer 2010. The work can be divided into three major parts: The production of phantoms, the investigation of their optical and acoustic characteristics and the application of PVC phantoms. The photoacoustic principle, which is dealt with in the first chapter, means: If a laser beam hits an object it causes an ultrasonic wave with a significant wavelength , which depends on the properties of the object. For generating phantoms we found out that it is ideal to heat PVC up to 160-170C, stir it slowly during the heating process and cool it for 30 minutes (see chapter 2). In the third chapter we found out that the speed of sound in PVC cPVC is around 1370m/s. The permeability of ultrasound and water dtot is 0.9975, which means that there is nearly no loss of sound at the interface of PVC and water. In the fourth chapter we have described the scattering coefficient A of PVC, which depends on the different colour components in the phantom. We found out that TiO2 is ideal for imaging human tissue, because it has an absorption coefficient of 4.5 to 6.5 (depending on the wavelength of the light beam). In the last two chapters photoacoustic tomography and the current state of research have been dealt with. Photoacoustic tomography is a relatively new field of research and a lot of difficulties, like scanning biological objects, have to be overcome. In the last chapter photoacoustic methods used at other universities have been compared with the ones used in Graz, to give a brief overview on the differences in photoacoustic research.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

37

Attachment
MATLAB source code for generating Fig. 3.2: clear all close all signal = load('C1schall200000.dat'); signal1 = signal(:,2); t1 = signal(:,1)*1e6; dt = t1(3)-t1(2); csw = 1.485; figure(1) plot(t1,signal1) xlabel('time [s]') xlim([22 27]) ylabel('amplitude [V]') ylim([-0.03 0.04]) title('Wasser') signalneu1 = signal1(5000:end,:); sigmax1=find(signalneu1 == (max(signalneu1))); tmax1=t1(sigmax1+5000); signal = load('C1schall200001.dat'); signal2 = signal(:,2); t2 = signal(:,1)*1e6; figure(2) plot(t2,signal2) xlabel('time [s]') xlim([22 27]) ylabel('amplitude [V]') ylim([-0.001 0.006]) title('Plastisol') signalneu2 = signal2(5000:end,:); sigmax2=find(signalneu2 == (max(signalneu2))); tmax2=t2(sigmax2+5000); d=15; cp = d/(tmax2-(tmax1*csw-d)/csw) deltat = tmax2-tmax1 figure(3) plot(t2,signal2/max(signal1)) %mm/s

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

38

Declaration
I, hereby, declare that I have written this paper entirely independently of any outside help and that I have used only the sources that are noted in the bibliography. The photos and charts were taken and made by me and those which are not self-taken are marked. This paper has never been presented to the Prfungsbehrde in the same or identical form.

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

39

Table of parameters
Symbol A c cv d F(r) FB G g I K Kad p Q s T1/2 V1/2 VPVC v W Z V H A S Parameter Area Speed of sound Specific heat capacity Permeability coefficient Radiant flux (position dependend) Buoyant force Bulk modulus Gravity Radiant flux Compression modulus Adiabatic compression modulus Pressure Heat energy Heat current Displacement sensitivity Temperature (change) Volume (change) Volume PVC Sound particle velocity Energy density Impedance Volumes expansion coefficient Adiabatic exponent Heat conductivity Absorption coefficient Scattering coefficient Density PVC Density Unit [m2] [m/s] [kJ/(kg/K)] [1] [W/m2] [N] [Pa] [m/s2] [W/m2] [N] [Pa] [Pa] [J] [W] [Pa-1] [K] [m3] [m3] [m/s] [J/m3] [kg/(m2s)] [1/K] [1] *W/(mK)+ [1/m] [1] [kg/m3] [kg/m3]

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

40

Literature
[1] Horst Kuchling; Taschenbuch der Physik; Mnchen 2007 [2] Prof. Klaus Lders and Prof. Dr. Gerhard von Oppen; Bergmann-Schaefer Lehrbuch der Experimentalphysik Band 1 Mechanik, Akustik Wrmelehre; 12 Auflage; Berlin 2008 [3] Heinz Niedrig; Bergmann-Schaefer Lehrbuch der Experimentalphysik Band 3 Optik; New York 2004 [4] Robert Nuster; Entwicklung und Anwendung breitbandiger optischer Sensoren zur Messung laserinduzierten Ultraschalls; Graz 2007 [5] P. Burgholzer, T. Berer, H. Gruen, H. Roitner, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf Photoacoustic tomography using integrating line detectors " J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 214, 012009 (2010) [6] H. Grn, T. Berer, P. Burgholzer, R. Nuster, G. Paltauf; " Three Dimensional Photoacoustic Imaging Using Fiber-Based Line Detectors " J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010) [7] Guido F. Ellinghorst; Beitrge zur Kinetik der strahleninduzierten Polymerisation von Vinylchlorid in Substanz und zum thermischen Abbau von Polyvinylchlorid; Kln 1973 [8] Vladimir A. utilov; Physik des Ultraschalls; Leningrad 1980 [9] Bergmann-Schaefer Lehrbuch der Experimentalphysik (Hrsg.: Heinz Niedrig), Band 3 Optik; 10. Auflage; Berlin 2004 [10] Gloria M. Spirou, Alexander A. Oraevsky, I. Alex Vitkin and William M. Whelan; Optical and acoustic properties at 1064 nm of polyvinyl chloride-plastisol for use as a tissue phantom in biomedical optoacoustics; J. Physics in Medicine and Biology; July 2005 [11] Renato Marchesini, A. Bertoni, S. Andreola, E. Melloni, and A. E. Sichirollo; Extinction and absorption coefficients and scattering phase functions of human tissues in vitro; App. Optics 1989. [12] Yixiong Su, Fan Zhang, Kexin Xu, Jianquan Yao and Ruikang K Wang; A photoacoustic tomography system for imaging of biological tissues; J. of Physics 2005 [13] Lihong V. Wang, Gene K. Beare; Presentation: PHOTOACOUSTIC TOMOGRAPHY: Ultrasonically Breaking through the Optical Diffusion Limit; 11/20/2010 [14] Harald A. Beck; Anwendung der Photoakustischen Spektroskopie in der Prozess- und Umweltanalytik; Dissertation Mnchen 2003

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

41

[15] Simeon Kanya; Sehen mit Schall, Entwicklung und Bau eines optoakustischen Mikroskops, Fachbereichsarbeit; Graz 2011 [16] G. Paltauf, R. Nuster, S. Gratt, K. Passler; Photoacoustic imaging; Graz 2010

PVC Phantoms for Photoacoustic Effects

42

Work Report
Date Activity Prof. Reichel mentions the possibility of an internship at the Institute for Magnetometry and Photonics at Karl-Franzens University Graz. First visits to the institute and explanation of the current area of work. Internship at Karl-Franzens University. All observations and measurements were taken during this time Meeting with Prof. Reichel: Decision to write the paper in English and specification of the title. Drafting Disposition[= outline of the paper] Approval of paper Meeting with Prof. Reichel Start of the writing process with chapter 2 Meeting with Prof. Reichel Writing chapter 1 First correction of chapters 1 and 2 by Prof. Reichel Writing chapter 3 Finishing chapters 1,2 and 3 Writing chapter 4 Finishing chapter 4 Correction of chapters 1,2,3 and 4 by Prof. Reichel Writing chapter 5 Writing chapter 6 Layout Writing motivation, introduction Meeting with Prof. Reichel: Final correction of the whole paper. Writing summary and abstract Last corrections and final version of the paper.

May 2010

June 27th July 25th August 8th September 20th September 8th October 14th October 17th October 28th October 7th November 21st October 5th December 29th and 30th December 2nd January 2011 4th January 2011 5th January 5th- 7th January 8th-9th January 9th January 30th January 11th February 12th February 21st-23rd February