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BMF, 8MV and SM2 MDT 02S TLCNN1C4L OCSCR,7 T,7ON

BM F, 131W and 1,Z MOTORS i CCNNJCAL DCSCZJ% i ,SON

Content s

1. 1.1. 1.2.' 2. 3. 3.1. 3.2. 3.2.1. 3.2.2. 4. 5. 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.3.1. 5.4. i 5.5.

Comparison of bent-axis and swash plate design Piston forces and torque, generation Optimum closed loop drive hydrostatic motors BMV...TF.. - basic design purging device Function Function of Shuttle valve Discharge valve variable motor 1314V...TF.. Controls for BMV units Two position (flip-flop) Flip-flop motor with electric control Function "Regulating motor" BMR with high pressure sensing control Regulating motor BMR with high pressure sensing control and braking pressure shut off Motor with stepless hydraulic control purging system

6. 6.1. 6.2.

Setting of minimum displacement Limitation by head screw Limitation by threaded stud

B M F , BMV a n d BMR MOTORS T 6 C N N J C 4 L D . S C R J l T J O N

1 .

COItPARI SON OF BENT-AXIS AND SWASH P L A T E D D S I Q J

1.I. Piston

forces an(tQrg9

9eneratian

Bent-axis rotating unit (see fig.1) The pressure force F k - A k .A p acting on the front area A k of the piston is transmitted to the drive flange by the connecting rod. Of the two resulting components the axial force Fax is conducted into the housing via roller bearings. The radial force F r using the drive flange radius as a' moment arm creates the effective torque. It is an advantage of the bent-axis design that the torque is created directly on the drive flange, i.e. on the shaft. Only axial loads are applied to the piston and connecting rod. Bending loads on the connecting rod result from the cylinder barrel drag (inertia forces).

I'F)yO}

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BMF, l3MV and 1/)1R MOTORS TfCNNJC4L DCSC29?T1ON,


Swash-plate rotating unit (see fig.2)

The pressure force Fk works via the piston upon the slipper pad which acts upon the awash plate via an hydrostatic

hto) is eondUEiod intib the housing; the radial

1?egri,nv, T-111 force FN

kigl t angles to the iwAsh~p

component Fr using the cylinder pitch circle as a moment arm creates the torque, not directly on the shaft, but through reaction forces on the cylinder block (which is mechanically less advantageous). Due to this the rotating unit is limited to relatively small swash angles (c -.t- 1EP).

1.2.

Optimum closed loop drive

The above design principles of axial piston drives - bent-axis and swash-plate give each their unique characteristics which determine limitations and advantages of their applications. Hydraulic motor operation (secondary unit) Swash-plate: The hydraulic motor requires peak pressure and maximum swash angle simultaneously when the highest possible torque is demanded. This is true both for fixed and variable displacement. Under this condition the highest possible tilting forces will occur on the piston thus producing a considerable amount of friction between piston and cylinder bore. This effect is aggravated by a relatively high friction between swash-plate surface and slipper pads especially during the starting phase. Dent-axis: Its geometry provides substantial advantages since the torque is generated on the drive flange.

BMF, BMV and BMR MOTORS TCCI/NJCAL DCSCRJRT SON

Figures 3 and 4 show transmissions for closed loop operation as they are currently applied for instance in construction, ay0cultuxal ano
MuLel handling rtohieli nntl many other

/3MF,

L3MV and BM2

MOTORS TCCNNJCAL DCSCRI TYQN

Conclusion j

The bent-axis

motor. Mounting space and production cost of fixed displacement motors are the same for both designs. As for variable displacement motors the bent-axis construction has a distinct advantage. i Variable pump operation (primary unit)

drive is better suited for QPerptton e; o 1!I tg, Itp ItIrt up rtaam~ n~$, tar axrunp1e, iJ up to 101 greAtr than that of the awash-plate

Swash-plate: In the pumping operation peak pressure is more often required when displacement is small (see performance diagrams). The otherwise disadvantageous tilting forces between the piston and cylinder barrel therefore remain within acceptable limits in the pumping model The modest starting performance of the swash plate drive also remains relatively unimportant as a pump because it nearly always starts under no load condition and in the zero delivery condition (neutral). As swash plate pumps are fairly insensitive to cydlic speed fluctuations due to their reduced inertia they are particularly suited to be driven,by internal combustion engines. Bent-axis: Cbncul sion It is mainly for cost reasons that variable pumps in closed loop circuits should preferably be of the swash-plate construction. The disadvantages of the rotating unit do not have the same decisive effect as in motors. Summary: optimum exploitation of the advantages of both drive design principles is achieved when combining a swash-plate pump with a bent-axis motor. cost.
I !

From its space requirement and due to the higher manufacturing cost the bent-axis pump is less advantageous than the swash-plate PUMP

The result is a stepless drive of highest power density at least possible By the way,

Owing to the different number of pistons in the rotating unit (bent-axis: 7, swash-plate: 9) there are less pulsational resonances in such hydrostatic transmissions.

L3MF, BMV.and BMR MOTORS TECHNICAL DCSCRI T .SON

General Details: - Axial piston motors in bent-axis design for use in all sizes.

2.

xstatic motors BMV...TF... (basic design see fig. 5)

in open and closed loop circuits. 7 pistons (1) No-play and permanent connection between piston and connecting rod. Piston forces are transmitted via connecting rod (2) to the drive shaft flange (3) robust drive shaft bearings. Side-load tolerant drive shaft (5) with extremely Size 35 to 75: taper roller bearing (4)

Size 105 to 186: axial, radial cylinder roller bearing( means of a retainer plate (7). No-play retension of connecting rods in the drive flange due to special

6). Fixing of all connecting rods in the drive flange by

production and measurement facilities. Pre-loading of

- Area balancing assures increase of cylinder barrel loading thus reliably overcoming the lift off forces.

cylinder barrel on the valve plate by spring force (8).

(9) upon the valve plate with growing working pressure and

- Additional safety is obtained by introducing the additional mechanical lift off security device (10) with a precisely controlled gap "A".

BMF, BMW and 3) fl MOT URS TCCNN,JCAL DCSCi J T,JON

BMF, BMV and B M R M O T O R S T 6 C N N J C A L D 6 S C R J i T . S O N 3.

purging device

3.1.

Function
The purging arrangement - optionally usable in both fixed displacement and variable motors is a combination of two flushing systems: a] Circuit purging (fig. 6 and fig. 7 ) In closed loop systems without purging facility the circulating working fluid is renewed by as much cooled fluid as is lost due to leakage. The excessive boost pump delivery of cooled working fluid is discharged across the base-pressure relief valve.

Fig.6-Closed loop circuit without circuit purging

The circuit purging arrangement shown on fig.7 connects the l o w pressure side with the discharge (or purge) relief valve by means of a shuttle valve. After intensively mixing the cooled oil with the circulating fluid and restitution of the leakage loss a limited flow bleeds through the discharge relief valve. Wherever temperature problems arise (for example at high ambient temperature) the circuit temperature can be lowered considerably by means of "circuit purging".

BMF, QMV and O M 2 M O T O R S T C C N N Y C A L O C S C R I T 9 0 N

Ca bb liuAing The heat generated in the rotating assembly parts of hydraulic motors like bearings, joints, sliding surfaces, can be dissipated from the housing only by the leakage. Under certain conditions of operation ( high speed, low working pressure) the actual leakage is not sufficient to dissipate the actual friction heat. In these cases an additional flushing flow is introduced into the motor housing through the second drain connection port and carried away through the normal drain port together with the normal leakage. This results in a more intensive heat transfer and, therefore, in more effective cooling of the rotating assembly. The purging arrangement shown fig.8 unites the advantages described under a) and b?. i.e. the flushing oil from the discharge valve is fed into the inside of the motor housing and then, after having flushed the housing, flows out together with the normal leakage.

D F, DMV and BI MOTORS T CCNNICAL DCSCR1% T .SON 3.2.


Function of purging system 3.2.1.Shuttle Valve

w in b o t h h i g h p r s s s u r s l i n e s A r o w i t h o u t prsggurs t e&try ri 1y boost pressure (for example in zero position of the pump), the two shuttle spools remain in theirspring centred neutral position according to fig. 9. High pressure can get to the discharge valve neither from high pressure port A nor from the high pressure port B (see fig.9).

L 7
BMF, BMVand BM2 MOTORS T6Cl1N1CAL D6SC29i T.7ON
T h e end stop is at the same time the conical seat of spool Al which also ensures that high pressure fluid cannot get from spring chamber Al 3.2.2. Discharge Valve The choice of a discharge valve has to be made according to the application of the hydraulic motors, i.e. whether they are for the open or closed loop circuit. 3.2.2.1. Discharge valve for open loop obnsiderable pressure fluctuations can occur in return lines of open loop circuits due to the directional control valves. These entail discharge flow fluctuations in normal pressure relief valves which may create high back pressure in the leakage lines and, therefore, also in the housing of the hydraulic motors in extreme cases. For this reason it is expedient to use the flow limiting discharge valve according to fig.ll.

i t-IaJ

to

the

discharge valve.

Fig.

1 1 - Flow limiting discharge valve for open loop

This valve works as a pressure relief valve and keeps the discharge flow constant.

l BMF, BMV and BM2 MOTORS T13CNNJCAL D6SCiJ% T JON


for the closed loop

3.2.2.2. Discharge valve

In closed loop circuits there are hardly any pressure fluctuations in the return line. Therefore, a standard pressure relief valve is sufficient to operate as a discharge valve. Such valves allow for larger discharge flows which may, however, be reduced, if necessary, by inserting throttles or restrictor fittings (see fig. 12).

Fig. 12 - Pressure limiting discharge valve for closed loop

The pressure setting of the valve depends on the boost-pressure setting of the corresponding pump and is determined in the engineering stage.

l BMF, BMV and BM2 MOTORS T14CNNJCAL D6SCiJ% T JON


4. variable motor BMV..TF

The rotating assembly of the HMV is identical with that of the guF.

The valve plate of variable motors (fig-13) with its timing face (1) on which the cylinder barrel runs is identical to that of the fixed displacement motors. The rear side (2) is, however,shaped such that the valve plate can slide' on the semi-circular track of the precisely machined matching housing whilst maintaining an effective seal between then. For switching from minimum to maximum displacement or vice-versa a control piston is generally used. The control piston contains a pin (3) which sits in the hole of the valve plate thus transmitting the control force to the rotating assembly.

BMF, QMVand QMR MOTORS TCCNN1CAL DCSCR1% TYON

5. 5.1.

Controls for BMV units Two position (flip flop) (fig-14) By means of a 4/2 way valve a control pressure Pst of about 15 bar is alternatively applied to connection port "X" or "Y". One side of the control piston is thus charged by control pressure, while the opposite side is connected to the tank (i.e. unloaded).

Fig. 14 - Flip-flop motor

Control pressure at port "X" Control pressure at port "Y"

minimum displacement maximum displacement

TJ7vJ

l3MF,, f3MV and BMR MOTORS TCCNN2CAL DCSCR:1 T ,SON

5.2.

Flip-flop motor with electric control (fig.15) T h e 4/2 way valve mentioned under 5.1 is in this case a solenoid valve directly attached to a motor. Connection port (P) must be supplied with control pressure from an auxiliary source (max 2 0 bar). A return line for this control pressure is not needed, since there is a direct connection in the motor housing to the leakage port (L).

Fig-15 - Flip-flop motor with electric control

Magnet unenergised ^. maxi'mun displacement Magnet energised = minimum displacement

B F, 8M V and BI MOTORS TCCNNJCAL DCSCRI T 1ON

5.3.

Motor with stepless hydraulic control

5.3.1. Function (circuit diagram fig.16) The control device receives pressurised fluid of minimum 15 bar from the servo circuit through port "P". When the pilot valve ( 1) is in its normal position, the servo pressure is conducted to one side of the control piston, i.e. to that side which corresponds to the maximum displacement position of the motor. The opposite piston side is discharged via the pilot valve into the inside of the motorhousing.

Fig.16 - Motor with stepless hydraulic control

On sending a defined control pressure through port "X" a pilot valve is shifted against the force of the spring and the control system is charged with servo pressure which induces the control piston to switch the motor from maximum to minimum displacement. The feed back system (3) allows it to run precisely at any intermediate position between minimum and maximum displacement depending on the control pressure at port "X". The variation from Vmax to Vmin is a function proportional to a control pressure (normally 8 to 15 bar) according to diagram fig.17.

BMF, 13MV and BMR MOTORS i CCNN1C4L DCSC29PT1ON

Fig. 17 - Variation from V max to V min as a function of the control pressure. Values stated in parantheses are standard pilot pressures.

The 8 to 15 bar line can be adjusted slightly by means of the setting screw (8) shown in fig.18. Counter clockwise = spring (6) compressed Clockwise . - spring (6) relieved

In exceptional cases an override pressure signal can be sent to the normally closed port "Y" towards the upper side of the pilot valve (1). This pressure signal is in support of the forces of springs (6) and (7). To achieve this, however, a plug (9) must be fitted in the connection to channel (L).

BMF, BMV and 8M2 MOTORS TCC//NYCAL D6SCPd TJON

Fig.18 - Motor with stepless hydraulic control (construction)

BMF, DMV and GM2 MOTORS TCCNNJCAL D6SC2Ji T.7ON,

5.4.

"Regulating motor" SIR with high pressure sensing control

5.4.1.' Function (see circuit diagram fig.l9) In this regulating system the motor is normally fixed in its minimum displacement position. Upon reaching a pre-selected pressure the motor switches steplessly towards its maximum displacement.

Fig.19 - "Regulating motor" BMR with high pressure sensing control

T h e shuttle valve (1) will always connect the pressure control device (2) with that high pressure port A or B carrying the higher pressure level (the shuttle valve feed line is equipped with a filter, in order to protect the entire regulating device against contamination). Therefore, there is always high pressure in front of the pressure regulator (2) and via channel (3) also on the small face of the control piston (4). The small area of the control piston being pressurised and the large area being unloaded via the pressure regulator the motor is always kept in its minimum displacement position. The pressure setting of the regulator defines the regulation begin, i.e. that pressure at which the motor will start to shift towards maximum displacement. As soon as the pressure controller (2) moves against the spring force, high pressure will be released upon the large area of the control piston through channel (5). Due to the pressure forces resulting from the area differential the motor is moved. The adaptation to the required torque is effected steplessly and the motor maintains positively any position between Vmin and V depending on the high pressure. The control characteristic is m ax shown in diagram fig.20.

I3l)iF, BI'IV and Bit MOTORS TCCHNJCAL DCSCi2JPTJON

Fig.2 0 -Control character' stic*of the regulating motor BMR

pressure range of P = - PRB which is normally about 10 to 15 bar. Despite this relatively narrow band the resolution is very good, because the torque is Increased within this by about 2,8 times (depending on the minimum displacement setting)

The motor displacement is varied from


PRE

Vmin to Vmax

within the

The regulating motors MR are also equipped with the purging system for the reasons described in paragraph 3 (circuit diagram according fig. 21 ).

145985 /31 F, 131W and Bhlf MOTORS l CC//NJCAL DCSCZJPl .SON

T h e shuttle valve (11) will open the connection port carrying ' lower pressure (in this case A), so that the fluid can bleed out of this channel. T h e escaping amount of fluid i s limited to a certain value (about 8 1/min) by means of the discharge valve (12) - a combination of pressure relief valve (response pressure about 5 bar) and 2 way flow control valve,- independent of the pressure on the low pressure side.

Fig.21 - regulating motor with RM with purging arrangement and regulator by pass.

5.4.2.

"Regulator by-pass" There are various working conditions requiring the possibility of selecting maximum displacement even below the regulation begin point of the regulating motor, i.e. it must be possible to intentionally override the high pressure signal for precise travel control. For this purpose the regulator must be by passed by connecting port .4( A(B) with port -ICY (fig.21). By fitting a shut off valve in this line this feature can be selected on demand.

BMF, BMV and BMR MOTORS TrCNNJCAL D6SCRJl TION i


5.5.
5.5.1. Regulating motor_BPR with high_ pressure braking pressure shut off Application criteria It is a disadvantage of all high pressure control regulating motors in the closed loop that the braking operation will switch the motor to full displacement as soon as the braking pressure exceeds the regulation begin. This has the following consequences: a) When a relatively light vehicle travels at high speed while the pump is at full displacement and the motor at reduced displacement, a very harsh deceleration can be caused by braking. Jerky and uncontrolled behaviour would be the result. Heavy vehicles develop most of the time a very high kinetic energy at maximum travel speed. On starting the deceleration phase hydrostatically the pump delivery is first reduced. Braking pressure builds up activating the regulator of the MR thus increasing its displacement.The high kinetic energy and inertia do not allow the travel speed and the motor speed to decrease rapidly, so that the response of the regulator leads to a sudden increase of flow in the return line, while the pump is not able to assure a sufficient supply on the other side. This causes a temporary cavitation in the rotor. A back pressure will build up in the return line as the occurring high delivery cannot be consumed by the pump. The high pressure relief valves will open, the circuit will be heated up very quickly! These vehicle depending braking situations are beyond the driver's control, and they can be easily remedied by preventing the braking pressure getting to the pressure regulator irrespective of the sense of rotation. Under this condition the BM will develop its full torque only for acceleration while the motor stays or goes into the minimum displacement position for braking, so that hydrostatic deceleration is effected gently. This measure provides a gentle deceleration. With the objective of having the entire variation range and, therefore, the maximum hydraulic motor torque available also when reversing, the pressurisation of the regulating device is correlated with the direction of travel by means of an electric selection valve.

sensing control and

b)

B M F , BMV and BMR MOTORS T CC//NJCAL UCSCRJ7 T .JON

T h e & R with brake pressure shut off has proven to be the ideal motor for hydrostatic transmissions with automotive control and continuous primary-secondary-variation. The acceleration and deceleration behaviour is very progressive and the regenerative load of the vehicle on the prime mover is limited. Hydraulic motor cavitation is avoided. Sensitive driver controlled, dynamic braking is taken over by the mechanical brakes. The hydrostatic transmission has a supporting function according to the selected minimum displacement of the hydraulic motor.

BMF, OMV and 8M2 MOTORS TCCIINICAL DCSCRI T1ON


5.5.2. Brake _pressure shut off Description of function

In the circuit diagram according to fig.22 the two main connection ports of the BM motor are marked A and B. Two connection channels a and b lead from the main channels A and B to a hydraulically operated 3/2 way valve (3). Strainers are fitted in the lines a and b for protecting the control device against coarse contamination. Valve (3) determines which of the two lines a or b are connected with the regulator (2) and the small piston area (1). Control piston (1) determines the position and, therefore, the displacement of the Bt4 motor.

Via the two channels a and b the two B are also connected to the shuttle valve is such that the lower of the the flow limiting discharge valve (6) .

main connection ports A and valve (4). The function of this two pressures is connected with and to the solenoid 3/2 valve (5)

By means of the electrically controlled valve (5) it is determined which of the main ports A or B can pressurise the regulator (2) of the motor. A solenoid linked with the travel direction selector of the pump control determines the position of valve (5). The illustration shows the solenoid unenergised. The centering spring of the valve determines the position shown in which the connection of valve (3) is unloaded and the position of valve (3) is defined by a spring as shown in the picture. Through channel b port B of the hydraulic motor is connected with the control device (2) and the small area of the control piston (1).

Bi F. OMV and 8MR MOTORS T6CNNYCAL DCSC22i T .SON

Below the begin o f regulation which is defined by the spring of the regulator (2) pressure loading the small area of piston (1) keeps the motor in minimum displacement position Vmin. The large area is unloaded. As the rolling resistance and, therefore, the pressure rises above the regulation begin, the large area of the regulator is also pressurised from connection port B; the force differential moves the motor to its maximum displacement position Vmax. According to the required torque any intermediate position between Vmin and Vmax can be reached and maintained steplessly! When pressure in B drops below the regulation begin, the large area of piston (1) is discharged again; the motor moves into its Vin position. When braking the pressure changes from B to A! The small piston area is then only loaded by the boost pressure and keeps the motor in Vmin, while the higher pressure in port A and channel 'a' cannot get to the regulator! The BMt motor stays in its exceeds the regulation begin.
Vmin

position even if the braking pressure

When changing the sense of travel or rotation, the solenoid of valve (5) is energised and valve (5) switches over to that position which pressurises the control port of valve (3). Valve (3) changes and connect! 'a' with the control valve (2) and the small area of the control piston (1). Connection port A has now become inlet port; the flow in this channel goes to the hydraulic motor. When due to rising travel or movement resistance in A pressure exceeds the set regulation begin (2), the motor will respond. When braking the sense of rotation and flow remain the same, but higher pressure will occur in B. This has, however, no influence on the regulator. The motor remains in its Vin position or goes back to this position. It will brake with the torque resulting from Vmin leading to vehicle slowing down gently.

BMF, L3MV and BMR MOTORS T CCHNJCAL DCSCRYl T .SON 6.

Setting of minimum displacement The method of setting the minimum displacement is different according to size and age of the motors. Basically there are two varieties: 6.1. Limitation by head screw (fig.23 ) The end stop plate (3) i s connected to the V max side of the control piston (1) by means of snap ring (2). The compression spring ( 4) presses this stop plate on the snap ring. Fig 23 Setting of the minimum displacement (limitation by head screw)

~.

The shoulder of the bolt (5) serves as an end stop for minimum swash angle limitation secured with the self sealing nut (6). To change the minimum displacement bolt (5) must be turned after loosening the nut (6): Screwing in

n Vmin

becomes smaller becomes bigger

Screwing out.: V

min

The maximum swash angle of the motor of 28 is limited by piston ( 1) contacting cover (7). 6.2. Limitation by threaded stud (fig.24) There is a threaded stud (1) located at the Vmin side of the motor housing secured by the self sealing nut (2). In the Vmin position the valve plate (3) of the complete rotating assembly is stopped by this stud. For changing the minimum displacement the stud (1) has to be turned after loosening nut (2). Screwing in Vmin becomes larger Screwing out = Vmin becomes smaller Due to the length of' lhe threaded stud the range of adjustment of the minimum displacement is limited (minimum swash angle 8 to 16 ). Bigger minimum swash angles hence larger minimum displacements are possible upon request to the factory.

BM F, Bh?V and 8112 MOTORS T CCl/NYC4L D6SC29YT1ON

Fig.23 - Setting of mini-mum displacement (limitation by head screw)

~^ BMF, BMV and BM2 MOTORS TCCNNJCAL DCSCi.1% T1ON

Fig.24 - Setting of minimum displacement (limitation by threaded stud)