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A Seventeenth-Century Encomienda: Chimaltenango, Guatemala Author(s): Lesley Byrd Simpson Reviewed work(s): Source: The Americas, Vol.

15, No. 4 (Apr., 1959), pp. 393-402 Published by: Academy of American Franciscan History Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/978868 . Accessed: 04/09/2012 14:21
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A SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ENCOMIENDA: CHIMALIENANGO, GUAIEMALA. APTAIN Franctsco Antonio Fuentes Guzman, de y whose proud boast was(ashe never of reminding thathewasthe it iires us) great-great-grandson of Bernal Diazdel Castillo, hiserraiic, in rambling, frequently and delightful Recordacion Florida(c. 1690), hasthisto sayabout ancient the townthatwill be thesubject this of ariicle:
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Three smooth and pleasantleaguesnorth of this City of Goathemala, on a road thickly studded with nllages and tile yards, upon a high eminencein the midst of a wide and marvelousplain, but so accessible and gently sloping that, despite the many carts, the journey can be made quite comfortably in a carriage,lies the town of Chimaltenango (called by the Indians,Bocco).This broad and smiling plain is always clothed with pleasantand ferale meadows,and with rich and extensive cornfields. It is more than sixteen leagues in circumference, of rich and very fecund soil, and producesin abundance, corn, chickpeas,beans, capons and chickens, as well as other things.... The Indiansof the district do not culavate other crops, but maintain themselves with what it yields, so that the people of its nllages are pleniifully supplied with eveiything, according to their own way of living, and have no need to seek food elsewhere.... On the contrary, the people from other villages come to their market to buy whatever they lack . . .. so that for three leagues roundabout (the distance to which their commerce extends) there is as much provender as one finds in the abundantmarketsof GoathemalaCity. The principaltown of this valley is SantaAna Chimaltenango (from which the whole valley takes its name), of admirable plan, noble bliildings, and many inhabitancs, whose number passes 3,000 Indians,l industrious, peaceful, and excellent natives. Its square is level and spacious,and in its center they are bliilding a fountain modeled after that in the squareof Chiapade Indios.2
1That is to say, 3,000indios tributarios,or headsof families, which gives a populaaon of 12,000, according the one-to-four to ratiothat Fuentesy Guzmaninvariably employs. 9The fountainwas completedand is today the main attractionof Chimaltenango 393

394

DO(#UMENTS

and several Spaxliards, The Indians of the town of Chimaltenango, the naiives of the villages of San Lorenzo, San Sebasiian, and San Miguel del Tejar, operatemany iile yards, with great profit and uiility, becausethe tile and brick made from the clay of this districtof Chimalanywhere in the tenango are the best and strongest . . . manufaccured of Goathemala. . ., selling at five pesos a thousandmore than ncinity those made . . . in other places. The workmen also make pots called pots), for the salt makers go clear to (salt makersX ollasde salineros make this necessaryand useful condiment, the shore of the South Sea to which they do with excessiveand immenselabor (almost unimaginable in a humanbeing), for they must work naked in the burning sun and the heat of the ovens....8

was was y At the timeFuentes Guzman writing,Chimakenango the held of largest the six townsof an encomienda by Don LuisNieto de Ruiz Dona ManaMagdalena his mother, it who inherited from Silva, 1686,the de Condesa Alba de Yeltes. At her death,in deContreras, CaptainJosephAguilarRebolledo,made an administrator, resident and of accounting his 22 yearsof stewardship had a true copy made of is by which,preserved somemiracle, the basicdocument forhimself thisanicle.4 six de of The encomienda the Condesa Albacomprised towns: Santa San Tejar,alreadydescribed; and Ana Chimaltenango San Sebastian on two Malacatepeque, villages Maria and PedroAguacatepeque Santa to the southslopeof the Volcande Fuego,according a sketchmapin Tzacualpa, (or 75); Sacualpa Zacualpa, (II, Florzda the Recordacion
sincehalf its waterflowsto the Pacific,half to the Atlantic,the town being for tourists, upon the continentaldivide. Fuentes y Guzmannotes with wonder that the water off runriing the roof of the churchdoes the samething. y Florida:Discursohistorial Antoniode Fuentesy Gusman,Recordacion ' Francisco I, military politicadel Reyno de Goathemala, 343-345. material, natural, demostracion C. (3 vols.; Guatemala, A., 1932-1933). ' Una cuentadada por el CapitanDon Joseph de AguilarRebolledo,vezino desta en Ziadadde Santiagode Goathemala las Yndias,a la SenoraDona MariaMagdalena que de Condesa SIba, de lo prozedidode la encomienda en indios Ruiz de Contreras, teniadichasenorade tres mill ducadoscadaano. vacos de dichaZiadady su Provinzia May 14, A certifiedcopy signedby Josephde Aguilarand variouspublicscriveners, 44 folios. 1689. in my When, in 1929,I published Encomienda New Spain (Universityof California in Publications History, vol. xrx. Second edition, 1950), it was cnticized because* said nothingaboutthe actualoperationof an encomienda.No one was more acutely awareof that lack than myself, and so for thirty years I kept a weathereye out for worked. I had long since come some accountof how that much lamentedinstitution kept no records whatever,when I came tO the conclusionthat the encomenderos acrossthis unique documentin the privatecollectionof Mr. John Galvin, of Santa placedit at my disposal. who generously California, Barbara,

"collected greatroyal ........................................ 1664. withformer administrators Received diiculicy"6 ........................................ 6,550/1/0 from 2,599/0/0

DOCUMENTS

395

Santo, whim) Esplritu on depending the map-maker's or Tezacualpa, now " of the Corregiento of Tecpan-Atitlan," sn the Deparmlent Zambo, Santiago of E1Quiche,about30 milesnorthof Chimaltenango; unidentified. Mayorof Suchitepequez," " of the Alcaldla will report,the reader needa table Beforegoing on with Aguilar's century. in current the seventeenth and of the lralues measures twicea year,at the end of the tercio de San werecollected Tributes (Christmas). Juan (June29), andat the end of the tercio de Notffldad and werereduced, in which The unitof value,to whichall tributes the was kept Aguilar hisaccounts, the toston de plata,withits fractions, the unit a fictitious usedfor calculating realde sellon, andthemara;vedg, valueof all coins. 4 equals reales (" four bits"); 1 tostotn 1 real equals34 mkravedgs. by iIldicated will Thesevalues be conventionally e.g., tostones/reales/maravedgs; 10/2/17. are Two otherunitsusedby Aguilar the escudo (11 reales,or 23/4 or andthe silverpeso (8 reolles, 2 tostones).6 tostones), equals12 almudes,or about 1.6 bushels 1 fanega -(drymeasure) (1 cwt.); was 1 fanega (landmeasure) the areathat couldbe sownwith a at computed 1.6 acres. of fomega seed,usually in Cacaowas measured zontles, xiquipiles,cargas. 400 1 zontle contamed beans(almendras); 20 1 xiquipilcontained zontles, or 8,000beans; 3 1 carga contained xiquipiles,or 24,000beans; 1 carga weighed50 pounds. DEBIT
1664. Arrearsof tributefor the years 1661, '62, '63,

for 1664.Received theterciode SanJuan,I/2 themoney


CThe readerwill recognizein the peso de plata the "piece-of-eight"of colonial iimes, which become our dollar. The toston becamethe standardcoin of Oriental trade,the "Chinesedollar,"or "dollar Mex"). the 6"There occurredin the years 1661,'62, and '63, darkening sun and filling all plague of locusts, which devoured and the element of the air, an incomparable destroyedfields and crops" (Recordacion Florida, II, 23). The "great diiculty " as in collecting arrears, we shall see again later on, was met by castingthe Indian into prisonuntil they madeup the deficit. officers

tnbuteTOTALAguacatepeque,............................................. 250,694/4/19 rate of wo rateEXpiritu......................................... .. .. 225,885/2/19 1673.forChimaltenango,a1664-1686 Total from....................................... exemptedpaymenttheirin1664-1686 1674-1681. penod, tostones........................................ " new the ofDEBIT1664-1686 ........................................ Net Administrator's inin kind ......................................... .33,283l0/0 1683-1686. penod, Santo, year ........................................ 168,384/1/11 Lessat 4,160/1/17tostones8 year ........................................ 34,714/0/0 GRAND Pedro atribute year forSan 4,377Tejar, lind............................ T Sacualpa fee 1664-1686 forSan ofZambo,10%........................................ rateSame 4,084of first ........................................ DEBIT for Same wibute 1664-1686 Santago tributelind........................................ " Sebastian tercios, ........................................ year a ......................................... ........................................ 24,809/2/0 22,610/0/23 2,547/0/11 11,869/1/11 26,103/0/0 35,392/0/0 17,508/0/0 3,783/0/0 12,153/0/0 6,290/1/0

396

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less 188/1/17 allowed for loss tribute of 4,084 tostones, of population ......................................... 1664. Received for same period, % tribute in kind

1,853/2/17

(legumbres): corn (at 4 reales); 592 fanegas chile (at 4 reales); 9 24 fanegas, almudes beans (at 4 reales); 9 24 fanegas, almudes 1,224 chickens (at 2 reales);
Total ......................................... or G 166 1672. Received for 17 tercios, 8 l/2years, money 1,253/2/0

23,497/2/5 F 166 1672. Received for tribute in kind 7......................................... 1673. T wo tercios,money tribute adjustedto the new 3,765/0/0 populationcount .........................................
F1681. 167

16 tercios,or 8 years, money tnbute at the

money tribute,adjustedto the " new 1682. T wo tercios, count," at the rate of 4,377/0/0 a year, less an allowance of 594 tostonesfor newly married couples who are 1682. T wo tercios,tribute in hind, less same allowance 1683-1686. 8 tercios,or 4 years, money tribute at the 2,550/0/11

166 Total for Santa Maria MagdalenaMalacatepeque, s 1686 *

2,372/2/0

tithes were XNet, after deductionof tithes in the amountof 3,071/2/0. Apparenody priestsand not collected on money tributes. It may be that the cost of maintaining religious,and the variouschargesfor alms,etc., met by the encomendero(see below, to underCREDIT) were considered be the equivalent. receivedfrom his predecessors 8 Aguilardid not collect a fee for the 2,599tostones discrepancy. in 1664-hencethe apparent

forChimaltenangoforsame ........................................ 4,889/2/0 ChurchForSanSantoand ........................................ Guatemalaforand years) Zambo Sacualpa(19 years)........................................ 1682-1686. Same Mercedarian ........................................ of escuderia Pedro........................................ years) ........................................ 1664. Same9royal(8 Aguacatepeque 1665-1671. GuatemalaSantiago ........................................ 1680.of Espintuscrivener ........................................ 1682. Scriveners' of 72 days) ........................................ 1,647/0/0 1676. Fee various forProvince instruments of Chimaltenango ........................................ 2,261/2/20 for(22fees years, ........................................ notarial........................................ TejarOrder Tejar 8,102/0/0 465/2/0 1,076/0/27 280/0/0 231/3/24 361/2/20 22/2/0 316/1/0 104/2/0 29/0/0

DOCUMENTS
CREDIT 16641686.

397

of Paidinto the RoyalTreasury Guatemala

of Paidinto the RoyalTreasury Guatemala 1667-1682. for wine and oil for the Dominicanand Franciscan Orders........................................................
1670-1677. 1667-1686. 1667-1686.

4,388/0/0

Alms for the building of the Cathedral Sales tax (alcabala)paid to the City of
114/0/0

Tax for the WindwardFleet (derechode ........................................................ harlovento)


1665.

of fees Scriveners' for new censusandassessment fees for new census and assessment Scriveners'

1673.

of conventandreligious the To Dominican 16641667. and the for City of Guatemala, administering sacraments and the teaching doctrineat Chimaltenango Tejar (31/2 To samefor same(15t/2 years). . . . . . . . . . . 22,940/0/0 priest parish To Don Antoniode Aparicio, 1683-1686. and the for Chimaltenango, administering sacraments of 5,15 1/3/6 ) doctrine( 31/2 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the teaching of conventandreligious the To Dominican 1683-1686. and the for City of Guatemala, administering sacraments 399/2/0 at the teaching doctrine Tejar (3 t/2 years)........................................ convent Franciscan To the syndic of the 1662-1680. and for of Guatemala, sameat Aguacatepeque Malacatepeque (l8l/2 years)....................................................... 1,776/0/0
1668-1683.

himself upon absenting A law of Philip II of 1571providedthat an encomendero, from his district,must pay into the hand of the viceroy or governor,money with which to employ a substitute(escudero)to assumehis functions. The law evidently
9

cause"because atSaniiagothis .......................................... 792/2/0 chitepequez, is more from city." tionof thedecreasepopulaiion) eachof tributesin distant .......................................... 20, forit .......................................... same Zambo .......................................... 800/0/0 2,397/2/0 313/2/0

398

DOCUMENTS

1681-1686.To same for same, Aguacatepeque only (seruces at Malacatepeque havingbeen suspended be1667-1686.To secularpriestsof the Provinceof Su1667. Formedical of the Indians Chimaltenango, care of in the epidemic(peste) of this year, " so that I had to sendto thesaidtownthe curarndero Francisco Vargas, de to whomI paid300tostones for his laborin curingthe saidIndians, which occupiedhim 47 days. I also reimbursedDiego Gonzalezde Padilla, administrator the of tributesof the said town, for a considerable quantity of medicines, as syrups(jararbes), such electuaries (lolmedores), canafistula, sugar,andtamarind; I gave him and an order to deliver to the said Franciscode Vargas food for the sick Indians, with meat and toriillas,and the necessary number chickens(the wholebeingpaid of out of their tributeaccount), in the amountof 400 tostones (although spentmorethan600) ... a totalof I 700 tostones. I state further that I performedthis service,not only becauseit was my duty, but because I was ordered do so by President the Audiencia] to [of Don Fernando Escobedo .......................................... de lo 166F 1686. For miscellaneous smallitems,such as dispatches, powersof attorney, noticesfor the collecand
166F 1686. For transport chickens thiscity: from of to Chimaltenango, Tejar, Aguacatepeque, Malacateand peque: 50,598chickens,at 1 rearlfor each 20 (pullets countedat the rate of 2 for 1 chicken),"which they bring in on a carcGtstle[NahuatlcarcGzxtli,carrying " a frame];from Sacualpa, 6,404 chickens, 2 rearles at for applied,as here,to encomiendas held in absentia. (Recopilacio'n leyes de los reynos de de las Indias,Lib. VI, Tit. IX, Ley vi. [2d ed.; Madrid,1756]). lIt is interestingto note that the curandero(an uncertifiedphysician)evidently hadofficial status.The peste couldhavebeenany one of severaldiseases endemicamong the native population, such as typhus,smallpox,malaria, and matlazabuatl-this a last peculiarlyvirulentkind of spotted fever. Epidemics, native and imported,killed off immensenumbersof Indiansin the Srst century of the Conquest. (See S. F. Cook and L. B. Simpson,The Populationof CentralMexico in the Sixteenth Century [Berkeley,1948]). The medicaments prescribed the curandero, by except sugar,are all purgatives.Sugar was prescribedfor fevers because of itS " cooling" property. (For a brief discussionof colonial medicine,see my Many Mexicos, Chapter 16. [Berkeley,1957]. For the standardremediesof the time, see my "Medicineof the Conquistadores," Osiris,vol. III,Part 1, pp. 142-164 in [1937]).

700/0/0

ground of royalVeracommissioner (3 cargas, (3as above zontles) .......................400/0/020/0/01,237/0/0 chocolate cargas, inspection Charges, silverand ....................... Freightto above Fee 40 crating,Cruz SacEng, zontles)........................................ 168/0/0 as 40 .......................................... .......................................... ........................................ 1,249/0/0 ....................... 354/0/0 634/0/0 807/0/0 223/0/0 505/0/0 588/0/0 426/0/0

Docu

MENTS

399

Remittancesto Spain,in silver tostones:


1666 ........................................................... 8,000/0/0

1667

...........................................................

3,000/0/0

1668. Freight charges on a crate of 4 cargas cacao of tribute, and 8 arrobars pounds) of ground choco(200 late 11 ........................................................... 1669 1671 1672 1674 1676 1676. 1679 1679. 1681 1683 ........................................................... ...........................................................

270/0/0 12,000/0/0 7,000/0/0 367/0/0 6,000/0/0 316/0/0 12,000/0/0 12,000/0/0

Charges,as above..........................................
...........................................................

Charges,as above ..........................................


........................................................... ...........................................................

Freight charges " on land and sea " on a crate of


........................................................... 20,000/0/0 1,311/0/0

Charges,as above.......................................... Freight charges on a crate of ground chocolate


........................................................... ...........................................................

12,000/0/0 12,000/0/0

(There were no chargeson this shipment,because the silver was boxed in dyewood (tint) and consigned to one Don Fulgencio Panesi, at Cadiz, who remitted the silver to the Condesa de Alba and recovered the freight and other charges from the sale of the boxes).
1685 ........................................................... 12,000/0/0

11 The amount, value,and originof the tributein cacaoare not given. Chimaltenango was payinga heavy tributein cacaoas early as 1549,48 xiquipiles a year1 about800 or pounds. The cacao bean was used as small currencyin New Spaindown to the end of the old regime and had an officialexchangerate (after 1551) of 100 to the real, or 400 to the toston. Roughly, the shipmentof 1668was worth, in Guatemala, 480 tostones. Its valuein Spainwas at leastfour times as great.

Gptain 2,000 deVeriesa ........................................ 196,502/2/29350/0/0 Guatemala,DEBIT copy ........................................ 225,885/2/19 tEsaccounang, CBUEDIT .......... Josephescudos, ........................................ Totalwith clean Varon ................................... a equalling , 7,000/0/0 5,500/0/0

400

DOCUMENTS

de 1686. Delivered,on orderof the Condesa Alba, to de on Delivered, orderof the Condesa Alba,to of de Estrada, de the Maestre CampoJosephAugustin
1670. 1689.

for Irigoyen, making de Paidto Domingo Zurrain

.. Dif erenceowed by Adnumstrator. . . . . . . . . . .

29,382/3/24

of to according a swornstatement Josephde Partof thisdifference, in arrears the in Aguilar, the amountof 2s222/2/0,is owing to the whichhe hasnot been for of tribute Chimaltenango the years1684-5-6 and all to able collect, "notwithstanding my efforts,imprisonments, pleadtheir Indians the because to pressure, makethe saidcollection, of absence manymen who haverun away,as povertyand the great years." wellas the plagueof locuststhathasbeengoingon for many in depositions support for officers thoseyearsmake Hehasthe Indian for officers 1684pleada very shortcrop,owing The ofhisstatement. They to the plagueof locusts,the peste and the many runaways. the them, "although,at but their arrears cannotpay acknowledge Josephde Aguilar,they have been imCaptain of demand the said for of many times."The depositions the officers the other prisoned they sworeby God andthe two yearsrepeatthe sameplea," which they because couldnot." to Cross be true. They didnotsigntheirnames the here to discuss actualsize of the district It will be of interest with, andits ability in of Chimaltenango the periodwe are concerned to according Fuentesy tribute. Chimaltenango, to pay the assessed of hada population 3,000Indian aboves quoted in Guzman, the passage in or 12,000inhabitants, 1690. Allowingthe samerateof tributaries, whose total other five towns of the encomienda, for assessment the a we half exactly thatof Chimaltenango, derive popuwas tribute almost and inhabitants, a total or lationfor themof 1,500tributaries, 6,000 or of encomienda 4,500 tributaries, 18,000inhabitants. for the whole rate of tributein the rest of New Spain, Now, given the prevailing of expectfor oursix townsa tribute about11 reales a year,we should so closeto the average tostones, whichis 49,500reales a year,or 12,750 of a as thatwe mayconsider proved population collection of Aguilar's for 18,000 ourencomienda.

Ratefor 1674-1681............ for 1664-1674 1682-1686 ..............

4,084/0/0 4,377/0/0 4,160/1/17

DOCUMENTS

401

to to were pushed the limitof theircapacity pay That the Indians is pretty clear. The "new counts" of 1673 and 1682 were made, the of doubt,for the purpose increasing take, as beyondreasonable the followingtableof ratesindicates:

beyondtheirabilityto paysas in 1684werepushed Whenthe Indians away,as was of to 1686, they resorted the simpleexpedient running the throughout old regime.They mighthave practice theiruniversal if borneup underthe tributeof the encomienda the Crownhad not such as the tax of a tost6na year levied burdens, addiisonal imposed and Armada neverlifted,as was since 1591to pay for the Invincible They raisedthis tax by forced laborin the way with specialtaxes. the salt pansof the southcoast (salt was a royal monopoly),at the and hardship sickness.Fuentesy Guzmandescribes cost of immense salt of the process extracting fromthe tidalpoolsand at greatlength place of salt) and ends with this mud at Ixtapa(NahuatlIxtapom, comment: illuminating
The truth is that this activity is a frightfulscourgefor the poor who, bent underthe heavyloadsthey carry,not beingvery wretches ' of number ' obligations by and strongbesides, oppressed an intolerable -as their own officerscall them-groanunderthe yoke of personal and servicesand taxes,defenceless voiceless.Their miseryis not seen wordsarenot heard.l2 their because

showsa slow growthbetween1664 and AlthoughChimaltenango in followingthe vast declinegeneral New Spain, 1686,its population, than wasmostlikelyverymuchsmaller it wasat thetimeof the famous and Cerrato, Rogel, Ramirez, Mnisita of 1549madeby the licenciados to the of for moreovers the purpose reducing tribute correspond made, was Chimaltenango thenin theencomienda population. to the declining is of one AntonioRuiz. Its population not givenin the visitor, but its community.13 a indicates largeandproductive assessment
indignaiionover the piiil2Recordacion Florida, II, 102-1W.Fuentes y Guzman's able lot of the Indiansis not to be taken quite literally. He is wriiing as a good Empirewas staggering centurythe Spanish criollo (whiteAmerican).In the seventeenth and of pyramid taxes,as the Crownfacedbankruptcy exiinciion, underan ever-growing to and the criollos were extremelyunhappyaboutit. The Indians, be sure, bore the more and more native ulumateand heaviestburden,and then, as the Crownabsorbed it in the salt pansand elsewhere, reducedthe laborsupplyupon which Fuentesy labor Guzmanand the rest depended. were directedto culiivateand weed 16 acresof corn,harvest 18 Each year the Indians

402

DOCUMENTS

in of To sumup, the encomienda Chimaltenango 1690is an example It elsewhere.14 had " ofthe " tamedencomienda I have described of the conoff into degenerated a devicefor pensioning descendants peopleat court,a veryfarcry fromthethinly or influeniial quistadores of the it slavery hadbeenbefore promulgation the New Laws disguised went to the support part of1542. An astonishing of its grossincomethe of all kinds:over 53,000tostones (including activities ofreligious this in on tithe tribute kind),or betterthan209! It is a fairguessthat enof enthusiasm the not reflected, so muchthe religious contribution The in the greatpowerof the orders Guatemala. civil as comendero, The net about9,000tostones. insignificant, were,by comparison, taxes the was of income the encomienda about162,000tostones (including 4,000tostones for and owedby the administrator an estimated balance not a year,or about2,700ducados, far tostones thecacao),about7,300 of of short the 3,000ducoldos the grant. remnants a was the As aninstitution encomienda all butdead, vestigial battleof the in of little importance the generaleconomy. The long and fromthe conquistadores makeitself to Crown takeoverthe Indies was The encomienda slowly was the sole encomendero almostwon. century,but lived earlyin the eighteenth by strangled royal decrees of symbol Spanish as literature thehated and onin folklore revolutionary
oppression.

BYRD LESLEY SIMPSON

of University California, California Berkeley,


was enjoinedto do the The encomendero the crop, and store it in Chimaltenango. plowingwith oxen. the harvest crop,thresh Eachyearthey were to cultivateandweed 16 acresof wheat, in Chimaltenango. over it, and store it grainby drivinganimals out the four xiquipilesof cacao Each month they were to deliver to their encomendero and 30 " chickensof Castile." beans,and 12 galIons Each year: 10 fardos (probablycargas)of chile, 10 fanegasof crocks (cantaros),2 dozen pots (ollas), and 2 dozen clay griddles of honey; 2 dozen used for bakingtortillas). (comales, City 3 dozen eggs and supply 30 Each Friday they were to bring to Guatemala work in the tile yards. for Indians domesticservice,or send them to who also assumed were to be suppliedwith food by their encomendero, The Indians formula doctrine (the standard the obligationof havingthem taught in the Christian in all grantsof encomiendas). de oydoren laRealAudiencia Guathemala, Palacio, y (ReZacion formaque el licenciado deste en contar,tassar,y rrepartir las provincias hizo ?ara los que obierende bisitzr, Aud. Guat.,leg. 128 [644-1]. 413 folios.) Generalde Indias, Districto.... Archivo Chapter16. (1950edition). in 14 The Encomienda New Spain,

Minat Terkait