Anda di halaman 1dari 6

Hamiltonians -focus on integrating the U.S.

into the global economy on favorable terms -protection of American business Wilsonians -focus on spreading American democratic and social values, multilateralism and international law Jeffersonians -focus on avoiding excessive involvement overseas -domestic issues first -avoid overextension, ex. Vietnam Jacksonians -focus on security through American military might -high power -military power Examplarists- lead by example Vindictinists-should proactively intervene overseas vindication the nations moral mission Bolshevism FDRs 4 Policemen -rule the world -U.S., Soviet Union, Britain, China Yalta Conference -in Ukraine -conference to discuss Europes post war organization -Germany to be disarmed -Germany and Berlin to be split up to four occupation region -Eastern Europe would be under Stalins influence -FDR and Churchill agree to Stalins demand -Soviet control E. Europe by 1945 X Memorandum -aka long telegram -George Kennan -justifying containing Soviet Union

-not expand to Western Europe->industrialize -not expand to Middle East-> oil -Japan->industrial oil -Soviet is expansionist by idealogy Iranian and Turkish Strait Crisis Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Vandenberg Resolution -authorization for American Congress to participate in NATO -resolution advising the President to seek US and free world security through support of mutual defense
arrangements that operated within the UN Charter but outside the Security Council

NSC-68 -cant afford to lose anything -containment is a zero sum game -Soviets use clients in developing world to fight for them -rapid military budget -once Korean war broke out, document looked in a different light Massive Retaliation -Kennedy criticized Eisenhower that massive retaliation is too dangerous Domino Theory Khruschevs Secret Speech(1956) -deStalinization -description as mass killer Peaceful Co-existence Sputnik -starts Western fear of huge gap of ICBMs in favor of Soviet Union Missle Gap -cheap way to fix weapons problem -protection of Cuba -hope it will be secret -Khruschev offer to remove military in cuba if no invasion in cuba Second Taiwan Strait Crisis -United States gave protection of Taiwan -Wilsonian, containment

U-2 Incident -Khruschev wanted U2 overflight stop -Soviet military managed to down U2 plane -Khruschev demanded apology -exposes Khruschev bluff of missles Bay of Pigs Invasion Berlin Crisis -use to be open border -demand all western troops withdraw West Berlin -wanted West Berlin turn to East Germany -built armed wired bridge -3 days later concrete blocks replaced barbed wir -Kennedy order troop convoy to Western Berlin -showed U.S. commitment to Berlin -wall prevented soviet expansion into U.S. territor -Soviets wanted to squeeze out Americans Cuban Missile Crisis Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Moscow-Washington hot line -a system that allows direct communication between the leaders of the United States and Russia. -the hotline linked the White House via the National Military Command Centerwith the Kremlin during the
Cold War.

- crisis could have been more quickly resolved and easily averted if communication had been faster -after the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis made it clear that reliable, direct communications between
the two nuclear powers was a necessity

Stalemate Machine -explanation for Amerian presence in Vietnam -Cant lose communist to major country before election, cant have a lot of casualties Gulf of Tonkin Resolution -exchange fire with N. Vietnamese torpedo boats in Tonkin -no proof military exchange actually happened -Johnson use the incident to pass Tonkin resolution in Congress -started war

Tet Offensive -major offensive in Saigon -collapse of American consensus of containment on global scale -AK47 hid under flowers -snipers penetrated U.S. embassy Decent Interval and Honaorable Peace -Nixon and Kissinger attempt to remove U.S. from Vietnam -hope to persuade Soviet Union and China to not have North Korea unify Korea Nixon Doctrine -a policy of the Richard M. Nixon administration during the Vietnam War, as a result of the Viet Cong's Tet Offensive, to "expand, equip, and train South Vietnam's forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops -call for Vietnamization and stop fight in Asia -rely on Viet themselves -escalted heavy bombing -American troops withdraw Spring 1972 War Powers Act -to prevent another GUlf of Tonkin -federal law intended to check the President's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of Congress. Brezhnev Doctrine -Soviet justification of invasion of Czechoslavkia -reserved the right to do whatever to save socialism and use military -not big deal to US; big deal to PRC, scared of possible use of force -policy meant that limited independence of communist parties was allowed. Strategic Parity -equality in nuclear weapons -ICBMs, strategic bombers, submarine Sino-soviet Border War -shortly after Brezhnev Doctrine -escalated perception of Soviet threat Detente

Strategic Triangle -explain logic -Nixon+Kissinger playing foreign relation of U.S.S.R. and China -U.S. started with China; Soviets entered negotiations for fear of being excluded ABM Treaty -a treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile
(ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons.

-implicit recognition of the need to protect the nuclear balance by ensuring neither side could hope to
reduce the effects of retaliation to acceptable levels.

MAD(Mutual assured destruction,) -Mutually Assured Destruction. This meant that if Russia attacked the west, the west would make sure that they would suitably retaliate i.e. there would be no winners. -theory was developed during the Cold War, when the US, USSR and respective allies held nuclear weapons of such number and strength that they were capable of destroying the other side completely and threatened to do so if attacked -Proponents argued that the fear of MAD was the best way to secure peace, rather than threatening a limited nuclear exchange from which one side might hope to survive with an advantage, which might tempt some leaders. -For long periods of the Cold War MAD entailed a relative lack of missile defenses so as to guarantee mutual destruction. Iranian Hostages Crisis -Islam revolution -(1950s) U.S. involvement around coup -a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States in which 52 Americans were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981, after a group of Islamist students and militants took over the American Embassy in Tehran in support of the Iranian Revolution. -seen as a blow against the U.S., and its influence in Iran, its perceived attempts to undermine the Iranian Revolution, and its longstanding support of the Shah of Iran Soviet invasion of Afghanistan KAL 007 -soviets down plane; U.S. congressman on board Evil Empire

-Regans rhetoric of Soviet Union and value