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What have we experienced? Paratroopers and the year 1968 with the transmitter "Vltava" Came the turn of 66-67 years and 4 RHPz (Rota-depth survey) 4.przkumnho battalion in Jindrichuv Hradec arrival of newcomers from courses given to cementing phase in this period came to nonsensical regulations, which in the months December to January 67, it was determined that it will build a concentration camp for the winter in the area of ciliated Mrkotn near the village of Telc. As it has been decided, then started to be implemented. Daily departure at six in the morning and in the evening return in twenty hours, the path length of about 40 km on trucks under the tent at minus twenty and more below nulou.V forest pond Paezit / today there is a campsite / We dug dugout near the keeper's house, which were the size of wagon and RHPz, which had 42 people dugout was just right and still there came warehouse company. The whole country was in, the roof level with the ground and her warmth, where we slept in the morning only in shorts. The decision to build this camp in winter conditions tested the morale of all people are digging by hand and frozen soil are weak blasting charges. It was literally a military oistec.V month February 67 we lived there after the construction of a month and the month February 68 next month in harsh winter conditions. This recall only for the action of people who have contributed to the exchange of experience and training hloubka and rightly belongs to them thanks for their efforts and skills to give people in daily life. Paratroopers-explorers-"hloubkai" were trained in detection equipment, weapons and aircraft of NATO at that time, including their organizational structures, from small arms fire, self defense, survival in heavy conditions, topo preparation, physical movements-especially over long distances and other professional preparation, perfectly prepared paratrooper-explorer for action behind enemy lines, where he was planted by parachute, helicopter, on a vehicle or on foot crossing fronty.To all placed high demands

on the moral, physical and mental readiness of depth explorers. Came the year 68 and the release of political dream and this time something unusual, socialism with a human face, the abolition of censorship and freedom of speech. For all it was something so new that with that many people could not accept or even. At the time, loose morals, commanders did not know how they behave with subordinates, was promoted a freedom of speech and expression and the effect it had on training and morlku.Piel end of July 68 and the whole situation was confusing and during the first days of August, under pressure from the outside barracks we were disbanded and went home. I have to add that fourth barracks Reconnaissance Battalion was right in the center of Town, stand-alone, surrounded by high walls, was built sometime in 1850 and we had a car pool with then-seventh tank regiment in barracks on the other side msta.V our barracks because they did not work since the spring, just built, were built and repaired brick garage courtyard, which was concreted and laid asphalt. At a critical time, August 21, 68 we were rallying at night and we were issued weapons and ammunition battalion was in full combat readiness. Occupying allied troops, which the next day walked into town J.Hradec were stationed at a military parade ground, had no idea that he was in town for a reconnaissance unit, because all access roads to the city of our barracks townspeople concluded no entry road signs and wooden barricades as if the street is closed for repair. Around August 22 in the evening, when the Soviets occupied the Czech Budejovice and occupied esk Budjovice radio transmitter Vltava, our politruci came with a requirement to quickly transported Radio truck PV3S R-118 fleet from our company to our barracks courtyard, which we in the evening and under the noses of the occupiers RDST transferred and that night began broadcasting as a transmitter "Vltava". It certainly was a blow for the Russians and the Allied troops, because, as we have learned over time, we prepared kolaborantn transmitter on the GDR, which had broadcast the jingle esk Budjovice transmitter Vltava and suddenly we started broadcasting from Jindrichuv Hradec as Vltava .. I remember that the company was a graduate, group commander HPZ that I had trade school or similar, but the

main was that he could very well Russian and sat at the microphone and broadcast in Russian, Russians went to the house and other reports as were suddenly and do not even know whom worn outside the barracks. RDST R-118 aired on the FM transmitter power was about 1 kW and beyond spoken words were played only Czech songs and mostly classic. Russians deployed sighting cars that looked like cars Surveillance Germans from War and efforts should focus broadcasts. But our deep-explorers with RDST were deployed on the roofs of the buildings and how they appeared targeting Russian car that was a faithful copy of the German Abwehr targeting cars with a round antenna on the roof, and put echo was announced radio silence. Thus the whole situation maintained until 25 August, which was about the Soviets strong coffee, because I put on a helicopter and found that there are still some barracks and there was a radio kit developed in the housing PV3S-tion. And it was bad. At that time, the entire 4.RHPz the supervisory and Watchkeeping so imagine soldiers in camouflage type "newt", red berets, every two sharp shells SA_61-(scorpion), it filled pouches, the offensive n.V time I was company sergeant and I went on tour for the services and the guards and just come to the entrance, where two of the Supervisory before the gate, and I with them when they burst forth from behind the corner after the Soviet BRDM OT occupied by the Russians in vatukch, top heavy machine gun and skeweyed mongol him. For them it was more surprise for us, the driver of the OT and stepped on the brakes, put the OT on the "nose" and the Russians edged ahead as the Mongol sardinky.A for the gun, who held him and pointed at us . For them we had to be at least aliens and Westerners, or at least as they were of us vyvaleni.Takov soldiers in my life seen around. Just shock. It took about an hour before their commander dared come up with a request for an interview with the commander and asked for an immediate cease transmission RDST R-118 to which stared. After lengthy negotiations, it was decided that broadcasts from RDST will be terminated and the Soviets left, they had no courage to continue patrolling around the barracks. Of course it was in the battalion upheaval that there were Rusov.V those hours has been developed very

strong pressure on all of us to be disbanded. Airborne Depth Company clearly decided that if we demobilized, as we go to the backup, but in fact we were a deal at the rendezvous in space settlements Buk, which is about 5 km jindichohradeckm airport, where our muster area concentration, and there was Company to meet in order to continue the "struggle" against okupantm.Pro this purpose, we decided to export all the NZ and sharp stock company, including live ammunition into the plain, where they were dug up hidden in the forest and the first batch of material was exported there. Live ammunition, grenades, bullets in RPG-7, KD Highlands subsistence benefits and more we had permanently preserved in OT -65 in the fleet so I marched with the drivers to the park where we got to OT and went the direction of Buk. Because the cases were to the top of the combat compartment and there was only room for the driver, I sat on the hatch first OT and we went out on the road, crossing the streets of Vienna, which led to a border crossing New Bystice and walked along the parade ground, where he was already deployed Russian regiment and unless I am mistaken and part of Poland, a mechanized division "Bison." At this junction we met with Russian soldiers and full OT for them, we were such a surprise that the driver of the Russian OT us so scared that forgot to turn and crashed straight soldiers fell into a ditch as the pears in the mud, but for us it was also surprising, but we were able to travel with five fully loaded OT-65 in the space where we actually saved weaponry, ammunition, and food, conceal it and come here hloubkai guard, but we had to soul in the pants when we started to imagine what would happen if the Russians actually ran into us. They were for us moments of nerves and tension. Entire situation lasted about 10 days, when everything was revoked and we had everything to return to military facilities. At the event I appreciate the determined unity of all members of the Airborne company and our leaders, when we were all fighting for your opinion as one mu.Budoucnost however showed that this was not the time stle.Pila "dark" period of the consolidation, testing and balancing accounts for the acts of this period, was released NVS (Chief Airborne Services), SEF 4.pzpr (Chief of Staff), had to leave our politruci who were very supportive of that time and events and implementers were broadcast our "river" and started to political purges between the navigating sborem.Byl'm young soldier in the service of

others and I was old Mazak occupational overlooked and it gave me a bit more about saved remain in the army. It is interesting that in the situation that took place during the events of August 68, were "taken to account" only some officers, but as deputy commander of the unit for connecting a radio survey with their functional responsibilities were directly responsible for the radio operation of the unit, instead dressed in red coat and not only remained, even been gradually lifted to a higher funkce.To documented all that time. In 1969 we are in the period of August events gave half the numbers of the Airborne company on security assistance to the city Teb, where there was a garrison, and the second half of the company was transferred to Prague, where he created from these units guard regiment that guarded important objects - building MO , GS and so on. The interesting thing about that time was that all the soldiers of this unit have been introduced in black berets which went into services and which now wears military police. When I was in Trebic as soldiers, they could not praise the care that they had and the fact that at that time the city Teb shoes and without garrisons and thus many unmarried girls, which our boys loved it. So, after the August events misused army against its own people, but as soldiers we could not refuse the order and had to be fulfilled. What say zvrem.Byla a time of turbulent, full of emotion and the whole situation sorted the human character, and access to vci.Hloubkai who were trained to work behind enemy lines and who have always been reliant on each other proved that at the time were very well prepared for the purpose of its use, regardless of whether the time was an enemy of the West, or East. That is to say that this act is a little discussed and not just colleagues from the 7th Parachute Regiment in Holeov Radio truck used in 68 and aired against our "liberators", but as I described it was also 4.vsadkov depth exploration company in Jindrichuv Hradec. They all deserve gratitude and homage to that time.

Libya - military assistance You could say that the war everyone who attended, without realizing this fact often, anyway, something gave. Sometimes the feeling of self-confidence, a sense of order and ultimately improve physical fitness. I also completed two years of war, so I can do a little something clever and know about it. I was called to one development Department in western Bohemia. After the traditional "receiver" when a young soldier learns to march, to know the military rules and regulations and other military "very important things" I have included the technique that I admired and who I wanted to serve. I became a driver launcher. When I first zasednul in armoured cab behind the wheel dvacetitunovho monsters, little knees were shaking, but over time, with increasing experience and mileage, all the fears went away. Two years have passed like water and vykulenho rookie became a seasoned old hand. One August day, when every soldier as a second year, I edited the meter and I had it, it was said "a few", as out of the blue appeared very interesting and as it turned out, a lucrative offer. I was offered a position as an instructor on technology, on which I served for two years. Our country at that time signed a contract with one Arab country which was the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. As we later learned, is a popular Jamahiriya state. This store was concerning military equipment and to train staff. Although the decision whether to accept this point was not easy. For a long time I did not hesitate, I very wanted to experience a different county. I remembered the words because my grandfather, who told me how earlier each journeyman after training went to "experienced" in the world. I graduated from a two-month training course. On a cold and chilly November day tatty IL-18 lifted off from Ruzyne airport and took the direction of Libya. The entire group consisted of about twenty men, when getting into this airplane all feared, whether those are just a few kilometres this machine will keep in the air at all, since shortly before the aircraft of the

same type crashed near Bratislava. After several hours of flight, but surprisingly appeared below us landing area of the airport capital of Libya Tripoli, where we managed to successfully land. The concourse was waiting for us with Libyan officer colts at the waist, which makes us very surprised. And as it turned out, it was not the first time the surprise was later much more. In our army gun with live ammunition wore only exceptionally and on sharp shooting or services. The first two weeks we were placed in a modern seaside resort on the outskirts of Tripoli. Single-storey bungalows with views of the beach, where we lived, were built in Arabic style and perfectly equipped. Daily attracted us swimming in the sea, but the Libyans over us just shake their heads in puzzlement. Water temperature during this period was around 20 C and according to them, not for swimming, consider us for Hardy. Tripoli amazed us, especially perfectly shops stocked with goods from around the world. Historical monuments, parks, and also the largest square that Libyans called Green, because green is the sacred colour of Islam. And it was so literally asphalt that covered the entire area of the square, dyed green. After two weeks, when we acclimatised to the local climate, we moved right into the center of the capital, which said Medina. They put us in a block of flats jedenctiposchoovho apartments without air conditioning. As it turned out, in the summer months when the temperature in the shade was about 40 C, we really enjoyed the African climate. In early December, the full ran training. Launchers and other equipment travelled by train from Czechoslovakia to Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia after the ship to the port of Tripoli. When unloading equipment from the boat we assisted to avoid any damage. Our ship docked at the pier, which was intended for military purposes, and so we are able to see many very interesting for us. Soviet ship docked nearby, and inside its huge cranes pulling narrow oblong box that contained about? The actual teaching took five days a week, from Sunday to Thursday, Friday was a day when all

students are focused on a central platform and spiritual camp they read passages from the Koran. Nor have we not idle, we were sitting in a classroom and discussing MarxistLeninist training. The head of our group always designate one of us who read various political articles from two weeks old Red rights. -Nowadays both comical- Letters and newspapers we went to a special post that says cargo, with two-to three-week delay. Saturday was a day off, so we spent the time getting to know not only the capital city, but also historically interesting monuments from the days when Libya was inhabited by the Romans. Leptis Magna and Sabre, an ancient city on the coast we are so popular that we have visited several times during their stay. The desire to know this country was great and helped us in many Arab interpreters. They even brought us to the idea of a weekend, buy a ticket and take a little trip to the nearby island of Malta. Our superiors heard of this intention and immediately made arrangements to us by chance thought occurred to emigrate, and immediately took our passports. Living in Libya is not quite so simple naince, both strict prohibition applies here, that means no alcohol. From the natives, we learned that if police were caught with alcohol, which is sometimes on the black market for the right amount of sitting, waiting for us Kalabus which means prison. Pork steak? So that you can only dream, pork in this country does not exist. The butcher can buy mutton, poultry, and occasionally camel, usually beef. On the wall next to the entrance to the butcher was placed metal hook on the hook if it was on sale as beef, hung head of cows. After some time, due to the local average temperatures around 35 C was heavy with a swarm of flies. Many in this African country for us were incomprehensible. As they walked down the street and two boys holding hands, were quite common, but alas, if holding boy girl. Aroused by public outrage and I am not talking about it, if a girl kissed in public. Arabs are of the opinion that the public just love animals. A man shows his feelings only in private. Equality between men and women was working in Libya only on paper. If it is a man with his wife in the street, a man always

walks four to five steps ahead, never side by side. If you need to go from purchase to purchase must always carry a woman. In practice, the emancipation is the unknown concept. Teaching the techniques to Libyan students was not as simple as it originally seemed. The topic had to interpret the first Czech to English, which catered to Czech translator. Then, from English into Arabic, this role took Arabic translator and it was very tedious. Another problem was that the Libyan Arabic has a very small vocabulary and some Czech deadlines simply do not exist in Arabic. For example, the launcher is located on Tatra 813 chassis, the car has a fairly complex drive train includes, inter alia, the so-called planetary overdrive and it was a tough challenge for interpreters. According to the curriculum I had on this topic two hours, but it is far from enough. There was a big argument, as this term to translate. So it was no surprise when one of the students in the bench was asleep from boredom. I pointed out why the sergeant, who was in the classroom supervision of the student to awaken. This command I later regretted because it followed something we were not used to our army. Sergeant soldier woke up, but immediately following the break took him literally to the obstacle course, where he was in the moat first ordered to do squats and push ups later. College boy made of himself a hero, sergeant and talk back to the worst. The sergeant broke off from a nearby tree branch, with which the student properly umravnil such a way that concerned friends had taken to the infirmary, where a week recovering. Incomprehensible to us was that the whole incident from a distance contentedly watched with a smile on his lips camp commander. Later we learned that the said sergeant even received praise for strengthening morality. Another handicap for us was the fact that some students were much older to us, so we did not trust Libyan officers initially. It was felt that due to our age perhaps we can not have such experience, we can learn. Some escalation occurred after we moved from theory to actual field training. All the activities around the launcher there are time standards that Libyan students could not manage. At that time the camp commander Captain Baran, the high rank of

local conditions, considering that the highest rank in the Libyan army colonel and is there own head of state Muammar Gaddafi. Chief visited our group and conveyed his view of subordinate commanders, who believed that the time standards are unrealistic and that it is not possible in any case to meet. It has gone so far that presumptions that even the instructors themselves would not meet these standards. Eventually raised the question whether the Czechoslovak instructors can make sample reaches the firing position in the prescribed standards. We were Libyans censure. In no case we did not want to admit that we do not put together a full crew. Professional pride and honour we preached to do everything we can to prove that we have in place. After appropriate sample preparation was to make it to the small, for Libyans imperceptible gaps succeeded. We probably stood in price, followed by words of appreciation through an interpreter. Once started driving lessons, first in the field and later on the road all communication between the instructor and student in Arabic and conducted without an interpreter. Therefore, we had no choice than to at least learn basic phrases. Finally, we have adopted local customs. If the student while driving incorrectly ranked gear, every instructor handy gauge of beech wood, which is normally used to measure the amount of fuel in the tank. In this case it was used as a "tool domlouvac" Surprisingly; this method has been very effective. Note Semjonovi Anton Makarenko would probably disagree. Regarding the use of our technology in the desert conditions, I would say that in total passed. Of course, some problems from time to time appeared. Unfortunately, a great dishonor had done here Koprivnica Tatra when said Libyans on testing four-axle tractor T-813 with a completely new, can say in the jargon of "raw" engine. Camp commander ordered the vehicle in question loaded with sand. Despite all the warning that this is a new machine, our opposition ignored. He ordered the driver to test ride on the highway, where after a few kilometres of driving at full throttle engine seizure occurred. After this event, the Libyan side of another Tatra was no longer interested.

In August, in Libya celebrates the sacred month of Ramadan. In this period, every adult Muslim must refrain eating, drinking and smoking, from sunrise to sunset. This is strictly enforced and we foreigners were strictly advised to also refrain from such public benefits. Otherwise, it could be seen as a provocation, which we of course respect. Tripoli was placed in the middle of military cannon from which the evening, when the sun went down, the staff fired. This shot was heard around the city and it was a signal to terminate all-day fasting. During Ramadan, and training was limited, moreover, at a time when the daily temperatures were around 40 C in the shade. Outside in the sun for us central Europeans was the heat bearable, so all activities at that time took place only in the classroom. Another great day was 1 September. On this day in 1969 overthrew the very young, the then Lieutenant Muammar Gaddafi in the head with the other young officers and the king decided to build socialism. On the central Green Square was built grandstand and equipment are properly nablskala a military parade. During the show itself has sat behind the wheel Libyans themselves, even if the stand next to the car delivery van we were waiting on standby in case they would possibly have been a collision. From a distance we saw before the festivities came across several buses, of which, as we later called it, performed voun groups. They chanted throughout hoarse glory and death Gaddafi U.S. and Israeli aggressors. Besides Gaddafi surrounded by bodyguards stood perpetually unshaven Yasser Arafat. The whole celebration was seamless and we are relieved. The show ended, hoarse vouni boarded the bus and drove us and actually, without realizing it, ended up in the mission of this country, for which we have in this North African country actually were. In about a week the whole bazooka section graduated sharp shooting. Everything went smoothly until the commanders of the crew after raketomeru focus on the target and receiving the order to fire got so scared that by the firing key finally turned himself instructor. Launcher is swung under the onslaught of missiles departing clouds swirling around huge sand after a few seconds it was over. The whole crew scared Libyan sighed. Before returning to his homeland the whole bazooka section received the order to move. Oasis goal was about a thousand miles south in the desert called Sebha. We felt that this move does not affect

us but everything was different. Libyans were concerned about possible defects on the technique and we had to take part in this adventure, as a technical track. The whole journey lasted several days, about every two hundred kilometres we oases replenished water and drives mass. In any case, it was not a cakewalk, once we even happened upon one oasis after refuelling water and several kilometres of driving, we found a small swim ervky.Tm fall of this fluid was unusable for drinking, in that situation quite a big problem. To lifeblood even at high temperatures udrela cold as when we have gained, we enjoyed called Gerbi, was in podsat bag sewn from thick rough canvas and reseal able top nalvac hole. After filling the bag with water, this was leaking fluid and partial evaporation also relying on the influence of physical laws to cool. So when wandering through the desert we met often literally hung these trucks Gerbe. Czechoslovakia was not the only country that has exported military equipment to Libya. As for the cars, but only in our camp, where we conducted training, you could see the Italian Fiats, U.S. Johnson even Soviet veins and Gaz. The air base near Tripoli Ogba, where we sometimes went to the hospital for various medical treatments, could see a large number of Soviet MiGs, French Mirage and also our Albatross.

Taken from Paratroopers on the "Vltava" In late 1965, the "Plan of combat and political preparations for the year 1966", (so at that time called training programs), the name first appeared allied Warsaw Pact exercise - VLTAVA. Exercise to be held on the territory of our country with the participation of formations and units of the Hungarian Army, the National People's Army of the GDR, the Soviet and Czechoslovak Army. It was the biggest event of troops on the territory of our country. Was continuing series of similar exercises carried out in previous years, Covenant troops on the territory of Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria and Romania. It bore the name DANUBE, QUARTET

and the October storm. From foreign armies VLTAVA exercise involving more than 12,000 troops. As proved later became the 22nd participation Airborne Brigade and 7th Parachute Regiment at the military shows, the largest military deployment Czechoslovak paratroopers from the fighting in the second. World War II. Both formations on it demonstrated not only technical capabilities but also exceptional abilities and skills of its members to an extent unprecedented in the meantime. To participate in the exercises were created fictitious Airborne Division, which consisted of three airborne parachute battalions (65, 71, 72 vpr), 22 Airborne antitank artillery (22 vpto), one motorized regiment without tank battalion (33rd msp), one Signal Battalion, one houfnic122mm artillery and anti-aircraft batteries. Assembly brigades complement Section propelled antitank guns Soviet Army with two batteries. The first was armed "samohybkami" ASU-57 planted in the parachute and the other heavier type SU -85, they were transported by air on board aircraft AN - 12 Organizational structure also complement Brigade Command Company.

Discontinuation of the main landing area was earmarked 1,635 people, with the conquest of the airport was landing in the battalion consists of three companies with a total of 220 people. For air transport were allocated two helicopter regiments Mi - 4 supplemented by four Soviet helicopters Mi - 6 and 12 aircraft Il - 14 T 1 Transport Aviation Regiment CSLA. Forces Air Transportation CSLA in this group, however, the transport of airborne units large enough. Therefore, our territory moved two transport aviation regiments of the USSR. They were both equipped with 45 aircraft AN-12. A total of 90 large aircraft. This type we already know each pecvien in 1964-1965. The problem of mass use when new, not fully reliable Czechoslovak parachute OVP - 65, at which time it had skipped over that for them there is a problem when opening the so-called "zdrkovch" locks was resolved about 1,500 delivery kits Soviet main and reserve parachutes D - 3 Switching to use managed Brigade members within ten days. It was necessary to learn these paratroopers parachute pack and prepare for their own jump. The question of their management problems were because the structure of this type does not allow anything

like that. Parachute after opening resisted any attempts to change the direction of toleration. If it is used, however, to avoid cross-connecting two paratroopers. This phenomenon sometimes occurs when mass planted, meeting paratroopers in the air. Brigade for this exercise "stand" on the blue side - the enemy. Goal of the deployment was to demonstrate the ability to prepare for and undertake the introduction of longrange combat technique, which at the time were equipped with motorized units. It was mainly armored OT - OT 64 and 65, 30mm anti-aircraft "dvojkanon" pattern 53/59, 122 mm howitzer with tractor PRAGA V - 3S and other weapons. The implementation of the "air bridge" was committed: 12 pieces of self-propelled howitzer type SU - 85, 6 pcs anti "dvojkanon" 30 mm Pldvk "Lizard" OT 64 14 pc and 65.12 pc 122 mm howitzers, 6 off-road vehicles GAZ-69 (A ), two radio cars, six recoilless cannons pattern. 59 caliber 82 mm Task Airborne Division was as follows: After the introduction of two landing areas to meet several separate tasks in the rear of the enemy in favor of their own attacking ground troops. Tasks were ordered to perform after battalions. One battalion carry overflow airport Bechyn. Airports occupy, secure, and maintain it for traffic landing sequence with a fighting technique in which, after unloading boat and put to the assembly foot main forces advancing brigade. This will be strengthened for further offensive action to advance to the direction, especially increasing the firepower and mobility of major units. Following withdrawal of the main body landing on the landing area bounded settlements Hartmanice - Maice and Zl near South Bohemian town Veseli above the river. One battalion to seize and secure the bridge over the river Vltava in the arrival of our tank units. Contact them and continue as a tank landing in developing offensive action in the direction of Henry Hradec. The second part of the landing, after collecting the landing area to occupy and secure the river

crossings at Lunice Sobslavi and continue offensive operations in the direction of the east, in the area near the village Detn Jindrichuv Hradec. Beaming helicopter battalion in strength motosteleckho establish a bridgehead on the river Vltava, and thus ensure the creation of conditions for the establishment of a pontoon bridge to transport land units across the watercourse. For each of the landing procedure outperformed smaller streams and secure the crossings over them. Create the conditions for rapid progress "own" land units. The exercise was conducted in the first half of September. Brigade was completed in a short time advances, technology and allocated units. During one week, conducted combat cement associated with the practice of using the technique in combat in space SCF Libava. There is also focused on the task. Crew Brigade zplnoval entire operation, which used to launch airport Ostrava - Monov, Perov and Prostjov. Actual implementation was preceded by tactical - with serial exercises battalions discontinuation of the planned landing area under very difficult weather conditions. Before letounov entire sequence for crossing the withdrawal route flew summer storm, it was necessary to the whole union behind flying swarms, reshape into a crowd in order to avoid problems with maintaining flight assembly. However, this pattern changed completely expected landing landing and was hampered by accumulation of units on the desktop. Everything was even worse that the paratroopers jumped into a strong wind rozbahnnho oranit. Parachutes was not possible after the impact on the earth "dump" and so the topsoil once peorna their bodies. Fared relatively better connecting the chief of one of the battalions, which his parachute "stretched" shallow pond at the edge of the landing area as a sailboat. Cultivation was carried out according to plan exercise 19 September 1966. The main landing area measuring about 3 x 5 km from the airport flew airdrop Monov. Here are concentrated in the early morning hours. Loaded ready technology and materials and perform the mount. Another part of the landing handled at the airport and boarded

Perov. After the start of the planes formed into threesomes with spaces between aircraft 500 meters to the side of a flying machine in the middle. Circle behind him followed at a distance of 1000 meters. So when self cessation avoid mixing different layers paratroopers. Flew ran the route from Central Moravia to the west, north near the border area to Pilsen, which was fixed pivot point. Thence south to the point of fighting over the city Sand breakup. After an air assault landing area, which was carried out by several groups of fighters and fighter-bomber aircraft MiG 15 and MiG - 17 in C - 7, arrived at the head of six landing AN-12 aircraft loaded with combat equipment to "platforms" P - 127 and B - 127 They were equipped with "vcevrchlkovmi 'rocket parachute systems and braking systems. One of the three parachutes in the book had an area 850 meters square. The total area of the three canopies over one platform beyond 2500 meters. The technique was planted in Case C - 3 Followed by 21 AN-12 aircraft with more than 1,200 paratroopers. (One machine took 60 fully lined and armed people.) Length letounovho sequence before planting reached 12 km. Withdrawal was made from a height of 800 meters with a delayed parachute opening period of 5 seconds, at a speed of aircraft 300 km / h. Cultivation was carried out in the next fifteen minutes. The jump was made for the beautiful summer weather. Seskakujcm paratroopers at the end of the kit is opened beneath a breathtaking view of the area like snow - covered with a compact layer of white canopy. When dropping techniques and discontinuation occurred slightest accident. Also, the assembly of individual companies and battalions, finding material and its preparation for the fight was exactly. Landing after discontinuation of the area was provided by the Air Force fighter-bomber again. The members of the first wave seen at a distance of about 10 km northwest of the main landing area, jump another battalion, which was launched by the task. The second part of the away team flew from the airport in 12 Perov aircraft Il-14 T to implement the overflow airport. Discontinuation landing in strength 220 paratroopers, took place about 30 minutes after the first jump sequence on the

main landing area. The battalion was made up of members of the 71st vpr and 72 vpr - especially school officers in an ambush. Battalion commanded by Lt-Col. Ladislav Opletal, commander of the 1st company commander was Captain Charles CUBA, later Inspector General and Army Forces. Fast combat operations paratroopers seized the runway and proceeded to run for objects at a distance along with the occupation of the barracks in the adjacent wooded areas of the airport. In the assembly, also a member of the Battalion took the Soviet Air Force with the task of guiding the secure cargo aircraft to the occupied area. The rest of the trip the group then landed the first aircraft AN - 12 Landing airplanes in combat techniques and the unloading was an unforgettable experience for all participants and spectators. The first wave of 20 aircraft landed at one minute intervals, immediately releasing VPD launched and unloading techniques so that it can leave the airport immediately. In these moments, always in odd minute one aircraft started and landed even further. After the first wave and a 5 minute break followed by a second wave with the other 20 aircraft. At the end of the second wave followed by a break of 10 minutes, and after the third wave of the aircraft 10 machines. Transport equipment and was performed 55 minutes after landing the first "Ukraine". After completing the task at the airport this part of the brigade mounted landed and advanced military technology to connect with the main forces brigade. To merge the units were expected progress on the route to the area east of the village forest complex Budislav northwest of Henry Hradec. Here paratroopers survived the night to the next day in the afternoon attended the final episode of the whole exercise, in which the "clash of battle" fought on the side of "Western" members of the Czechoslovak troops along with Soviet soldiers, against the Hungarian army regiment and the National People's Army of the GDR the "Eastern". For massive use of air force, tanks, artillery and armored personnel carriers are fighting part of the exercise on 20 September late afternoon ended. Members of the 7th Parachute Regiment unlike paratroopers created division worked examiner due to its focus entirely

different. crew Regiment under Regulation Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Ministry of National Defense, formed a steering group of officers, who prepared for the tasks in the "rear of the enemy" several reconnaissance groups of selected members Regiment. Groups had different numbers of people. Using its own radio aids connecting node Regiment, were planted on different groups of selected objects. It was a command post, the fasteners, units deployed in the field, field and permanent airport, but also warehouses and water works. The regiment was at the time equipped with parachutes PD - 47 Groups were implanting takeoffs of aircraft Il-14T especially at night. Groups depth survey were implanting a high degree of confidentiality, so that their members did not know each other's koly.Vysok quality completion of tasks is reflected in the valuation of a number of members of the regiment after the completion of the deployment, which granted them the Chief Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff. At the end of combat operations in the exercise portion of the Airborne Division moved into spaces concentration at loading stations conducted loading technique and moved the crew Prostjov. The second part of the part assigned to carry out technology transfer along axes into the Czech Budejovice. There Hyncov the mountain and at the airport Plana prepared camps for accommodation. After successful training the paratroopers participated in ceremonial military parade in Czech Budejovice. From there followed a return to Prostejov railway transport. Members of 7.vsadkovho Regiment, who were deployed in an exercise to uncover the assembly exercising troops in the field returned to Holeova air. Partly using helicopters Mi - 4 aircraft and Il-14T. Brigade assigned troops returned after the axis road crew moves to peace in Stbro. This ended the involvement of Czechoslovak paratroopers during exercise. Showed a high degree of training, combat readiness, the ability to quickly adapt and cope with any even completely atypical tasks. High physical fitness and mental resilience intermingled all activities. Showed how high organizational skills and creativity to Staff created division, but also staffs of all subordinate units. Demonstrated high moral character and ability of all

paratroopers departments in both tasks; tested the ability to conduct withdrawal combined manner as other quality airborne troops of the Czechoslovak People's Army. How do you jump from the "express train" It was in the spring of 1964. International Policy showed some degree of reassurance and Airborne Brigade was unfortunate for the previous year also quite quiet. (In 1963, four soldiers are killed when jumping with a parachute). Beattles amazed the world and UN troops occupied the divided island of Cyprus. In April and early May, we first Rota made three jumps from airplanes An - 2 and Il -14 T. Then on the 22nd May still night jump from a balloon. When the company went to the airport before dark, we all already knew from experience that we go back to the barracks until sometime after midnight. Jumps from a balloon should have a special charm that up there for you more peace of mind, he and his focus on the expected jump you experienced much more intensely. The balloon basket we sat in pairs on each side of the basket so that you are touching the opposite paratroopers knees and stared up close to his face. Everyone was staring into each other but if this was even seen trying to climb a balloon fill time while watching. Balloon floated slowly to a specified height of 400 meters above the ground, it took about three minutes. Rota had a hundred soldiers, and so you can easily calculate how long it waited until everyone odskou. Among the people for some time carried rumors that the end of May had come in "Soviets" with Ukraine. (An - 12). So after a long wait resulted in all sorts of speculation about what awaits us. Even while we did not know that this our "night balloon" is the very last and is actually parting with the "old" type jumps. It was my sixth and final jump from it, which by its size and grandeur usually arouse our sympathy. His constant quiet climb and descent, belonged for years to Prostjov airport and before that to airports in Hradcany, Presov and Kosice, but also in Chrudim and spider. Wherever paratrooper had their crew. The jumps were carried out without disturbing events, but then "it occurred." This Monday, the 25th May morning was damp and cloudy. Over Prostjov Perova circled away from the aircraft, whose

dimensions were at least surprising. After two mandatory corners floated "Ukraine" at our airports, where they had gathered all those who did not have to stay in the barracks. The Equestrian barracks came in 65th Parachute Battalion, which had more than 400 men. The other two battalions entered the barracks of the air, as well as other units of the brigade. So we stood there more than a thousand amazement as we watched for the arrival of our brand new machine. After a brief welcome and necessary CONVENTION us a hundred people loaded with us and flew round the town and its surroundings. I must say that in about an hour landed yet another plane, so our acquaintance got an extra boost and everything went much faster. Each of us immediately noticed an unknown smell of burnt kerosene and admired the huge deck that "swallowed" easily a hundred people. We were surprised by large rear doors, which served as a loading ramp., But also opening for jumping. Then, in the air, we opened literally 'entrance into the barn "by which we were about to leave the air ship. Other days we lived in a dream. When compared with an elderly balloon suddenly we were in a new world. Preparatory work, evacuation drills are jumping on the trampoline and other examples of airborne equipment, the aircraft which could pick up and planted the experiences that you deeply engraved in the memory. This has already been approached for us but from "ptaedestky" a day of "D". That day came on the 30th May. Saturday morning, like every morning seskokovho day was exactly the same. After reveille, warm up and breakfast we left for our parachutes. Jumping is unlined and so we bring to the airport carrying only the main and backup parachutes and knife attack. Journey through the field measured less than 2 km and for dressing up on a stand, we arrived in good spirits full of expectations. Czechoslovak parachutes which we were outfitted with the designated OVP - 65 They rounded shape with one master field indoor monofilament. Allow execution jump, as it was then called "the Magazine Catch", and the delayed opening.

After jumping parachute function was modified to prevent its immediate opening. This allowed a special lock that for some time opening the parachute off. Paratrooper then declined only on a small stabilizing parachute at about 40 meters per second. Only then, when we all fell about 5 seconds, he opened himself zdrkov lock and opening the parachute it was completed. This device was able to leave the aircraft at speeds from 300 to 330 kilometers per hour. It was the speed of the airplane An Saplings - 12 It was about to jump out of a fast train, because this speed is now the fastest woman of Formula 1 cars Makeup routine to parachute was often practiced and tested. Only the number of paratroopers in one designated airplane was quite unusual. Sixty young men marched from the back to the "machine", which stared at us huge gaping door. After boarding a narrow bridge after we occupied the two halves of thirty aircraft. The seats marked in large white numerals we sat down so that the middle two rows were sitting back to back and is divided tin about 10 cm thick hollow partition in which they were stored oxygen mask with hose for everyone jumping. The remaining two rows of 15 people sat with his back to the wall of the fuselage. The aircraft was in the side walls of the large circular windows allowing at least partially follow the progress of the flight. Before the start of each anchoring occurred paratroopers. The steel ropes, which passed over our heads were invariably short threaded inserts with an eye on which we hooked their carbines. After checking the airborne tours, each connection was covered with disguised sleeves. And that was all. Climb to flight level 800 meters lasted about 2, 5 minutes. Pivot point from which the aircraft took direction raid was over 5 km distant villages Stichovice at Plumlov dam. Then she began to open doors. First, the two lower wings opened to the sides and finally the top horizontal part up. He commanded: "prepare" and under the ceiling at the door, flashed a yellow light. We got up and took a turn to the crowd and both sides of the aircraft. I stood first and tinny through opltek Saplings in which he stood watching the passing landscape. Signal: "Forward" and the green light, an open door and screaming Saplings forward was the last thing I could remember from the airplane. Three, four quick steps, reflection, collapse into a ball and a sharp jolt threw

me into the air space. I felt the smell of burnt kerosene and dropped on the "zdrce" prescribed period. The release ended countered jerk free fall. I looked around and behind me from the airplane still sprinkled paratroopers. In one passage of sixty. The closest friend of me was about 60 meters, despite the fact that we should follow during the jump-second spacing. Descent pleasant experience breathtaking and the impact was probably also fine. Below we stood and looked around and experience the wonderful feelings. A week ago we were jumping from a balloon and now this. Soviet pilots appreciate how quickly and easily with our new way of soldiers jump suit. Their "Malk" apparently have far bigger problems. Well it still did not know the Czechoslovak military paratroopers. As we boarded the airborne troops First Steps. Year 1961 was special in many ways. On 12 April started the first cosmonaut into space J. Gagarin and it was a great glory, 17 April started with the "anti-Castro invasion" of Cuba and it was a big mess. The CSLA began combat readiness and we listeners Military School in Vykov we were preparing for final examinations in the second year. In May, we were able to welcome Gagarin in Prague and at the same time to participate in a military parade on the Summer and already the third time in three years service in the army. We also dismissed cadre interviews and everyone already knew where to go after retirement to serve. Of the 86 "foot soldiers" to us paratroopers reported 36 young daredevils. They took six of us, and I was among them. Original umstnku Holeova to me at the last minute changed to Prostjov. Glad I accepted it because it was closer to the elevation where I was at that time, like most of us, an acquaintance. Festive exclusion from school was on Saturday, 29 July and internationally due to the political situation we have already reported on Monday in their departments. Other times the normal monthly holiday between leaving school and joining services fell away. Something "hanging" in the air.

After coming to Prostejov we were immediately rigged parachute gear and the first afternoon, we have reexamined from a run of 5 km, with equipment and machine gun (first kilometer was run in a protective mask.) Just before we start we "vykovt pawns" agreed we'd go along and help you. We ran like hell and stems Brigade Chief of Sports Cpt. Buck stopped at the finish time of 18 minutes 30 seconds. The truth is that we do not believe it and said that we had to shorten it, but after the arrival of the control pivot point let us stand in front of the "conversion rate" and said: "These Tarzan Maya off of me" everyone else, every day in the morning and in the evening after work I will run 5 km. "There were seventy others and Palo Buck lied, ran every day, regardless of rank position held in the future. The conversion course was to last six weeks and in addition airborne training included physical, shooting, engineer, topographic, coupling and chemical preparation. It focused on the differences that were paratroopers in training specific. The course was planned also six training jumps from a balloon and airplane. That was the plan. In fact, everything was different. On the night of Sunday, the 13th August on Monday, there was a division of Berlin and what "hanging" in the air landed between us. Was announced additional combat readiness. Conversion rate was reduced to three weeks and six jumps remaining three (of the balloon by day and by night and one of the aircraft). Sent us to the departments, and I took the Scout Platoon 65th Parachute Battalion. He just moved into a new crew and cast of Holeov Cavalry barracks in the city. The rest of the brigade was located at the airport. We were equipped with parachutes PD - 47, which had to be repackaged every ten days. (It was a prescription). The platoon which I commanded had 25 soldiers and noncommissioned officers in the combat readiness mru.Vzhledem we were supplemented by backups at the end of September II. year did not go to the backup, but 1 October novices entered. So the soldiers was suddenly almost 3 times as much. The quarters slept on beds on three floors. The training was conducted in the vicinity of the crew in case we need to call. In the second half of September our banner graduated battalion tactical exercises with the discontinuation of the landing area of the Slovak Holic river

Morava. Once hung in the air for 450 paratroopers, who jumped from twenty aircraft Il - 14 T. Among them, "vyjukan" the lieutenant shouted let others which turns downwind. It was my fourth "military" jump. Still, it was at least a day. After landing, I was in a dream from which I awoke to my radio operator, who found me and reported that it had established contact with the crew battalion. Exercise was not particularly long, physically demanding. We were "outside" three days and two nights. Winter concentration It was the official name of the event that the reconnaissance and airborne troops always took place in the month of January or February in various areas of the SCF, but also in mountainous forested areas Jesenky umava Jizersk and Eagle Mountains. Indeed, in different times and at different departments with spaces concentration occasionally changed. This memory is the first camp that I graduated with a reconnaissance squad in January 1962. This action began in the 65th year Parachute Battalion, shortly after the end of a long period of combat readiness. Emergency was terminated prior to Christmas 1961 and quite normal in history under the name "Berlin crisis". The crew had left the third January and after a night shift car early in the morning we arrived in the revision, near the ruins of a medieval castle Kobrtejn. Jesenky welcomed usmeter layer of snow. In the forest, which was designed to accommodate all reconnaissance platoon 22nd Airborne Brigade we seek in the snow piles spruce rods that there was some site thoroughly before in the fall. Other building material and training material we rode along. Of course also the ski. For those would like to stop and he described it. They were fitted with wooden binding combined with leather straps and a feather that are captured under a groove on the heel "Canadian". The soldiers called them "blind" because they were all painted white, and only the middle lengthwise is "adorned" light green stripe. Many soldiers, especially in southern Slovakia and Moravia is in their hands for the first time.

As soon as dawn began construction crews zemljanek. They were wood - natural shelter for 25 people. Their position was necessary to dig, but also "wipe out" in the frozen soil corresponding pit. All worked. Sharp explosives have been used in order to avoid accidents. By the time he should be "shot" they all had to leave and wait for certainty. By evening, all five objects after considerable effort, completion. In each zemljance was placed the stove flue was using sophisticated roof insulation escorted out and could start to drown. At the stove all night turns individual accommodation so as not to trouble or to stoves dormant. Sleeping bags at that time were not enough, and we had two blankets and two "white" sheets. Beneath him, we had a layer of evergreens and the whole building was covered with a layer of insulating paper garlands and clay. When attacked in the days new snow, "we disappeared" from the surface completely. At the same time in another place, but in the same way build up their shelters each battalion and company at the same time preparing the kitchen. In the nearby woods, we had deployed 500 men. It was also necessary to prepare basic sanitary facilities, so that part of the troops built a field latrine and washroom nearby creek. At noon we have lunch cooks prepared the first and will not be far from the truth when I say that it was a stew. Followed by dinner and the first frosty night. Morning at six o'clock wake-up call and was followed by washing in warm-ending stream already mentioned. After morning roll call was initiated training. Preparation for the first job they had to have been the masters of processing in a peaceful garrison. Besides practicing launched the movement to ski and first short shift. Getting to many skis managed only with difficulty and was not at all an easy task. Other experiences will be celebrated in the coming days. As we practiced. Everyday training was conducted according processed and approved employment schedules. Those we have prepared the crew. Trained to seven hours a day. Every hour fifty minutes training, ten-minute break. Four in the morning and

after lunch the next three hours. End of employment was 16.00. Then followed the daily order, combat the distribution and treatment equipment and gear. Dinner was usually from 18.00 to 18 30 hours. Commanders had to be prepared to work the next day and prepare written preparation. In zemljankch lights were candles and kerosene better case. All other work was carried out in zemljance. The Last Post was at 22.00 pm and curfew soldiers had "personal time". Every day it was the same, but Saturday had four hours of training, and after lunch we made a big cleaning, maintenance of weapons and equipment. Sunday was free and usually we organized sports competition. Of course in the mountains and skiing. There were days when we met "soul" that is a civilian. It was freezing and it was necessary to keep the fire so that neprochladly dugout. The heating during the day care supervisory service. At night in the woods howls of wolves in the area of "dragging" from nearby Poland. Trained 'on the Islands. " Firearms training at a makeshift shooting range, where the finish area soldiers - cln putting the figures on the poles and when intervention is hiding. All transfers were carried out on skis as time lengthened odpochodovan distance. Skiing skills also included downhill skiing and movement in different situations. We also practiced moving the wounded and manufacture of improvised means of transport. Of course there was the provision of first aid and protection against frostbite. Also practiced topographic preparation, especially orientation in unfamiliar terrain with a map and movement by azimuth. The physical training we practiced close combat using field blades, knives, but axes. Also, engineer training, especially its final page using explosives was done "on the Islands." A separate chapter was food production and preparation of food in the wild. In mountain conditions was primarily a "theory" because it was not possible shooting game and fish in the frozen mountain ponds also too nehemily. This, however, was preceded by training of various types kindle fires in nature. For emergency purposes, we were equipped with folding tin stoves and a limited amount of dry alcohol. For food preparation team was equipped vrnikami vz. 54th They were very effective in fancy suits which were stacked

three deep into each rectangular containers covered with lids that after the turn could be used as the pelvis. There was also ladle, cutting board, cooking fork, can opener, spoon and knife, of course. After a two-week training exchange with flags and arrived after our 65.vpr "jedenasedmdestka". But all "Brigadier explorers" along with engineers stayed and continued training of the next two weeks. At the end of the winter concentration was performed dvojdenn tactical exercise on a large area. Our platoon was "withdrawn from vehicles" (Withdrawal from the aircraft was out of the mountain and also winter conditions for security and organizational reasons into account). We were dropped off in an area near the lodge White Stream Vrbno Praddem in the central ridge of mountains. From there we went over the mountain Orlik at an altitude of 1200 meters in the space Opavsk chalet where followed by a short rest. Moving was not particularly long. Less than 15 km but we conquer until late afternoon. In creating tracks at the head turns the best skiers, Sergeant pupil Lukaka and Koak with me. Snow layer reached one meter and over remained fairly decently deep trough, which we tried to obliterate trailing branches. After coming to the rally, we have prepared emergency shelters and also the first and the last hot meal of the day. The guards were divided on the whole night and we were trying to relax. Around 20.00 hours he called me chief research and gave me the order to carry out research in the area Ondejovice settlements on the border with Poland. Beeline only 10 km. On the way there and back we "killed" the rest of the night. After a brief report of the task followed this time next task to perform an ambush on a vehicle in the area of communication Jesenk - revision, in the woods west of the settlement. Shift was even more demanding that we had to overcome a lot of peat peak circumvented. Thanks Mirek Koak we get out of this "well thought traps" were given as a single, because another crew strayed and time failed. Our only team arrived on time and carried out an ambush by issued task.

The road to the camp was very challenging. We were all on the edge. Radioman under the weight of radio R - 105 collapsed and was unable to continue. Had no choice but to take it and take it to the camp and a friend to help. The last thing I remember was the dinner. Night we all slept hard. The next day we cleared the camp and moved back to Prostejov. Such were the beginnings of the airborne reconnaissance units for twenty lieutenant. Passed long 31 years. I was on preventive spa stay in Jesenk. With a colleague, we gave each day from 20 to 30 km tourist walks along the beautiful North Moravian mountains. One of the trips took us to our former camp area. I turned from the road and went through places that are etched in my memory. That many of us left. In the pits after zemljankch again grew Thirty spruces. On the edge of the Black Forest Opava where we went to wash but I found five neat hraniek stones. I understand and I put every pile of your stone. Perhaps there after us and not only there "something" stuck. Cheyenne Taken from