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### Problem Sheet 2

Week:

2

(based on Lectures 3 and 4)

Topics:

Remainder Theorem, Factor Theorem, and Binomial Theorem

• 1. Find the quotient q(x) and the remainder r(x) that result when p(x) is divided by s(x).

 (i) p(x) = x 4 + 3x 3 − 5x + 10 ; s(x) = x 2 − x + 2 (ii) p(x) = 6x 4 + 10x 2 + 5 ; s(x) = 3x 2 − 1 (iii) p(x) = x 5 + x 3 + 1 ; s(x) = x 2 + x (iv) p(x) = 2x 4 − 3x 3 + 5x 2 + 2x + 7 ; s(x) = x 2 − x + 1 (v) p(x) = 2x 5 + 5x 4 − 4x 3 + 8x 2 + 1 ; s(x) = 2x 2 − x + 1 (vi) p(x) = 5x 6 + 4x 2 + 5 ; s(x) = x 3 + 1. 2. Use the method of Synthetic Division to ﬁnd the quotient q(x) and the remainder r(x) that result when p(x) is divided by s(x). (i) p(x) = 3x 3 − 4x − 1 ; s(x) = x − 2 (ii) p(x) = x 4 − 5x 2 + 4 ; s(x) = x + 5 (iii) p(x) = x 5 − 1 ; s(x) = x − 1 (iv) p(x) = 2x 3 − x 2 − 2x + 1 ; s(x) = x − 1 (v) p(x) = 2x 4 + 3x 3 − 17x 2 − 27x − 9 ; s(x) = x + 4 (vi) p(x) = x 7 + 1 ; s(x) = x − 1. 3. Let p 1 (x) = x 3 + 4x 2 + x − 6 such that and p 2 (x) = x 5 − 1. Find a polynomial q(x) and a constant r (i) p 1 (x) = (x − 2) q(x) + r (ii) p 1 (x) = (x + 1) q(x) + r. (iii) p 2 (x) = (x + 1) q(x) + r (iv) p 2 (x) = (x − 1) q(x) + r. 4. Factorize the polynomials completely. (i) p(x) = x 3 − 2x 2 − x + 2 (ii) p(x) = 3x 3 + x 2 − 12x − 4 (iii) p(x) = x 4 + 10x 3 + 36x 2 + 54x + 27 (iv) p(x) = 2x 4 + x 3 + 3x 2 + 3x − 9 (v) p(x) = x 5 + 4x 4 − 4x 3 − 34x 2 − 45x − 18.

UPCSE Core Mathematics

Problem Solving Classes Week 2

2

• 5. Find all values of k for which (x 1) is a factor of the polynomial p(x) = k 2 x 3 7kx + 10.

• 6. Find the possible value(s) of k such that x +

• 2 and (x + 2k) are factors of x 2 + 15 x + 9.

k

2

• 7. Find constants a and b such that ax 3 bx 2 + 45x + 54 = 0 has a root 3, and yields a remainder of 12 when divided by (x + 1).

• 8. Show that (x 3) is a factor of

x 3 5x 2 + 2x 2 y + xy 2

8xy 3y 2 + 6x + 6y.

(1)

Further, if (1) is expressed in

a, b, c, and d.

the form (x 3)(x + ay + b)(x + cy + d), determine the integers

9.

When the polynomial p(x) is divided by (x a)(x b)

remainder is r(x).

;

= b, the quotient is q(x) and the

a

• (i) Explain why r(x) is of the form (mx + c) where m and c are constants.

(ii)

Given that p(b) = b 2 , and the remainder is a 2 , when p(x) is divided by (x a).

Find r(x) when p(x) is divided by

(x a)(x b).

• 10. Factorise the following polynomials and solve p(x) = 0 in each case. Each polynomial has at least one rational zero.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

p(x) =

x

3

x 2

10x 8

p(x) =

x

3

x 2 16x 20

p(x) = x 3 + 4x 2 8

p(x) = x 3 x 2 + x 6

• (v) p(x) = 2x 3 3x 2 11x + 6

11.

Prove that

101 50 > 100 50 + 99 50 .

• 12. Given that the third term in the expansion of x + x log x 5 is 10 6 . Find x.

• 13. Show that for n Z + :

(i)

(ii)

n

0

+ n + n

1

2

+ · · · + n n = 2 n .

Use the result in 13(i) to

show that

n + 2 n + · · · + n n

1

2

n = n2 n1 .

• 14. Prove that the sum of coeﬃcients in the expression 1 + x 3x 2 2163 is 1.

• 15. Prove that the sum of coeﬃcients of the odd terms in the expansion of (1 + x) n , n Z + is equal to the sum of coeﬃcients of the even terms.

• 16. Given two polynomials, p(x) = 2x 4 + 13x 3 + 18x 2 + x 4, and g(x) = x 2 + 5x + 2.

• (i) Write p(x) = g(x)q(x) + r(x); where q(x) and r(x) are polynomials to be determined.

(ii) Show that p(x) and g(x) have no common zeros.

UPCSE Core Mathematics

Problem Solving Classes Week 2

3

• 17. Obtain the Binomial expansions of

 (i) (1 + x) −2 and (ii) (1 + x) −6 .

Use the above expansions to ﬁnd the coeﬃcient of x 6 in the expansion of

(1 2x + 3x 2 4x 3 + 5x 4 6x 5 + 7x 6 ) 3 .

• 18. The Euler’s number e is deﬁned by e =

n T n ; where T n = 1 +

lim

n n

1

.

Apply Binomial Theorem to expand T n and hence show that the constant e can be expressed as

e =

1

0 ! +

1

1

1 ! + 2 ! +

1

3 !

+

·

·

·

.

19.

(i)

Use the ﬁrst four terms of the Binomial expansion of 1

approximation for 2.

50 1 1/2

to derive an

(ii) Find an approximation to

3 2 using the ﬁrst four terms of the Binomial expansion of

1 +

125 1/3

N

, for a suitable N.

• 20. If f(x) =

24

(1 x)(2 + x) is expressed as f(x) =

A

1 x

+

B

2 + x

, ﬁnd constants A and B.

Use this result to show that for suﬃciently small x, f(x) 12 + 6x + 9x 2 .

• 21. Considering i = 1 and using the identity

(cos θ + i sin θ) n = cos + i sin nθ,

show that

cos = cos n θ n cos n2

2

θ sin 2 θ + n cos n4

4

θ sin 4 θ − · · · · · · .

and

sin = n cos n1 θ sin θ n cos n3 θ sin 3 θ + n cos n5

1

3

5

θ sin 5 θ − · · · · · · .

Note: Identity (2) is called De Moivre’s Theorem.

(2)

(3)

(4)

Use the results obtained in (3) and (4), to obtain formulae for cos 3θ and sin 3θ in terms of cos θ

and sin θ. Hence, show that

tan 3θ =

3 tan θ tan 3 θ

1 3 tan 2 θ

.

Use formula (3) to show that

cos 5θ = 16 cos 5 θ 20 cos 3 θ + 5 cos θ.

UPCSE Core Mathematics

Problem Solving Classes Week 2

4