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THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT


External environment: General Competitive Internal environment: Management Functional

Key External Forces


1. Economic forces 2. Social, cultural, demographic, & environmental forces 3. Political, governmental, and legal forces 4. Technological forces 5. Competitive forces

Five (5) broad categories:

Relation between External Forces and an organization


Competitors Suppliers Distributors Economic forces Social, cultural, demographic, and environmental forces Political, legal governmental forces Technological forces Competitive forces Creditors Customers Governments Stockholders Managers Employees Trade associations Natural environment Others An Organization opportunities and threats

Social, Cultural, Demographic & Environmental Forces

Major impact on:

Products

Major impact on:

customers

Services

Markets

Globalization of Industry:
Worldwide trend toward similar consumption patterns Global buyers & sellers E-commerce Instant transmission of money & information across continents
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PERNYATAAN GLOBALISASI

Hai manusia, sesungguhnya Kami menciptakan kamu dari seorang laki-laki dan seorang perempuan dan menjadikan kamu berbangsa - bangsa dan bersuku-suku supaya kamu saling kenal-mengenal. Sesungguhnya orang yang paling mulia diantara kamu disisi Allah ialah orang yang paling taqwa diantara kamu. Sesungguhnya Allah Maha Mengetahui lagi Maha Mengenal.(Al-Hujuraat: 13)

PERNYATAAN GLOBALISASI

Apabila telah ditunaikan shalat, maka bertebaranlah kamu di muka bumi; dan carilah karunia Allah dan ingatlah Allah banyak-banyak supaya kamu beruntung. (AlJumah: 10)

GLOBALISASI DALAM BISNIS (MUAMALAH) TIDAK DIBATASI OLEH WAKTU DAN AGAMA

Allah tidak melarang kamu untuk berbuat baik dan berlaku adil terhadap orangorang yang tiada memerangimu karena agama dan tidak (pula) mengusir kamu dari negerimu. Sesungguhnya Allah menyukai orang-orang yang berlaku adil. (Al-Mumtahanah: 8)

DAYA SAING YANG DIPERLUKAN DALAM GLOBALISASI

DAYA SAING

KUALITAS

JEJARING

HARGA

PASAR

KEKUATAN PERSAINGAN

COMPETITIVE FORCES
An important part of an external audit is identifying rival firms and determining their strengths, weaknesses, capabilities, opportunities, threats, objectives, and strategies. Collecting and evaluating information on competitors is essential for successful strategy formulation.

PERSAINGAN YANG POSITIF

Dan bagi tiap-tiap umat ada kiblatnya (sendiri) yang ia menghadap kepadanya. Maka berlomba-lombalah (dalam membuat) kebaikan. Di mana saja kamu berada pasti Allah akan mengumpulkan kamu sekalian (pada hari kiamat). Sesungguhnya Allah Maha Kuasa atas segala sesuatu.
Al-Baqarah:148

COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE
Competitive intelligence, as formally defined by the Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals (SCIP), is a systematic and ethical process for gathering and analyzing information about the competitors activities and general business trends to further a business own goal.
(SCIP Web site)

COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE The more information and knowledge a firm can obtain about its competitors, the more likely it is that it can formulate and implement effective strategies. Major competitors weaknesses can represent external opportunities; major competitors strengths may represent key threats.

COOPERATION AMONG COMPETITORS For collaboration between competitors to succeed, both firms must contribute something distinctive, such as technology, distribution, basic research, or manufacturing capacity. But major risk in that unintended transfers of importance skill or technology may occur at organization levels below where the deal was signed.

COOPERATION AMONG COMPETITORS

dan apabila kamu telah menyelesaikan ibadah haji, maka bolehlah berburu. Dan janganlah sekali-kali kebencian(mu) kepada sesuatu kaum karena mereka menghalang-halangi kamu dari Masjidilharam, mendorongmu berbuat aniaya (kepada mereka). Dan tolong-menolonglah kamu dalam (mengerjakan) kebajikan dan takwa, dan jangan tolong-menolong dalam berbuat dosa dan pelanggaran. Dan bertakwalah kamu kepada Allah, sesungguhnya Allah amat berat siksa-Nya. (Al-Maaidah: 2)

The Porters Five-Forces Model of Competition


POTENTIAL ENTRY OF NEW COMPETITORS

BURGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS

RIVALRY AMONG COMPETING FIRTMS

BURGAINING POWER OF CONSUMERS

POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT OF SUBSTITUTE PRODUCE

Rivalry Among Competing Firms


The intensity of rivalry among competing firms tend to increase as the number of competitors increases, as competitors become more equal in size and capability, as demand for the industrys products declines, and as price cutting becomes common. As rivalry among competing firms intensifies, industry profits decline. In some cases to the point where an industry become inherently unattractive.

Intensity of Rivalry Among Competitors

Numerous or equally balanced competitors Slow industry growth High fix or storage costs Lack of differentiation or low switching costs Diverse competitors High strategic stakes High exit barriers

Rivalry Among Competing Firms


Rivalry also increases when: Consumers can switch brand easily. Barriers to leaving the market are high. Fixed costs are high. The product is perishable Rival firms are diverse in strategies. Mergers and acquisitions are common in the industry.

BARIERS TO ENTRY
Economies of Scale Product Differentiation Capital Requirements Switching Costs Access to Distribution Channels
Cost Disadvantages Independent of Scale

Government Policy

Bargaining Power of Suppliers


It is dominated by a few large companies and is more concentrated than the industry to which it sells. Satisfactory substitute products are not available to industry firms. Industry firms are not a significant customer for the supplier group

Bargaining Power of Suppliers


Suppliers goods are critical to buyer marketplace success The effectiveness of suppliers products has created high switching costs for industry firms. Supplier are a credible threat to integrate forward into the buyers industry .

Bargaining Power of Buyers


They purchase a large portion of an industrys total output The product being purchased from an industry accounts for a significant portion of the buyers costs They could switch to another product at little The industrys products are undifferentiated or standardize

Threat of Substitute Products


Substitute products are different goods or services that can perform similar or the same functions as the focal product. The threat of substitute products is strong when: customer face few, substitute products price is lower, quality and performance capabilities are equal to or greater than the industrys product.

PELUANG BUSINESS

PELUANG BISNIS
PADA UMUMNYA: PERENCANAAN BISNIS DILANDASI OLEH PERTIMBANGAN BAHWA BISNIS TERSEBUT LAYAK ATAU TIDAK LAYAK DARI SUDUT PANDANG; EKONOMI, FINANSIAL, TEKNOLOGI, DAN LINGKUNGAN.

PELUANG BISNIS
MENURUT AJARAN ISLAM: BISNIS YANG MENGUNTUNGKAN MENURUT ALQURAN, SETIDAKNYA MENGANDUNG BEBERAPA ELEMEN DASAR, YAKNI: Knowing the best investment (sangat memahami investasi yang terbaik). Making the sound judgement (membuat keputusan yang masuk akal). Following the right conduct (mengikuti perilaku yang benar). Back up by condusiveness institutional system (didukung oleh system kelembagaan atau lingkungan yang yang kondusif)

Harapan dari suatu bisnis

Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang selalu membaca kitab Allah dan mendirikan shalat dan menafkahkan sebahagian dari rezki yang Kami anugerahkan kepada mereka dengan diam-diam dan terang-terangan, mereka itu mengharapkan perniagaan yang tidak akan merugi; agar Allah menyempurnakan kepada mereka pahala mereka dan menambah kepada mereka dari karunia-Nya. Sesungguhnya Allah Maha Pengampun lagi Maha Mensyukuri. (Faathir: 29-30)

Mencari Reward dari Allah

Barangsiapa beriman kepada Allah dan hari akhir, dan barangsiapa bertaqwa kepada Allah niscaya Dia akan mengadakan baginya jalan keluar. Dan memberinya rezki dari arah yang tiada disangka-sangkanya. Dan barangsiapa yang bertawakkal kepada Allah niscaya Allah akan mencukupkan (keperluan)nya. Sesungguhnya Allah melaksanakan urusan yang (dikehendaki)Nya. Sesungguhnya Allah telah mengadakan ketentuan bagi tiap-tiap sesuatu.

UNTUK MERAIH PELUANG-PELUANG BISNIS YANG PROSPEKTIF DAN MENGUNTUNGKAN, DIPERLUKAN DUA HAL, YAKNI:

ISTIQAMAH MUJAHADAH

ISTIQAMAH

Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang mengatakan: "Tuhan kami ialah Allah", kemudian mereka tetap istiqamah, maka tidak ada kekhawatiran terhadap mereka dan mereka tiada (pula) berduka cita. (Al-Ahqaaf: 13)

MUJAHADAH

Dan orang-orang yang berjihad untuk (mencari keridhaan) Kami, benar- benar akan Kami tunjukkan kepada mereka jalan-jalan Kami. Dan sesungguhnya Allah benarbenar beserta orang-orang yang berbuat baik. (Al-Ankabuut: 69)