Anda di halaman 1dari 19

1-10 Listening Section I Questions ffi 1{ Questions

Completethe form below. A WriteONEWORDANDIOR NUMBERfor eachanswer


Example Order from Answer .Wllfi.9.fcatalogue

Greening 1 ..........................

Address Delivery address method Payment Reasonfor discount

2................ 4................

York Terrace in advance

5, York 3................ withinthe 5 address


&10 Questions

Complete the table below. Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD ANDIOR A NUMBER for each answer


filinr two 9...

direct from London no

116 | test +

Listening Section t

11-20 Listening, Section 2 Questrons


Questionsll and 12

unusual? ntich TWOthingsmakethe museum

A B C D E the giuldes the events the animals the buildings the objects

Questions13 and 14
A-8. TWO letters, do TWOthingscanvisitors at the museum? A B G D E bread buy home-made ride'ahorse rideon a tram posters buycopiesof original go downa coalmine

Tesr4 | ttt

/&20 Questions

Label the map below.

Writethe correctlette6A-1,next to quesflons15-20.

15 16 17 18 19 20 The exhibitioncentre The High Street The farmhouse The coal mine The ManorHouse The RailwayStation




Listening Section 2

ListeningSection3 Questions nan

Questions 21-26

Whichattitude is associatedwith the following people during the conversation? Choose SIX answersfrom the box and write the correct lettef A-H, next to questions21-26.

Attitudes amused A B critical forgetful C impatient D polite E F relaxed G sympathetic H unrealistic Feople tl n B 21 26 fellowstudents Cressida's Cressida Ainsley Webb Dr Erskine Professor Jenkins TV newscentrestaff

Lirtening Section 3

Tesr4 | l19



Choosethe correct letter,A, B or C. 27 what was cressida asked to do at the beginningof her placement? A B C 23 go out to buy things for the production team run errandsto other parts of the TV news centre meet visitorsand escort them to the studio

What was fortunatefor Cressida? A B C She was familiarwith a pieceof equipment. She spenta lot of time in the editingsuite. She was givena chanceto interview someone.

What does Cressidafeel she needs to improve? A B C her understanding business of her organisational skills her abilityto work in a team


What has given her an idea for her final assignment? A B C a meetingwith a public relationsprofessional seeinga politician speaking an audience to a disagreement with one of the W presenters



Listening Section 3

Listening Section 4 Questions 914


314 Questions
llrO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

l@mplete the table below.


'39Os OrvilleGibson
similarin shapeto a 31

no name



The National Guitar

good for playing 32....................... madeof metal, music


Company The Dreadnought C.E Martin

strinos madeof 33..............



The 34

rse.l tvvn 35

shanecl like horseshoes

to increase sound

Electro Adolph Rickenbacker The Rickenbacker Spanish


Les Paul

The Log

the first to be completely37


Leo Fender

The FenderBroadcaster

madeit idealfor 38.............. its simplicity


Leo Fender

he 39

easyto carryaround


Ted McCafty

The GibsonLes Paul


Leo Fender

TheFender Stratocaster


L:ring Section 4

Tesr4 | l2l

Reading PassageI
Youshouldspendabout20 minuteson Questions1-f3, whichare basedon ReadingPassage below. 1

faculties the ability is Primeamong basic numerical to distinguish betweena largerand a smallernumber, Elizabeth Brannon. Humanscan do says psychologist this with ease- providing ratiois big enough- but the do otheranimalssharethis ability?In one experiment, rhesusmonkeysand university studentsexamined two sets of geometricalobjects that appearedbriefly They had to decidewhich on a computermonitor. set containedmore objects. Both groups performed Brannon's team found successfully but, importantly, that monkeys,like humans,make more errors when two sets of objects are close in number.'The ends up lookingjust like a students'performance lt's identical,' she says. monkey's. practically Humansand monkeysare mammals,in the animal family known as primates.These are not the only whose numerical capacities relyon ratio, animals however.The same seems to apply to some Psychologist team ClaudiaUller's amphibians. tempted salamanders with two sets of fruit flies held in cleartubes. In a seriesof trials,the researchers noted which tube the salamanders scampered towards, reasoningthat if ihey had a capacityto number, they would headfor the larger recognise The salamanders discriminated number. successfully B betweentubes containing and 16 fliesrespectively, but not between3 and 4, 4 and 6, or B and 12. So to it seemsthat for the salamanders discriminate betweentwo numbers,the largermust be at least twice as big as the smaller.However,they could differentiate between2 and 3 flies just as well as

they recognise between1 and2 flies,suggesting small numbersin a differentway from largernumbers. Furthersupport for this theory comes from studies join which instinctively the biggest of mosquitofish, shoal*they can. A team at the Universityof Padova can found tha! while mosquitofish tellthe difference and a 3 betweena group containing shoal-mates group containing they did not show a preference 4, betweengroups of 4 and 5. The team also found that betweennumbersup mosquitofish can discriminate to 16, but only if the ratiobetweenthe fish in each that the than 2:1. This indicates shoalwas greater possessboth the approximate fish, likesalamanders, and precisenumbersystemsfound in more intelligent animalssuch as infanthumansand other orimates. some Whilethesefindingsare highlysuggestive, criticsarguethat the animalsmight be relying on other factors to completethe tasks, without 'Any study that's the considering numberitself. number claimingan animalis capableof representing for shouldalso be controlling otherfactors,'says have confirmedthat primates Brannon.Experiments can indeed oerform numericalfeatswithout extra animals? clues,but what aboutthe more primitive tests this possibility, mosquitofish the To consider were repeated, this time usingvaryinggeometrical these shapesin placeof fish.The team arranged shapes so that they had the same overallsurface a eventhoughthey contained areaand luminance differentnumber of objects.Across hundredsof trials . a groupof fish


Test 4

Reading PassageI

fish,the team found they consistently on 14 different 2 drscriminated objects from 3. The team is now 3 can whethermosquitofish also distinguish @sting geometricobjects lrom 4. Evenmore primitiveorganismsmay sharethis ability. JurgenTautzsent a group of bees down E"rtomologist a corridor,at the end of which lay two chambers- one *frich containedsugar water,which they like, while the fie oiher was empty.To test the bees' numeracy, :eam marked each chamberwith a differentnumber of geometricalshapes- between2 and 6. The bees quicklylearned matchthe numberof shapeswith to and fish, ine correct chamber.Like the salamanders :herewas a limit to the bees' mathematicalprowessup Treycould differentiate to 4 shapes,but failed with 5 or 6 shapes. Thesestudiesstill do not show whetheranimals earn to count through training,or whetherthey are corn with the skillsalreadyintact.lf the latteris true, suggestthere was a strong evolutionary t woritO advantageto a mathematicalmind. Proofthat this may oe the case has emergedfrom an experimenttesting ability of three- and four-day-old the mathematical chicks preferto be around chicks.Like mosquitofish, so as manyof theirsiblingsas possible, they will alwaysheadtowardsa largernumberof their kin. lf

chicks spend their first few days surroundedby certain objects,they become attachedto these objects as if placed each chick in they were family.Researchers the middle of a platformand showed it two groups of balls of paper.Next, they hid the two piles behind screens,changedthe quantitiesand revealedthem to the chick.This forcedthe chick to performsimple the to computations decidewhich side now contained Withoutany prior biggestnumberof its "brothers". the coaching, chicksscuttledto the largerquantityat a rate well above chance.They were doing some very claimthe researchers. simplearithmetic, since Why theseskillsevolvedis not hardto imagine, for it would help almostany animalforage food. must constantly Animalson the prowlfor sustenance decidewhich tree has the most fruit,or which patch of flowers will containthe most nectar.Thereare also other,less obvious,advantagesof numeracy.In one in example,researchers Americafound compelling that female coots appear to calculatehow many eggs they havelaid- and add any in the nest laid about by an intruder beforemakingany decisions addingto them. Exactlyhow ancienttheseskillsare is however. Only by studyingthe to difficult determine, numericalabilitiesof more and more creaturesusing standardisedprocedurescan we hope to understand of for the basic oreconditions the evolution number.

Reading Passage1

Test4 | 123

Questions l-7
Complete the table below. choose No MORE THAN THREE woRDs from the passage for each answer Writeyour answersin boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.


rhesus monkeys andhumans

looked at two sets of geometricalobjects on comouter screen

performanceof twg groups is almost

chose betweentwo sets of 2 which are altered

chickscan d calculations orderto in choose largergroup

behaviour 3............ of observed

birds was

bird seems to have abilityto count eggs


offered cleartubescontaining different quantities 4 ............ of

salamanders distinguish between numbers overfourif biggernumber at leasttwo is timeslarger

shown real shoals and later artificialones of geometricalshapes;these are used to check influence total6 .......................... of and brightness

subjects know differencebetweentwo and three and possiblythree and four, but not betweenfour and five

hadto learn where 7.......................... was stored

couldsoonchoose correctplace

124- |


Reading Passaget

givenin Reading 1? Passage agree withthe information statements l,c thefollowing write r boxes8-13on your answersheet, TRUE FALSE NOTGMN with the information if the statement agrees the if the statement contradicts information if thereis no information this on

Primatesare better at identifyingthe largerof two numbers if one is much biggerthan the other. JurgenTautztrained the insects in his experimentto recognisethe shapes of numbers. individual


The researchinvolvingyoung chicks took place over two separatedays. The experimentwith chicks suggeststhat some numericalability exists in newborn animals. to have experimentedby alteringquantitiesof nectar or fruit available Researchers certainwild animals. When assessingthe number of eggs in their nest, coots take into account those of other birds.

Reading PassageI

Test4 | tzS

Reading Passage 2
Youshouldspendabout20 minutes Questionsltl-26, whichare based on on Reading Passage below. 2

Questions 14-18 Reading Passage hasfiveparagraphs 2 A-E. choosethe correctheadingfor eachparagraph, A-E, from the tistof headings below. Writethe correctnumber, i-viii, in boxes14-18on Vour answersheet.

ii iii iv v vi vii viii

List of Headings policy A lack of consistent Learningfrom experience The greatestadvantage The role of research A uniquematerial An irrationalanxiety Avoidingthe realchallenges A sign of thingsto come

14 15 16 17 18

Paragraph A ParagraphB Paragraph G ParagraphD ParagraphE


Test 4

Reading Passage 2

A Closeup, plastic packagingcan be a marvellous thing. Thosewho make a living from it call it a forgotten infrastructure that allows modern urban life to exist. Plasticshavehelped society the defi' natural limits such asthe seasons, rotting of fod and the distancemost of us live from where our food is produced.And yet we do not like it. Partly we do not like waste,but plastic waste,with its hydrocarbon roots and industrial manufacture,is especiallygalling. In 2008,the UK, for example,produced around two million tonnes of plastic waste,twice as much as in the early 1990s.The very qualities of plastic - its its cheapness, indestructible aura - make it a way of reproachful symbol of an unsustainable life. The facts,however,do not justify our unease. AII plastics are,atleasttheoretically recyclable. Plasticpackagingmakesup just 6 to 7 per cent of the contentsof British dustbins by weight and lessthan 3 per cent of landfill. Supermarketsand brands,which are under pressureto reducethe quantity of packagingof all types that they use, are finding good environmental reasonsto turn

to plastic: it is lighter, so requireslessenergyfor transportation than glass,for example;it requires relatively little energyto produce; and it is often re-usable.An Austrian study found that if plastic packagingwere removed from the supply chain, other packagingwould haveto increasefourfold to make up for it. B So are we just wrong about plastic packaging? Is it time to stop worrying and learn to love the disposableplastic wrapping around Certainly there are bigger targets sandwiches? for environmental savingssuch as improving householdinsulationand energyemissions. Naturally, the plasticsindustry is keen to point them out. What's more, concern over plastic has packaging produceda squallofconflicting initiatives from retailers,manufacturersand local authorities.It's a squall that dies down and then blows harder from one month to the next. 'It and is being left to the individual conscience supermarketsplaying the marketi saysTim Lang, 'It's a mess.' a professorspecialisingin food policy.



Test4 | tzl

Dick Searleof the PackagingFederationpoints out that societieswithout sophisticatedpackaging lose half their food before it reachesconsumers and that in the UK, wastein supply chains is about 3 per cent. In India, it is more than 50 per cent. The differencecomeslater: the British throw out 30 per cent ofthe food they buy an environmental cost in terms of emissions equivalentto a fifth of the cars on their roads. Packagers agreethat cardboard,metals and glass all have their good points, but there'snothing quite like plastic. With more than 20 families of polymers to choosefrom and then sometimes blend, packagingdesignersand manufactuers have a limitless variety of qualities to play with. But if there is one law of plastic that, in environmental terms at least,prevails over all others, it is this: a little goesa long way. This means,first, that plastic is relatively cheapto just over one-third of the UK use"- it represents packagingmarket by value but it wraps more than half the total number of items bought. Second,it meansthat even though plastic encases about 53 per cent of products bought, it only makesup 20 per cent by weight of the packagingconsumed. And in the packagingequation,weight is the main issuebecause heaviersomethingis, the more the energyyou expend moving it around. In view of this, righteous indignation againstplastic can look foolish.

One store commissioneda study to find precise data on which had lessenvironmental impact: selling applesloose or ready-wrapped.Helene Roberts,head of packaging,explainsthat in fact they found applesin fours on a tray coveredby plasticfilm needed27 per cent lesspackaging in transportation than those sold loose.SteveKelsey, a packagingdesigner,finds the debatefrustrating. He arguesthat the hunger to do something quickly is diverting effort awayfrom more complicated questionsabout how you truly alter supply chains.Rather than further reducing the weight of a plastic bottle, more thought should be given to how packagingcan be recycled.Helene Roberts explainsthat their greatestpackaging reduction camewhen the company switchedto re-usable plasticcratesand stoppedconsuming 62,000tonnes of cardboardboxesevery year. Plasticpackagingis important, and it might provide a way of thinking about broader questions of sustainability.To target plastic on its own is to evadethe complexity of the issues. There seems to be a universal eagerness condemn plastic. to Is this due to an inability to make the general changes societythat are really required?'Plastic in as a lightweight food wrapper is now built in as the logical thingi Lang says.'Does that make it an environmentally sound systemof packaging?It only makes senseif you have a structure such as existsnow. An environmentally driven packaging systemwould look completelydifferentl Dick Searleput the challengeanother way. 'The amount of packagingusedtoday is a reflection of modern lifel

128 |


Reading Passage 2

-cok at the following sfafemenfs (Quesfions 19-23) and the list of people below. Lratcheach statement to the correct person A-D. tlirite the correct letter;A-D, in boxes 19-23 on your answer sheet. lB Youmay use any letter more than once. I9 8 t1 2. A Comparisonof two approachesto packagingrevealedan interestingresult. Peopleare expectedto do the right thing. Most food reachesUK shops in good condition. Complex issuesare ignoredin the searchfor speedy solutions. lt is merelybecauseof the way societiesoperatethat using plastic seems valid.

People A Tim Lang B Dick Searle C HeleneRoberts D Steve Kelsey

Questions 2+26
the below. 1.:mplete summary dl"{eNO MORE THANONEWORDfrom the text for eachanswer your answers boxes M-rte in 24-26 on your answersheet.

A revolutionary material
dislikeit, partly Plasticpackaging has changedthe way we consumefood. However, instinctively we but becauseit is the producto124............processes, also becauseit seemsto be 25 longerrestricted the which it is available the locationof its source. by or so we feel it is wasteful.Nevertheless, is thanks to plasticthat for many peopletheir choice of food is no it

leading Passage2



Reading Passage 3
Youshouldspendabout20 minuteson Questions274, passage betow. whichare based Reading on S

' I ;:,r, .:it.i;;..:,

No one doubts that intelligence developsas children grow older.Yet the conceptofintelligence has proved both quite difficult to define in unambiguousterms and unexpectedlycontroversialin somerespects. Although, at one level, there seemto be almost as many definitions of intelligence as people who have tried to define it, there is broad agreementon two key features.That is, intelligence involves the capacity not only to learn from experiencebut also to adapt to one's environment.However,we cannot leavethe conceptthere. Before turning to what is known about the developmentof intelligence, it is necessaryto considerwhether we are consideringthe growth of one or many skills. That questionhas been tackled in rather different ways by psychometriciansand by developmentalists. The former group has examinedthe issueby determining how children's abilities on a wide range oftasks intercorrelate,or go together.Statistical techniqueshave been used to find out whether the patternsare best explainedby one broad underlying capacity,generalintelligence, or by a set of multiple, relatively separate, special skills in domains such as verbal and visuospatial ability. While it cannot be claimed that everyoneagreeson what the results mean, most people now acceptthat for practical purposes it is reasonable supposethat both are involved. In to brief, the evidencein favour of somekind of general intellectual capacityis that people who are superior (or inferior) on one type of task tend also to be superior (or inferior) on others.Moreover, generalmeasuresof intelligence tend to have considerablepowers to predict a person'sperformanceon a wide range of tasks requiring special skills. Nevertheless,it is plain that it is not at all uncommon for individuals to be very good at some sorts of task and yet quite poor at some others.

Furthermore the influencesthat affect verbal skills are not quite the sameas those that affect other skills. This approachto investigating intelligence is based on the nature ofthe task involved, but studiesof age-relatedchangesshow that this is not the only, or necessarilythe most important, approach.For instance,some decadesago, Horn and Cattell argued for a differentiation betweenwhat they termed 'fluid' and 'crystallised'intelligence. Fluid abilities are best assessed teststhat require mental,manipulationof by abstractsymbols. Crystallised abilities, by contrast, reflect knowledge of the environmentin which we live and past experienceof similar tasks;they may be assessed testsof comprehension information. by and It seemsthat fluid abilities peak in early adult life, whereascrystallised abilities increaseup to advanced old age. Developmentalstudiesalso show that the interconnectionsbetweendifferent skills vary with age. Thus in the first year of life an interest in perceptual patterns is a major contributor to cognitive abilities, whereasverbal abilities are more important later on. Thesefindings seemedto suggesta substantiallack of continuity betweeninfancy and middle childhood. However,it is important to realise that the apparent discontinuity will vary according to which of the cognitive skills were assessed infancy. It has been in found that tests of coping with novelty do predict later intelligence.Thesefindings reinforce the view that young children's intellectual performanceneedsto be assessed from their interest in and curiosity about the environment,and the extent to which this is applied to new situations,as well as by standardised intelligence testing.



Reading Passage3

have focused on bse psychometric approaches rtildren's increase in cognitive skills as they grow oler. Piagetbrouglrt about a revolution in the approach to cognitive development through his arguments(backedup by observations)that the focus should be on the thinking pocesses involved rather than on levels of cognitive achievement. Theseideas of Piaget gaverise to an immensebody of research and if would be true to saythat subsequentthinking hasfssn heavily dependenton his genius in opening r4) new ways of thinking about cognitive development. \evertheless, rnost of his conceptshave had to be so radically revised"or rejectd that his theory no longer provides an appropriate basis for thinking about cognitive development.To appreciatewhy that is so, ne need to focus on some rather different elementsof Piagetb theorising. The first element,r,r,hich stood the test of time. is has his view that the child is an active agent of learning and of the importance of this activity in cognitive

development. Numerous studies have shown how infants actively scan their environment; how they prefer patterne to non-patterne objects, how they choosenovel.overfamiliar stimuli, and how they explore their environment as if to seehow it works. Childrenb quesfions and comments vividly illustrate the ways in which they are constantly constructing schemesof what they know andtrying out their ideas of how to fit new knowledge into those schemes or deciding that the schemesneed modification. Moteover, avariety of sfudieshave shown that active experiences have a greater effect on learning than comparablepassiveexperiences. However,a secondelement concernsthe notion that development proceedsthrough a seriesofseparate stagesthat have to be gone through step-by-step, a set order, each in of which is characterised a particular cognitive by structure.That has turned out to be arather misleading way of thinking about cognitive development, although it is not wholly wrong.

Qrestrbns 27-30
Sroose the correct lette| A, B, C or D. |lffie your ansulersin boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet. n Most researchers accept that one featureof intelligence the abilityto is A B C D t changeour behaviour according our situation. to react to others' behaviourpatterns. experimentwithenvironmentalfeatures. cope with unexpectedsetbacks.

What have psychometricians used statisticsfor? A B C D to find out if cooperativetasks are a usefultool in measuringcertainskills to explorewhetherseveralabilitiesare involvedin the developmentof intelligence to demonstratethat mathematicalmodels can predict test resultsfor differentskills to discoverwhethercommonsenseis fundamental developing to children's abilities

Why are Horn and Cattellmentioned? A B C D They disagree.d about the interpretation differentintelligence of tests. Theirresearch concernedboth linguistic and mathematicalabilities. They were the first to prove that intelligence can be measuredby testing a range of specialskills. Their work was an exampleof researchinto how people'scognitiveskillsvary with age.

leading Passage3

Tesr4 | t3l


Whatwas innovative aboutPiaget's research? A B C D He refused acceptthat children to developed according a set pattern. to He emphasised way children the thoughtmorethanhowwelltheydid in tests. He usedvisually appealing materials instead traditional of intelligence tests. Hestudied children allagesandlevels intelligence. of of

Do the following statements agree with the viewsof the writprin Reading Passage 3? ln boxesg1-g6on your answersheet, write yES NO NOTGIVEN 31 g2 if the statementagreeswith the viewsof the writer if the statement contradictsthe viewsof the writer if it is impossible saywhatthe writer thinks to about this

A surprising number academics of havecometo the sameconclusion about whatthe termintelligence means. A general of intelligence unlikely indicate levelof performance every test is to the in typeof task. perform Theelderly lesswellon comprehension thanyoungadults. tests Wemusttakeintoaccount whichskillsaretestedwhencomparing intelligence at djfferent ages. Piaget's workinfluenced theoretical studies morethanpractical research. Piaget's emphasis activelearning beendiscredited laterresearchers. on has by

33 34

35 36

Complete the summary using the list of words, A-1, below. Write the correct lette4 A-1, in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet. Researchers investigating development intelligence the of haveshownthat 37 ............skills become more significantwith age. One good prdictorof 38 intelligence the degree is to which small childrenare 39 about their surroundings and how much interestthey show on findingthemselves an 40 in setting.


adult spatial academic


practical inquisitive plentiful


verbal uncertain unfamiliar


I Test4

Reading Passage

fhiting Task I

on :-:rld soendabout20 minutes thistask.

k graph below gives information about how much people in the United Sres and the United Kingdom spend on petrol. S,mmarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, rs make comparisons where relevant.

rffirna ':

east 150 words. How much do driversspend on petrol?


h{riting Task 2
': - =-culdspend about 40 minuteson this task. ''r= acoutthe following topic: : rs generally believed that the Internet is an excellent means of :cmmunication but some people suggesf that it may not be the best :,ace to find information. glscuss both these views and give your own opinion.

from your examples . 'easonsfor your answerand includeany relevant - <nowledge experience. or :: at least250 words.

Test4 | 133


SpeakingPaft |
The examiner will ask you some questions about yourself, your home, work or studies and familiar topics. Let's talk about your home town. Where is your home town? Can you describe the area you come from? What facilitiesare there in your area for children/teenagers? ls it a place where tourists go? The examiner will then ask you some questions about one or two other topics, for example: Now let's talk about how you travel. How do you get to coltegelschoot/work? Do you travel alone or with friends? What do you do during your journey? Do you ever have any problems with your transport? How could your journey be improved?

Theexaminer giveyou a topic on a card likethe one will on the rightand ask you to talk aboutit for one to two minutes. Beforeyou talk you'll haveone minuteto think aboutwhafyou'regoingto say.The examiner give will you somepaperand a pencilso you can makenotesif you wantto. Theexaminer mayask one or two morequestions when you havefinished, example: for Do you like to havea routineto your day? Do you likespendingsometimealone? Describea typicalday in your life when you were in your earlyteens. Youshouldsay: what you did who you spenttime with how you felt about the things you had to do and explainwhat was the best and worst part d the day for you.

SpeakingPart 3
The examiner ask somemoregeneral will questions whichfollowon fromthe topic in Part2. In what way is the relationship between parentsand teenagers differentfrom the retationship betweenparents youngerchildren? and Whatcauses mosf arguments fhe betweenparents teenagers? and Do teenagers havemoreindependence your countrythanthey usedto? in Whoare the role modelsfor teenagers your country?Do you thinktheyaregood ones? in

174 | test +