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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES


Mihir Sen University of Notre Dame

November 11, 2009

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Outline

1 Outline 2 Basics 3 Classication 4 Terminology 5 Components 6 Operation 7 Thermodynamics 8 Parameters 9 Output

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Basics

Historical

Lenoir, 1860: rst auto Otto and Langen, 1867: eciency about 11% Diesel, by 1892: compression ignition engine

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Basics

Combustion engines
Chemical energy in fuel converted to thermal energy by combustion or oxidation Heat engine converts chemical energy into mechanical energy Thermal energy raises temperature and pressure of gases within engine, and gas expands against mechanical mechanisms of engine Combustion Internal: fuel is burned within the engine proper (including e.g. rocket engines, jet Engines, rearms) External: combustion is external to the engine (e.g. steam, Stirling engine, gas turbine)

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Classication of IC engines
Ignition Number of strokes Valve location Design Position and number of cylinders Air intake Fuel input method Fuel used Cooling Application

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Ignition

Spark ignition (SI): high-voltage electrical discharge between two electrodes ignites air-fuel mixture in combustion chamber surrounding spark plug Compression ignition (CI): air-fuel mixture self-ignites due to high temperature in combustion chamber caused by high compression, Diesel engine

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Number of strokes

Four-stroke: four piston movements over two engine revolutions for each engine cycle Two-stroke: two piston movements over one revolution for each engine cycle

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Valve location

Valves in head Valves in block One valve in head and one in block (less common)

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Design

Reciprocating Rotary

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Reciprocating engines

Engine has one or more cylinders in which pistons reciprocate back and forth Combustion chamber in closed end of cylinders Power delivered to rotating output crankshaft by mechanical linkage with pistons

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Rotary engines
Engine made of block (stator) built around large non-concentric rotor and crankshaft Combustion chambers are built into the nonrotating block

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oGrD7FTFLJc

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Position and number of cylinders


Single cylinder (e.g. lawnmowers) In-line or straight: cylinders in straight line, one behind the other in length of crankshaft V: two banks of cylinders at an angle with each other along a single crankshaft, angle typically 60-90 Flat or opposed cylinder (V with 180 ): two banks of cylinders opposite each other on a single crankshaft (small aircrafts) W: three banks of cylinders on same crankshaft (not common) Opposed piston engine: two pistons in each cylinder, combustion chamber between pistons Radial engine: cylinders positioned radially around crankshaft

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

In-line

Flat

Radial http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radial_engine

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Air intake

Naturally aspirated: no air pressure boost Supercharged: air pressure increased with compressor driven by crankshaft Turbocharged: air pressure increased by turbine-compressor driven by exhaust gases Crankcase compressed: two-stroke engine with crankcase as intake air compressor

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Supercharger

Supercharger on AMC V8 engine for dragstrip racing

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Turbocharger

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Fuel input method

Carbureted: air-fuel mixed at throat

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Fuel input method

Fuel injection Multipoint port fuel injection: one or more injectors at each cylinder intake Throttle body fuel injection: injectors upstream of intake manifold

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Fuel used
Gasoline Diesel or fuel oil Gas (natural gas or methane) Liqueed petroleum gas (LPG): mainly propane, propylene, butane, and butylene Alcohol (ethyl, methyl) Dual fuel (e.g. methane/diesel) Gasohol (e.g. 90% gasoline, 10% alcohol) Biodiesel: cleaner-burning diesel fuel made from natural, renewable sources such as vegetable oils

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classication

Cooling

Air cooled Water cooled

http://www.innerauto.com/Automotive_Animations/Cooling_Syst

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Terminology

Terminology I
TDC: top dead center, piston position farthest from crankshaft BDC: bottom dead center, piston position nearest to crankshaft Direct fuel injection: into main combustion chamber Indirect fuel injection: into a secondary chamber Bore: diameter of cylinder or piston face Stroke: distance that piston moves Clearance volume: volume in combustion chamber at TDC Displacement volume: volume displaced by piston Ignition delay: Time between start of ignition and start of combustion

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Terminology

Terminology II

Air-fuel ratio: Ratio of mass ow rate of air to that of fuel Specic fuel consumption: fuel used per unit power Emissions: NOx, CO, HC, solids

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Components

Engine components

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Components

Block: body of engine containing cylinders Bearing: main bearing for crankshaft Camshaft: rotating shaft used to push open valves at the proper time in engine cycle Carburetor: Venturi ow device to draw fuel and mix with air Catalytic converter: reduces emissions by chemical reaction Combustion chamber: volume between cylinder head and piston face Connecting rod: connects piston with crankshaft Crankcase: part of engine block surrounding crankshaft Crankshaft: rotating shaft through which engine work output is supplied to external systems, rotated by reciprocating pistons through connecting rods

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Components

Exhaust manifold: piping which carries exhaust gases away from engine cylinders Fan: to increase air ow through radiator Flywheel: to smoothen engine rotation Fuel injector: pressurized nozzle to inject fuel into air or cylinder Fuel pump: to move fuel from tank to engine Glow plug: electrical resistance inside combustion chamber to help cold start Head: piece which closes end of cylinders Head gasket: sealant between engine block and head Intake manifold: piping which delivers incoming air to cylinders Oil pan: oil reservoir on bottom of engine block, part of the crankcase

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Components

Oil pump: to distribute oil from sump Oil sump: reservoir for the oil system of the engine Piston rings: metal rings around piston to seal gap between piston and cylinder Push rods: linkage between camshaft and valves on OHV engines Radiator: liquid to air heat exchanger to cool engine Rod bearing: rod connecting the piston with the rotating crankshaft Spark plug: creates high-voltage discharge across an electrode gap Speed control-cruise control: control system Starter: hand starter, electric motor, or small IC engines for large IC engines

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Components

Supercharger: compressor powered from crankshaft to compress incoming air Throttle: buttery valve at upstream end of intake maniford to control air ow rate into SI engine Turbocharger: turbine-compressor powered by exhaust ow to compress incoming air valves; controls ow of air in and out of the cylinders Water jacket: liquid ow passages around cylinder for cooling Water pump: to circulate coolant

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation

4-stroke SI engine operation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-stroke_engine http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L-kYu0k5lF4

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation

4-stroke SI engine operation


First stroke: intake or induction Piston travels from TDC (top dead center) to BDC (bottom dead center) with intake valve open and exhaust valve closed
Volume increases in combustion chamber and creates vacuum Air pushed through cylinder As air passes through intake system, fuel is added

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation

Second stroke: compression Piston reaches BDC, intake valve closes and piston travels back to TDC with all valves closed
Air-fuel mixture compresses and temperature and pressure increase Near end of compression stroke, spark plug red and combustion initiated

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation

Combustion Piston near TDC: nearly constant-volume combustion Changes composition of gas mixture to exhaust products and temperature and pressure increases

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation

Third stroke: expansion All valves closed High pressure pushes piston away from TDC: produces work output of engine cycle Piston moves from TDC to BDC: volume increases and pressure and temperature drop

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation

Exhaust blowdown Late in power cycle exhaust valve is opened pressure dierential pushes hot exhaust gas out of cylinder and through exhaust system when piston is at BDC Exhaust gas carries away high amount of enthalpy, which lowers cycle thermal eciency

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation

Fourth stroke: exhaust When piston is at BDC cylinder is still full of exhaust gases at atmospheric pressure Exhaust valve stays open and piston moves from BDC to TDC pushing out most of the remaining exhaust gases into the exhaust system Near end of exhaust stroke before TDC, intake valve starts to open and is fully open by TDC when intake stroke starts next cycle Near TDC the exhaust valve starts to close and is fully closed sometime after TDC
Period where both intake valve and exhaust valve are open is called valve overlap

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation

Four-stroke SI operating cycle

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation

4-stroke CI engine operation

First stroke: intake Second stroke: compression Combustion Third stroke: power Exhaust blowdown Fourth stroke: exhaust

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation

2-stroke SI engine operation

Combustion: occurs quickly with piston at TDC First stroke: expansion power Exhaust blowdown Intake and scavenging: simultaneous intake and exhaust http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LuCUmQ9FxMU http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-stroke_engine

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation

2-stroke CI engine operation

Dierences with respect to 2-stroke SI No fuel added to incoming air; only air is compressed Fuel injector located in cylinder

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Thermodynamics

Otto cycle

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Thermodynamics

Piston is essentially stationary during combustion: constant volume

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Thermodynamics

Diesel engine

Uses heat of compression to initiate ignition and burn fuel Fuel injected into the combustion chamber during nal stage of compression

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Thermodynamics

Combustion occurs at a constant pressure, as the piston moves

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Thermodynamics

Variations

Dual cycle: cross between SI and CI Atkinson cycle Miller cycle Homogeneous charge compression ignition: well-mixed fuel and air are compressed to auto-ignition. Ignition occurs at several places simultaneously.
Homogeneous charge spark ignition gasoline engines Stratied charge compression ignition diesel engine

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Parameters

Engine parameters
Vc Vd TDC B S BDC s r Stroke S = 2a Average piston speed U p = 2SN N = engine speed Displacement for one cylinder Vd = a 2 B S 4

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Parameters

Distance between crank axis and wrist pin axis s = a cos + r 2 a2 sin2

Dierentiating and dividing by U p Up = sin 1 + 2 Up a cos r2 a2 sin2

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Parameters

Clearance volume, Vc Vc = VTDC VBDC = Vc + Vd Compression ratio rc = VBDC VTDC Vc + V d = Vc

High compression ratio allows engine to extract more mechanical energy from a given mass of air-fuel mixture due to its higher thermal eciency

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Parameters

Cylinder volume V = Vc + B 2 (r a s) 4

Cross-sectional area of cylinder and the surface area of a at-topped piston are given by Ap = 2 B 4

Combustion chamber surface area A = Ach + Ap + B r + a s Ach is the cylinder head surface area

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output

Work
Work is the output of any heat engine It is generated by the gases in the combustion chamber of the cylinder Force due to gas pressure on the moving piston generates work W = Ap dx = dV W = p dV F dx = pAp dx

P = pressure in combustion chamber Ap = area against which the pressure acts (piston face) x = distance the piston moves

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output

Indicator diagram

p A I B 4-stroke SI I = ignition, E = exhaust opens TDC BDC V

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output

Specic work w: per unit mass of air within cylinder Brake work: actual work available in the crankshaft wb = wi wf wi = indicated specic work generated inside combustion chamber wf = specic work lost due to friction and parasitic loads Mechanical eciency m = wb wi

Modern automobile engines at high speeds m = 75% to 95%

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output

Engine parameters
Mean eective pressure (MEP) MEP = Specic displacement vd = vBDC vTDC Using brake work BMEP = Using indicated work IMEP = wb vd wb vd w vd

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output

Torque
For one revolution 2T = Wb BMEP Vd = n so that BMEP Vd 2 BMEP Vd 4 2-stroke

T =

4-stroke

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output

Power

Power is the rate of work of the engine P = 2N T 1 MEPAp U p = 2n MEPAp U p /2 = MEPAp U p /4

2-stroke 4-stroke

n = number of revolutions per cycle, and N = engine speed

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output

Eect of engine speed

n 4-stroke SI

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output

Typical values
Model airplane 2-stroke Bore (cm) Stroke (cm) Displacement/cyl (L) Speed (rpm) Power (kW) Average piston speed (m/s) Power/displacement (kW/L) BMEP (kPa) 2.00 2.04 0.0066 13,000 0.72 8.84 109 503 Automobile 4-stroke 9.42 9.89 0.69 5,200 35 17.1 50.7 1170 Large stationary 2-stroke 50.0 161 316 125 311 6.71 0.98 472

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