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High Rise Structures

A preview of design and structural concepts of high rise structures around the world

Special Design Considerations in High Rise structures


The principal forces carried by a building are vertical in nature However buildings are subjected to horizontal or inclined forces due to wind and earthquake The effect of wind is more pronounced as the height of the structure increases

Special Design Considerations in High Rise structures


The effect of wind will also change as per the surrounding conditions for example the effect on a building in the heart of the city surrounded by other buildings will be much less than a building in an open area. The wind will impose a horizontal force on the structure.

Special Design Considerations in High Rise structures


The building can be imagined like a cantilever with one end fixed to the ground and the other free to move The horizontal force of wind causes the free end to move causing swaying The amount of swaying in some skyscrapers is so much that on windy days the occupants of the offices on the upper stories have to be given the day off because they become sea-sick

Special Design Considerations in High Rise structures

a) b) c) d)

The amount of swaying will depend on various factors such as Height of building Velocity and direction of wind Orientation of building with respect to wind direction Shape of building

Special Design Considerations in High Rise structures


The building will thus have to be designed in such a way that it is stable for both vertical loads(dead and live loads) and horizontal loads (wind loads) Also the swaying will have to be kept minimal so that the regular functioning of the building is not hampered

Wind velocities

Effect of wind on buildings and how it is studied

Effect of wind on buildings and how it is studied

Effect of wind on buildings and how it is studied

Effect of wind on buildings and how it is studied

Systems of designing high rise buildings

Systems in steel Systems in Concrete

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL


1.

BEAM AND COLUMN FRAME Beam and column structural frame Entire Horizontal load carried by structural frame Joints between beams and columns were made rigid to carry bending stresses due to horizontal loads

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL

COLUMN BEAM JOINTS MADE RIGID TO COUNTER ACT LATERAL LOADS

LATERAL LOADS DUE TO WIND GRAVITY LOADS CARRIED BY BEAMS AND COLUMNS

COLUMN BEAM FRAME INTERACTION

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL

2. VERTICAL SHEAR TRUSS Horizontal load supported by system of vertical cantilever truss Shear truss is located around lift and staircase

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL

SHEAR TRUSS LOCATED IN CENTRAL CORE OF THE BUILDING CARRIES LATERAL LOADS

LATERAL LOADS DUE TO WIND GRAVITY LOADS CARRIED BY BEAMS AND COLUMNS

SHEAR TRUSS FRAME INTERACTION

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL


3. SHEAR TRUSS-FRAME INTERACTION This system is the interaction of Column Beam Frame and Shear truss This concept was developed by Dr. Fazlur Khan (Partner- Skidmore Owings and Merril) Advantages : 1) Lateral drift or sway is reduced by 50% 2) Distortion of floors is less significant. Example: Chicago Civic Centre

Systems of Designing High Rise Buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL

SHEAR TRUSSFRAME INTERACTION Chicago Civic Center

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL


4. SHEAR TRUSS-FRAME INTERACTION WITH RIGID BELT TRUSS All exterior columns connected to interior shear truss through horizontal belt trusses Addition of belt truss increases the stiffness of the structure by 30% Structural economy can be achieved Neutralizes thermal movement effects on the exterior columns of the building Example: BHP headquarters building in Melbourne

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL BHP head quarters, Melbourne

SHEAR TRUSS LOCATED IN CENTRAL CORE OF THE BUILDING CARRIES LATERAL LOADS

LATERAL LOADS DUE TO WIND RIGID BELT TRUSSES LOCATED ON THE OUTER PERIPHERY OF THE BULDING AND CONNECTED TO THE SHEAR TRUSS IN THE CORE GIVE ADDITIONAL STIFFNESS TO THE STRUCTURE TO COUNTER ACT THE LATERAL FORCES

RIGID BELT TRUSSES AND SHEAR TRUSS

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL BHP head quarters, Melbourne

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL


5. FRAMED TUBE SYSTEM All column elements are connected to each other in such a way that the entire building acts as a hollow tube or rigid box cantilevering out of the ground A system of closely spaced columns with deep spandrel beams at each floor creates an equivalent rectangular or square hollow tube with perforated openings Used by Dr. Fazlur Khan in 1963 in the 43 storey Dewitt Chestnut Apartment Building in Chicago (which is in concrete) Also for the 110 storied World trade Center Building in New York

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL

LATERAL LOADS DUE TO WIND CLOSELY SPACED COLUMNS AND DEEP BEAMS FORM A ENVELOP WHICH IS LIKE A PERFORATED TUBEWHICH IS CONNECTED TO THE INNER CORE CREATING A TUBE STRUCTURE

FRAMED TUBE SYSTEM

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL WORLD TRADE CENTRE

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL WORLD TRADE CENTRE

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL


DEWITT CHESTNUT APARTMENT BUILDING IN CHICAGO

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL


6. COLUMN DIAGONAL TRUSS TUBE Columns are widely spaced but are connected by diagonal members which makes the structure act like a tube. The diagonal members themselves act as columns and do not develop tensile stresses. Efficiency of the structure is very high (Same amount of steel used in 35 story column-frame building is required for a 100 story building with column diagonal truss tube) Example: 100 story John Hancock Building in Chicago

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL

LATERAL LOADS DUE TO WIND DIAGONAL MEMBERS ADD TO THE STIFFNESS OF THE STRUCTURE AND MORE EFFICIENT USE OF MATERIAL IS MADE

COLUMN DIAGONAL TRUSS TUBE

JOHN HANCOCK BUILDING IN CHICAGO

JOHN HANCOCK BUILDING IN CHICAGO

JOHN HANCOCK BUILDING IN CHICAGO

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL


7.

BUNDELED TUBE SYSTEM Framed tube and diagonal truss tube is used in combination to create larger tube envelop In buildings with larger floor area interior columns also take part in resisting lateral forces First building to use this system is the 110 storey Sears Roebuck Headquarters Building in Chicago also called as Sears Towers and is one of the tallest buildings in the world Designers Skidmore Owings and Merril This system allows termination of each module at different levels without loss of structural integrity

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL BUNDELED TUBE SYSTEM

Sears Roebuck Headquarters Building, Chicago

Sears Roebuck Headquarters Building, Chicago

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE


BEAM COLUMN FRAME Same as that in steel structures 2. SHEAR WALL The horizontal shear due to wind and earthquake is resisted by a solid RCC wall which is designed as a vertical cantilever beam Shear walls are located at lift or staircase enclosures or an external blank wall
1.

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE


3. SHEAR WALL AND FRAME INTERACTION The Shear wall acts in conjunction with the frame structure increases the efficiency of the structure in resisting horizontal loads Example Burnswick building (1962) designed by Dr. Fazlur Khan

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE


Burnswick Building

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE


4. FRAMED TUBE Same as that in steel structures 5. TUBE IN TUBE SYSTEM This is a combination of the framed tube concept with the shear wall frame interaction concept Exterior columns are spaced very closely (1.8m) and act together with rigid shear wall core enclosing the central service core area Example the 52 story one shell plaza building, Houston , USA the building uses light weight concrete

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE


5. TUBE IN TUBE SYSTEM- ONE SHELL PLAZA

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE


5. TUBE IN TUBE SYSTEM- ONE SHELL PLAZA

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE


7. BUNDELED TUBE SYSTEM: Systems similar to steel structures Example: One Magnificent mile building

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE

6. COLUMN DIAGONAL TRUSS TUBE: Principal same as that used in John Hancock tower only in this case in concrete

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE Onterie centre in Chicago

6. COLUMN DIAGONAL TRUSS TUBE: Principal same as that used in John Hancock tower only in this case in concrete

Marina City Towers, Chicago


Architect: Bertrand Goldberg Location: Chicago, Illinois, USA Date: 1959 to 1964 Building type: Mixed use residential and offices Construction system: Concrete Two towers of 60 stories each

Marina City Towers, Chicago

450 apartments in upper 40 stories Parking in lower 20 stories with space for 450 cars Since the residential level started from the 21st story it provides magnificent views of the city for the apartments The services are housed in a 35feet cylindrical core The form of the building is cylindrical with petal type shape for the balconies

Marina City Towers, Chicago


Other elements of the City within a city are 16 story office building 1700 seat theatre 700 seat Auditorium Stores, restaurants, bowling alleys, gymnasium, swimming pool, skating rink, a marina for 700 small boats and a sculpture garden

Marina City Towers, Chicago

Marina City Towers, Chicago

Water tower Place


Designed in 1975 in Chicago, USA Height 262 m Mixed use building with Mall, Offices, Apartments Concrete of high strength M62 is used RCC peripheral frame with interior steel columns steel slab system with concrete topping Designers : Loebl, Schlossman, Dart and Hacker

Water tower Place

ONE MAGNIFICENT MILE BUILDING


Chicago USA 1983 SOM building Concept of Sears towers Bundled tube concept only in this case in concrete

THE ONTERIE CENTER Chicago USA 1985 SOM building last works of Dr. Fazlur Khan Concept of Column diagonal truss tube as in John Hancock centre only in this case in concrete

SOUTH WACKER DRIVE


1990-Chicago USA 295m height high strength concrete of M80 and above used Structural system : combination of RCC and steel Use of PT slabs Shear wall frame interaction

JIN MAO BUILDING

Shanghai, China 421m height RCC and steel

PETRONAS TOWERS Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Tallest building in the world 452m height Combination of RCC and steel

SWISS RE BUILDING LONDON Architect: Norman Foster

CITY CORP BUILDING

The tower elevated ten stories above street level to fulfill a "spiritual" request

Standing at the corner of 54th Street and Lexington Avenue in Midtown Manhattan since 1862, St. Peter's Lutheran Church controlled nearly 30% of the square block that developers considered ideal for Citicorp Tower. In 1970, the church congregation agreed to sell this property under two necessary conditions. The first was that a new church would be built in place of the old with "nothing but free sky overhead" and the second demanded the erection of a plaza under the tower to continue the church's tradition of hospitality. To accommodate these demands, the tower was elevated ten stories above street level on four 17.5-foot columns and a central core. The area opened below was designed as leisure space for pedestrians and workers. Most of the building's load (half the gravity and all the wind load) is directed to the trussed frame on the outside of the tower. The core carries the remaining gravity loads. The four columns were originally designed to stand at the building's corners, but this design would have interfered with the new church's desire for a "free sky." Structural engineer Le Messurier decided instead to move the four columns closer to the structure's center, thus clearing space for the church under the corner of the building.

CITY CORP BUILDING

Citicorp Tower

Location: New York, New York, USA Height: 279m/915ft Stories: 59 Use: Multiple Area: 1.3 million sq. Ft. Material: Steel Cladding: Aluminum, reflective glass Completed: 1977 Architect: Hugh Stubbins and Associates; Emery Roth & Sons Structural Engineer: Le Messurier Consultants; Office of James Ruderman Services Engineer: Joseph R. Loring & Associates Developer: Citibank

CITY CORP BUILDING

To reduce swaying of the structure in heavy winds, a revolutionary system was designed in the building's crown on the 63rd floor. A tuned mass damper (TMD) consists of a 400-ton concrete slab that counteracts swaying much like a shock absorber. The damper reduces swaying of the building by up to 40%.

CITY CORP BUILDING

CITY CORP BUILDING

TAIPEI 101 TOWER


Architect: C.Y. Lee Construction period: 1999-2004 Worlds tallest building Height: 508 meters Uses: Communication, conference, library, observation office, restaurant, retail, fitness centre Materials: Glass, Concrete, and steel

TAIPEI 101 TOWER


Foundation: Mat foundation on RCC piles of 1525mm diameter Eight super columns: high strength box columns filled with high fluidity concrete New technique which is going to adopted for high rise structures Diagonally braced frames for wind and earthquake loads 61 elevators 2 elevators are the fastest in the world with speed of 1010 m/min. They reach the 89th floor in 39 seconds 800 ton ball shaped damper to reduce swaying

TAIPEI 101 TOWER

TAIPEI 101 TOWER

TAIPEI 101 TOWER

TAIPEI 101 TOWER

Dr. Fazlur Rehman Khan


(1929-1982)
The technical man must not be
lost in his own technology. He must be able to appreciate life; and life is art, drama, music, and most importantly, people.

THE FUTURE-MILLENIUM TOWER JAPAN ARCHITECT: NORMAN FOSTER


Tokyo, Japan 841m height Conical shape most stable for horizontal forces

BURJ DUBAI
Burj Dubai became the world's tallest high-rise building on July 24, 2007, Burj" is Arabic for "Tower". Designed

by Adrian D. Smith, FAIA, RIBA Design Partner at Skidmore Owings & Merrill LLP. The exterior cladding is of reflective glazing with aluminium and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins of stainless steel. The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer temperatures. The building sits on a concrete and steel podium with 192 piles descending to a depth of more than 50 metres (164 feet). Although the building's shape resembles the bundled tube concept, it is structurally very different and is technically not a tube structure. Structural system: buttressed core Structural material : steel, concrete

REF: http://www.emporis.com

REF: http://www.weirdomatic.com

REF: http://www.weirdomatic.com

REF: http://www.weirdomatic.com

REF: http://www.weirdomatic.com

REF: http://www.weirdomatic.com

REF: http://www.weirdomatic.com

REF:

Ref: http://www.eface.in

Ref: http://www.eface.in

Ref: http://www.eface.in

Look at the edge (uppermost right corner) of the picture, you can almost see the turn of the earth The persons who are working on the upper most Girders can see the ROTATION OF EARTH Ref: http://www.eface.in

Ref: http://www.eface.in

Ref:http://www.openbuildings.com

Ref:http://www.openbuildings.com

Ref: http://www.eface.in

Ref: http://www.eface.in

The Burj Dubai has been designed with highly fire-resistant concrete corridor walls and slabs. Certain elevators will function in emergencies to allow a controlled evacuation. And because people cannot easily walk down 160 flights of stairs, pressurized, air-conditioned waiting areas are located every 25 floors to allow evacuees the chance to stop and rest.

Ref: http://www.eface.in

DESIGNERS OF BURJ DUBAI

Adrian D. Smith, Architect

William F. Baker, Structural Designer Partner, Skidmore Owings & Merrill LLP
Ref: http://caf.architecture.org