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# Numerical Simulation of Fluid-Structure Interaction Problems using an Immersed Boundary Method A. L. F. LIMA E SILVA, A.

SILVEIRA-NETO Mechanical Engineering Faculty-Federal University of Uberlndia-Brazil And J. J. R. DAMASCENO Chemical Engineering Faculty-Federal University of Uberlndia-Brazil The study of systems involving fluid-structure and fluid-particle interactions represents a difficult task and involves an important spectrum of industrial problems. Some examples are the interaction between atmosphere boundary layer and offshore structures; particles deposition; flows around complex and flexible geometry; etc. In this work, the immersed boundary method is used to the numerical simulation of an uniform flow over a fixed immersed body. The two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, r equations (1) and (2), are used to describe the flow. A force source term, F , added to equation (1), guarantee the imposition of the non-slipping boundary condition over the bodyfluid interface. r r r r r r r V + V . V = P + 2V + F , t

( )

(1)

r r .V = 0 ,

(2)

r where F is given by

r r r r r r r F ( x ) = f ( x k ) ( x x k )dx k ,

(3)

r r and xk and x are the Lagrangean points placed over the immersed boundary and the Eulerian r r r r points, respectively, as shown in Figure (1). (x x k ) is a Dirac delta function, f (xk ) is the r r Lagrangean force density and F ( x ) is the Eulerian force that is not equal to zero only over the immersed boundary. Equation (3) represents the interaction between the immersed boundary and the fluid flow. This force field is injected to the fluid by the immersed boundary. These equations are discretized using the finite differences technique. The great advantage of the use an Eulerian-Lagrangean formulation is that it is unnecessary to remesh the calculation domain when the interface moves, due to the fact that the Eulerian grid nodes are always fixed. Another advantage is that this method can be used to handle with mobile and complexes geometries using Cartesian coordinates. The force term is first calculated on the Lagrangean points (Lagrangean force). Then it is distributed over the Cartesian grid using a Gaussian distribution function to obtain the Eulerian force. In the present work the PVM (Physical Virtual Method) was proposed to calculate the Lagrangean force field. This model is based on the momentum equation. All the NavierStokes terms are calculate over the Lagrangean points.

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x rx

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r Figure 1 Immersed boundary illustration; Eulerian mesh ( x ) and r Lagrangean mesh ( xk ).
r r The Lagrangean force f ( x k ) should be expressed by

r r r r r r r r r r f (xk ) = f a ( xk ) + f i (xk ) + f v ( xk ) + f p ( xk ) .

(4)

r The different terms that compose equation (4) are here named as acceleration force f a , r r r inertial force f i , viscous force f v and pressure force f p . These forces components are given by: r r r V r (xk ) , f a (xk ) = t r r rr r r f i ( xk ) = V . V (x k ) ,
r r r r f v ( x k ) = 2V ( x k ) ,

## (5) (6) (7) (8)

( )

r r r r f p ( x k ) = P ( x k ) ,

The different terms rdescribed by Equations (5)-(8) must be evaluated over the interface r r using the velocity field V (x ) and pressure fields p (x ) . In these calculations it must also be taken in to account that at the interface the fluid velocity must be equal to the interface velocity, which guarantee the no-slipping condition. The velocity and pressure spatial derivatives are calculated using the velocity and pressure field, obtained by Equations (1) and r r r (2). One of the possible ways is to interpolate V (x ) and P(x ) over appropriated points near the interface. With this methodology the fluid is affected by the interface through this force density term, generated over the boundary. A major issue is the use of the momentum equation on the points that describe the boundary to determine this Lagrangean force field, without use ad-hoc constants that should be adjusted for different type of flows. In the present work the flow over

a circular cylinder, a square cylinder and an airfoil, are being simulated for different Reynolds number and the vortex shedding, the drag and the lift coefficient are presented. Good agreement is found between the present calculations and previous computational and experimental results.