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Six Sigma Exam

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1.

A process is operating "in control." Does this mean the customer's requirements are met? An SPC chart shows no points outside the control limits. Does this mean the process is in control? Approximately what percent of a normal distribution falls between 1 standard deviations from the mean? Approximately what percent of a normal distribution falls between 2 standard deviations from the mean? Approximately what percent of a normal distribution falls between 3 standard deviations from the mean? Based on what principal can we use the normal distribution assumptions for SPC? Complete this quality phrase: "Fix the process, not the _____." Define aesthetic quality. Define benchmarking.

No -- only if the process is also capable. No -- the variation also has to be random and "expected." 68%

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Define serviceability. Define takt time. Define yield. Does it ever make sense to accept a job when a process is incapable? Explain the difference between technical and functional service quality. For what is a p-chart used? For what is an x-bar chart used? For your SPC sample you weigh bags of potatoes. Is this variable or attribute SPC? Give an example of poka yoke. How are LQL and AQL determined in an acceptance sampling plan? How does Juran define quality? If a Cp shows that a process is not capable, should you calculate Cpk? If a three-stage process has 90% yields at each stage, what is the overall yield? If you can only collect categorical data, what type of SPC charting can you do? If you have calculated a Cpk, should you also calculate a Cp

Speed, courtesy, competence, and ease of repair. The cycle time required to meet demand. The ratio of outputs to inputs; 1scrap. Yes, when there are opportunities to improve, when contribution margin is adequate, when achieving market share is important. Technical quality is the "what" of the service; functional quality is the "how." To monitor a process when measurement by attribute is used. To monitor a process when measurement by variables is used. Variable.

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95%

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99.73%

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Central Limit Theorem Blame. Pleasing to the senses. Studying firms with the best performance in a particular area. The degree to which a product meets preestablished standards. Mean time to replacement. The secondary characteristics of a product; "bells and whistles." Brand image.

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many possible ... Through producer/consumer negotiation.

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Define conformance quality.

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Fitness for use. No -- if it is not the same, it can only be worse!

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11.

Define durability. Define features.

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0.9^3 or 72.9%

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Define perceived quality (Garvin's framework). Define performance quality.

29.

Attribute.

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The primary operating characteristics of a product. Mean time to failure.

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15.

Define product reliability.

No; if the process is centered, Cp will be the same; if not, Cpk is what you need to determine capabilty.

31.

If your process is capable at two sigma, what percentage of the output will be defective (assuming the process is in control)? If your process is capable at two sigma, what percentage of the output will you have to inspect to find defectives? In a regression, what does R-square tell you?

5%

44.

In your major, courses are pass-fail. Would you monitor performance using attribute or variable SPC? List Garvin's eight dimensions of product quality. List two appraisal costs.

Attribute

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100%

Performance, features, conformance, reliability, durability, serviceability, aesthetics, perceived quality Incoming materials inspection, inspection and testing, maintaining test equipment, materials/services consumed Complaint adjustment, returned material, warranty charges, allowances, loss of future business. Scrap, rework, retest, downtime, yield losses, disposition costs. Quality planning, design review, education and training, process control, IS costs, quality reporting, improvement project costs, working with suppliers before production. The House of Quality.

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The amount of variation in the dependent variable that is explained by the variation in the independent variable(s). What the value of the dependent variable is when the independent variable is zero. How likely it is to have an F statistic of that value if there really is no relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variable(s). How much variance you expect around the prediction; two SEs gives you a 95% confidence interval. The number of standard deviations some value is from the mean. Prevention and appraisal costs are balanced against internal and external failure. The gap between what management thinks customers want and what customers really want. The gap between what management thinks customers want and the process specifications. The gap between specifications and how service is performed. The gap between what is promised and what is delivered. The gap between what customers expect and the service they receive.

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34.

In a regression, what does the coefficient of the intercept tell you? In a regression, what does the p value of F tell you?

List two components of external failure.

48.

35.

List two components of internal failure. List two components of prevention cost.

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36.

In a regression, what does the standard error of the estimate tell you? In a Z table, what is Z?

50.

37.

Name the structure associated with Quality Function Deployment. Taguchi's experimental designs are of this type. The data points on an SPC pchart of defective percent plot below the mean. Is this good or bad? There are two milling machines in the shop. Data has been collected on one to compute control limits for both. This is acceptable SPC practice, true or false and why? To what does the Six in Six Sigma relate? What are the 5 Ss? What are the Five Dimensions of Service Quality?

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In Juran's Cost of Quality model, which categories of costs balance which other categories? In the Service Quality Gap Model, what is Gap 1?

Fractional factorial designs (orthogonal arrays) It's good -- but it's still out of control!

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False, because each machine will have different natural tolerances.

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In the Service Quality Gap Model, what is Gap 2?

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In the Service Quality Gap Model, what is Gap 3? In the Service Quality Gap Model, what is Gap 4? In the Service Quality Gap Model, what is Gap 5?

54.

The target number of standard deviations from the mean for specifications. Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain Reliability, Assurance, Responsiveness, Tangibles, Empathy

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What are the four categories of costs in Juran's framework? What are the four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard? What are the four regression assumptions? What are the three main categories of assignable cause? What are two other names for an Ishikawa diagram? What do you do when a process is out of control? What does a project prioritization matrix do? What does Crosby say about benchmarking?

Prevention, appraisal, internal failure, external failure. Financial, customer, internal process, innovation and learning. Linearity, normality, homoscedasticity, independence. Workers, machines, materials.

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What is a Gage R&R?

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A tools that is used to measure the amount of variation in the measurement system arising from the measurement device (repeatability) and the people taking the measurement (reproducibility). Shows the temporal flow of activities in a project network. A chart that breaks the range of data into equal intervals and then shows the count of occurrences in each interval. A diagram that shows the relationships between activities in a project network. A descending order-sorted bar chart with a cumulative percentage line. A time series plot. A tool that shows the physical flows through a space. A brainstorming tool that shows the connections between ideas. Critical to quality. Define, measure, analyze, design, verify. Defects Per Million Opportunities Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Controlling quality at the source. Rapid improvement process. Inventory = throughput x flow time.

75.

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What is a Gantt chart? What is a histogram? What is a network diagram? What is a Pareto chart? What is a run chart? What is a spaghetti diagram? What is an affinity diagram? What is CTQ? What is DMADV? What is DPMO What is FMEA? What is Jidoka? What is Kaizen? What is Little's Law? What is muda? What is poka yoke? What is process capability?

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Fishbone, cause-and-effect diagram. Look for the assignable cause of non-random variation. Assigns scores to weighted criteria for each project under consideration. Look to your customer, not to other firms. "You can always find someone shorter, fatter and balder!" Define, measure, analyze, improve, control. Supplier, input, process, output, customer. Lower control limit.
84. 78.

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What does DMAIC stand for? What does SIPOC stand for? What does the abbreviation LCL stand for? What does the abbreviation UCL stand for? What graphical tool is used to show the relationship between two numerical variables? What happens to control limits on an SPC chart when sample size is increased? What inventory approach contributes to process quality by "lowering the river to find the rocks?" What is a CAVE man?

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66.

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Upper control limit.


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A scatterplot.
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They move closer to the center line. Lean (or JIT).

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Waste. Mistake-proofing. The ability of a process to consistently meet customer specifications.

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Someone who is consistently against virtually everything. A tool that shows performance along key dimensions all at once.

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What is a dashboard?

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What is the 5S model?

System to reduce waste and optimize productivity through maintaining an orderly workplace and using visual cues to achieve more consistent operational results. The US national quality award. p-bar, the long-run percent defective. X-bar-bar

109.

What quality guru emphasizes management as a system? What quality tool formally incorporates the voice of the customer? What size should samples be for attribute SPC? What type of risk is associated with Type 1 Error? What type of risk is associated with Type II Error? When Crosby said, "Quality is free," what dimension of quality was he referring to? When either attribute or variable measures could be used for SPC, why might attribute measurement be preferred? When is Cpk used?

Deming. QFD

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What is the Baldrige Award? What is the center line of a p-chart? What is the center line of an X-bar chart? What is the Deming Prize? What is the difference between Lean and Six Sigma? What is the difference between the way sampling is done for SPC and for acceptance sampling? What is the formula for standard deviation? What is the formula for the standard deviation of a proportion? What is the role of a black belt? What is the role of a green belt? What is the role of a master black belt? What is Type 1 Error? What is Type II Error? What is Value Stream Mapping? What is written on the "spines" of a fishbone diagram? What percentage of a normal distribution lies above the mean?

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Large enough to find two of the attribute, on average. Producer risk. Consumer risk. Conformance to specifications. Lower skill requirements, faster, less chance for error. To do a capability study for a noncentered process. Fewer good units to sell, increased variable cost/unit. Outside.

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The Japanese national quality award. Lean is waste reduction, Six Sigma is variation reduction. Sampling for SPC is done real time.

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=sqrt((x-x-bar)^2)/(n-1))

117.

When yields decrease, what are the two effects on contribution? Where should specifications fall in relation to 3 sigma for the process in order for a process to be capable. Which quality guru developed the concept of loss to society? Which type of SPC measurement is more precise, variable or attribute? Who developed the fishbone diagram? Who first studied randomness in industrial processes? Who is a process owner?

100.

=sqrt((p*(1-p)/n)

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To manage the Six Sigma project. To be a member of a Six Sigma project team. To mentor/coach (and sometimes train) black belts. Concluding there has been an effect/change when there has not. Concluding there has not been an effect/change when there has. A tool that shows where there is waste in a process. Causes that lead to a particular effect. 50%

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Taguchi Variable.

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Kaoru Ishikawa. Walter A. Shewhart The manager in charge of a process being improved in a Six Sigma project. Because the mean and standard deviation are independent of each other. 3.4 (assuming 1.5 sigma shift in the mean)

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Why do you need two control charts for variables SPC?

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125.

With Six Sigma capability, how many defects per million opportunities would you see?

126.

You have been plotting sample means on an x-bar chart and all points indicate normal, expected variation. Is the process in control? Your production process meets customer specifications. Is your process in control?

Can't tell without a Range chart. Not necessarily.

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