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# EVALUATION OF MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTS

## Take Home Test

Maria Priscillya Pasaribu ( IDN : 410312018 )
12/17/2012

## EVALUATION OF MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTS

1. Desribe clearly the differences of measurement, assessment, and evaluation in learning and the example! Answer : Examples of Assessment, Measurement, and Evaluation Understanding the meaning of evaluation, measurement and assessment that we can understand through the following example: 1. If there is someone who gives us 2 pencils of different sizes, one long and one shorter and we are asked to select, then automatically we will tend to choose long pencil because it can be used longer. Unless there are other criteria that we choose otherwise. 2. Events sell and buy on the market. Sometimes before we buy durian in the market, we often compare existing durian first before buying it. Usually we will smell, see its shape, kind or looking stalk that is the durian durian to know which one is good and worth buying. From the two examples above, we can conclude that we always do the assessment before determining the option to select an object / thing. In the first example we will choose a pencil that is longer than the short pencil because pencil longer we can use longer. While in the second example we will determine the durian which we will buy based on smell, shape, type, or look stalk of durian sold it. So that we can predict where the durian is sweet. To conduct the assessment, we have to take measurements first. In example 1 above, if we have pengaris, to determine which pencil is longer then we will measure both the pencil using pengaris then we will make an assessment by comparing the length of each ruler so that in the end we can say that " That was long "and" This short "and the longer the we take. In the second example, we choose the best durian through smell, look stalk, or kind. It also begins with the measurement process in which we compare several existing durian though not using the patent measure but based on experience. Then we make an assessment where the durian is best based on the size that we set to be purchased. From this we can see that in the assessment process we use 3 sizes, the standard size (meter, kilogram, dose, etc.), non-standard size (fathoms, span, step, etc.) and the size of the estimate based on experience. Step to measure then judge something before we take what is called an evaluation which measure and assess. We can not conduct an evaluation prior to the activity measure and assess.
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## EVALUATION OF MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTS

C. Evaluation in Learning 1. Definition and Principles of Evaluation It literally comes from the English evaluation means assessment evaluation or assessment (John M. Echols and Hassan Shadily: 1983). According to Stufflebeam, et al (1971) defines evaluation as "the process of delineating, obtaining, and providing useful information for judging decision alternatives". This means that evaluation is a process of describing, obtain and provide information that is useful to formulate an alternative decision. Here's some understanding of the evaluation by the experts:

Evaluation according to Kumano (2001) is an assessment of the data collected through the assessment. According Calongesi (1995) evaluation is a decision about the value based on the measurement results. Zainul and Nasution (2001) stated that the evaluation can be expressed as a decisionmaking process by using information obtained through the measurement of learning outcomes, whether using the test and non-test instruments. According to Bloom (1971), evaluation is the systematic collection of fact to determine whether in fact there is a change in the student and determine the extent of changes in the student's personal. According to Stufflebeam (1971), evaluation is the process of describing, acquire, and menyajikna useful information to evaluate alternative decisions. Arikunto (2003) revealed that the evaluation is a series of activities aimed to measure the success of the educational program. Tayibnapis (2000) in reviewing this case more sense in the context of program evaluation purposes, namely as a process of assessing how far educational goals can be achieved.

In his book Designing Evaluators of Educational and Social Program me, Cronbach (1982) provides an overview of the basic principles of evaluation as follows: 1. Evaluation of educational programs is an activity that can help the government in achieving my goal 2. Evaluation is an art. none perfect evaluation, although done by different teknuk different. 3. Evaluation is a continuous process so that in the process of its activities possible to revise what if felt that there was something wrong.

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## EVALUATION OF MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTS

Broadly speaking, it can be said that the evaluation is giving value to the quality of something. In addition, the evaluation can also be seen as a process of planning, acquiring, and providing information that is needed to make the decision alternatives. Thus, evaluation is a systematic process to determine or make a decision to what extent the objectives have been achieved by teaching students (Purwanto, 2002). By design, there is a sense of summative evaluation and formative evaluation. Formative Evaluation of an endeavor to obtain feedback improvement program, while summative evaluation is an effort to assess the benefits of the program and make decisions (Lehman, 1990). Bloom, Cs (1971: 8) and Wprthen and Sanders (1973: 20) emphasizes that evaluation is a systematic process to find evidence of the mastery rank learners in the learning and teaching effectiveness. of the evaluation of teaching and learning is of consideration, the value and meaning of the data or information collected through measurement or assessment. Evaluation is pemberiam meaning or significance of the results or the measurement and assessment standards that spawned the decision so the evaluation is broader and more comprehensive than the measurement and assessment. Evaluation is closely related to the measurement and assessment are generally not interpreted differently (indifferent), although substantially different from one another. Measurement (measurement) is the process of comparing something with a criterion standard (meter, kilogram, dose, etc.), quantitative measurements. Assessment is a process of transformation of measurement results into a value. The evaluation includes two steps above the measured and used in order to assess decision-making. 2. The function or purpose of Educational Evaluation a. Educational evaluation function in relation to decision-making as a provider of information

Repair function. Repair function is one common thread that has been neglected. policy makers see more momentum condition evaluation of learning outcomes, but very rarely are used as information for the improvement of education. national final examination the majority of schools in 2003, the under-5, and even certain subjects scored 2 or 3. but the change is directly in the curriculum regardless of what actually happened and why it happened. No in-depth evaluation of the curriculum in force. whether the curriculum had been implemented appropriately and correctly, which is not controlled, what material it is difficult or if the teacher is functioning properly in accordance with the demands of the curriculum? information needs to be provided with an evaluation of education, so what you want to repair the clearly defined. Functions of process control and quality of education. Through a focused education evaluation, control, comprehensive and can continuously available information to control the quality of education, because of something wrong in the implementation can be improved and corrected in the preparation of the plan or the next meeting.
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## EVALUATION OF MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTS

Decision-making functions relating to learners. Based on the evaluation of education possible give the right decisions to students, such as identifying the conditions and needs of each student and then adjust the lesson plan to their needs, putting them in the study group, the application of the values or the selection of students for the purpose of student understanding and progress learning achievement. Function Public Accountability. Educators morally mandate received from the public to foster and develop optimally learners through education in accordance with the status and dignity as human beings. Government in accordance with the burden of his state duties, tasks and responsibilities handed to educators to help nurture and develop the community through education in other words, educators meaksanakan task of educating the public and government. Accordingly, educators must evaluate the extent to which tasks have been implemented and deliver the receipt of these duties accountability to the public. Administrative Regulation function of the school. Can not be ignored that the education evaluation information will provide administrative regulation. An educational policy makers will be able to tell how well a school system, how to discipline teachers at school B, and how the school facility C, etc.. Educational Evaluation Function by Bloom:

b.

Diagnostic functions Function placement The function of determining the level of success Selection function

3. Usability Evaluation of Educational J. Stanley Ahmann and Marwin D. Glock (1981) states there is a subgroup emapat usability evaluation of education are: 1. assessing academic achievement in each - each learner 2. diagnose difficulties - each learning difficulties - each student or class 3. assess the educational effectiveness of the curriculum, learning procedures, tools and organizational learning material or learning setting oerganisasi 4. assess the progress of education in the broad population, such as to help understand the problem -'m having second thoughts and developing education and public policy in education. 4. Subject, Object and Scope of Evaluation
1. Subject evaluation can be divided into two types;

Evaluator in the (people involved in the activity). Evaluator really understand the ins and outs of the events, but there are likely to be influenced by a desire to be able to say that the program works. in other words, the evaluator may be disturbed by the
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## EVALUATION OF MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTS

element of subjectivity when it occurs, the data collected is less true and less accurate although perhaps quite complete.

External evaluators (who are not involved in the activities of the program). Outside evaluators may encounter difficulties in obtaining complete data because there are things that are hidden by the program implementers. but the data collected can be more objective. based classification, the teacher in teaching and learning activities can be categorized as an evaluator in, teachers are implementing so that they know exactly what is going on in the learning process. to improve the teaching process to be carried out later, the teacher needs to know how high the level of achievement of the tasks that have been done during a certain timeframe. in this case the teacher is not feared to less objective assessment because the results of the evaluation will not be reported or known by anyone.

2. Object of evaluation To be able to recognize objects we need to evaluate carefully focus our attention on the aspects - aspects that has to do with the overall teaching and learning activities, for that we need to know the model transformation process of formal education in schools. In the process of transformation of prospective students likened to raw material (input), the graduates of the school can be likened to the processed-to-use (Output). In the evaluation process of transformation is done before, during and after the process in school activities. When depicted in diagrammatic form looks as follows: 3. The scope of educational evaluation The scope of educational evaluation include: the materials provided and the unit prepared lessons, students, teachers and learning resources, the process of education, media, learning, and learning outcomes. thus, educational evaluation include an evaluation context, the evaluation component - component of teaching and learning process, evaluation process and eavaluasi results. besides education evaluation should also be linked to program additional charge local or other programs that are part of the overall educational evaluation.

D. Assessment in Education Assessment (assessment) is the application of a variety of ways and use a variety of assessment tools to obtain information about the extent to which student learning outcomes or achievement of competencies (skills series) learners. Assessment answer questions about how well learning outcomes or achievements of the participants can be a value judgment didik.Hasil qualitative (narrative statement in words) and quantitative values (numeric). Measurements related to the process of finding or determination of quantitative values. Assessment of learning outcomes is basically concerned about how teachers (teacher) can determine the learning outcomes that have been made. Teachers need to know the extent to which learners (learner) have understood the material that has been taught or the extent
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## EVALUATION OF MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTS

to which objectives / competencies of a managed learning activities can be achieved. Level of competence achievement or instructional goals of the learning activities that have been implemented that can be expressed with the value. E. Measurement in education Measurement is the determination of the scale , dimensions , or capacity , usually against a standard or unit of measurement . Measurement is not just limited to the physical quantity , but also can be extended to measure almost anything that can be imagined, such as the level of uncertainty , or consumer confidence . Measurement is the process of giving the numbers or labels to the unit of analysis to represent the attributes of the concept. This process should be quite understandable though such people do not understand the definition. This is because among other things we often take measurements. According to Cangelosi (1995) is a measurement (Measurement) is a process of collecting data through empirical observation to gather information relevant to the intended purpose. In this case, teachers assess student achievement by reading or observing any of the student, observe their performance, to hear what they are saying, and use their senses such as seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, and feeling. According to Zainul and Nasution (2001) measurement has two main characteristics: 1) the use of numbers or a certain scale, 2) according to a specific rule or formula. Measurement (measurement) is a process that describes the performance of students by using a quantitative scale (system number) such that the qualitative nature of student performance is expressed by numbers (Alwasilah et al.1996). The statement is reinforced by the notion that the measurement is given by the number of a particular attribute or character of a person, or a particular object that refers to the rules and formulations. Rules or formulation should be generally agreed by experts (Zainul & Nasution, 2001). Thus, measurements in the field of education means measuring the attributes or characteristics of a particular learner. In this case the student is not measured, but the characteristics or attributes. In line with this opinion, In more concise, Arikunto and Jabar (2004) expressed the sense of measurement (measurement) as the activity of comparing one thing with units of a certain size so that a quantitative nature. F. Difference Evaluation, Assessment and Measurement Based on the definition above, we can conclude that the assessment is a process to make decisions using the information obtained through the measurement of learning outcomes whether using the test and nontes. The measurement is to compare the test results with established standards. Quantitative measurements. While the judge is an activity measure and conduct measurements or estimates to compare and not up to the level of decision. Assessment qualitative in nature. To be more clear distinction needs to be specified further the understanding of each:
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## EVALUATION OF MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTS

Evaluation of learning is a process or activity to determine the value, criterionjudgment or action learning. Assessment of learning is an attempt to get any information at regular intervals, continuous, and comprehensive process and outcome of the growth and progress that has been achieved by the students through learning activities. Measurement or measurement is a process or activity to determine the quantity of something that is numerical. More quantitative measurement, even an instrument for the assessment. In the world of education, which is the measurement, as presented Cangelosi (1995: 21) is the process of collecting data through empirical observation.

i.

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ii.

## Determinant Index for Number 4 :

Table : Proble m Numb er 1 Grou p Uppe r Lowe r Uppe r Lowe r Uppe r Lowe r Answer Choices B C D Key 19 10 8 3 3 4 1 3 3 4 12 8 0 3 5 8 3 3 Page 9 of 13 C 0,49 0,20 B 0,28 0,25 B Difficult y Index 0,73 Discrimina nt Index 0,45

A 0 4 4 5 2 6

## EVALUATION OF MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTS 4 Uppe r Lowe r 2 3 4 5 2 5 12 7 D 0,48 0,25

Criteria of Difficulty Index : Criteria of Difficulty Index Difficult Problem 0 0 . 30 0.31 0 . 7 0 0.71 1 . 0 0 Medium Problem Easy Problem

Based on this case, the criteria of Difficulty Index of each item is Difficulty Index 0,73 0,28 0,49 0,48 Criteria Easy Problem Difficult Problem Medium Problem Medium Problem

Criteria of Discriminant Index : Criteria of Discriminant Index D 0.40 0.30 D 0.39 0.20 D 0.29 D 0.19 Accepted/good Accepted but need to be revised Revised Bad

## Based on this case, the criteria of Discriminant Index of each item is :

Discriminan

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## Accepted/Good Revised Revised Revised

b. Conclusion : Based on this case, none of items should be dropped. But there are 3 items that should be revised, those are item number 2, 3, and 4. 3. Determine whether problem number 5 is received or not . Students number who has right answer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Total score 21 20 19 17 16 16 15 13 13 13 12 12 11 Students number who has wrong answer 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 17 Total score 19 18 15 14 13 12 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 9 8 8 7 200

13

198

Data that we got from the above table : The amount of students who have right answer The amount of students who have wrong answer 13 17

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EVALUATION OF MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTS Total of students The average of students who have right answer The average of students who have wrong answer The average of total score Total of deviation standard The amount of total score 30 15,23 11,76 13,27 3,68 398

## Point Biserial Correlation :

Based on the criteria of discriminant index, this item can be accepted or good. Beside using the above criteria, we can also use table Z if or table t if From our case by using formula by using formula .

, so we use Z table.

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## EVALUATION OF MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTS

In Z table can be known for by 2 tailed, Z critic is (area di atas Z or bidang tersempit) = 0.0059.

and

its probability

/2 = 0.025 -1.96

1.9 6

2.5 2

It means that Z > 2.52, or P = 0.0059 < 0.05. so the conclusion is this item can be accepted or good .

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