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Section 3-3 3.12 Show Karnaugh map for equation Y = F(A,B,C) = m(1, 2, 3, 6, 7) 3.

.13 Show Karnaugh map for equation Y = F(A,B,C,D) = m(1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14) Section 3-7 3-23 Give SOP form of Y = F(A,B,C,D) = M(0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 15) 3-24 Draw Karnaugh map of Y = F(A,B,C,D) = M(0, 1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15) Section 3-8 3-29 Simplify to give POS form by grouping zeros in Karnaugh map for equation given in problem 3-23. 3-30 Simplify to give POS form by grouping zeros in Karnaugh map for equation given in problem 3-24. Section 3-9 and 3-10 3-31 Get simplified expression of Y = F(A,B,C,D) = m(1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14) using Quine-McClusky method. 3-32 Get simplified expression of Y = F(A,B,C,D,E) = m(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 12, 13, 14, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30) using Quine-McClusky method. 3-33 For the following Karnaugh map give SOP and POS form that do not show static-0 or static-1 hazard. _ C __ AB _ AB AB _ AB 1 0 1 1 C 1 0 0 0

3-34 Verify with timing diagram if the following circuit shows dynamic hazard. A B C Y

4-12 Design a circuit that realizes following two functions using a decoder and two OR gates. F1(A,B)= m(0,3) and F2(A,B)= m(1,2)

4-13 Design a circuit that realizes following three functions using a decoder and three OR gates. F1(A,B,C)= m(1,3,7), F2(A,B,C)= m(2,3,5) and F3(A,B,C)= m(0,1,5,7)

Change heading SECTION 4-8 to SECTION 4-8 and 4-9 Add 4-29 Write the (X>Y) equation for a 4-bit comparator. 4-30 Show how magnitude of two 10-bit numbers can be compared using IC 7485.

6-18 Show how two IC 74283s can be connected to add two 8-bit numbers. Does the carry ripple between two ICs ? 6-19 Show how a parallel adder generates sum and carry bits while adding two numbers 1001 and 1011, What is the final result? SECTION 6-10 6-20 How A<B function is performed in IC 74181? 6-21 Show how 7 can be subtracted from 13 using IC 74181.

8-27 (a) Derive the characteristic equation and (b) draw state transition diagram of the fictitious flip-flop described in example 8-10. 8-28 Explain the difference between Mealy and Moore model of sequential circuit. 8-29 Analyze the following circuit and explain what it does..

Q _ Q

Q _ Q Y

CLK 8-30 Show how to convert D flip-flop to JK flip-flop.

8-31 Convert T flip-flop to D flip-flop. 8-32 Convert SR flip-flop to T flip-flop.

9-25 Show how modulo-8 switched tail counter works if is initialized with 1001. How to decode this counter? 9-26 Show the circuit diagram for a 8-bit sequence detector which has to detect a fixed pattern 10011110 from incoming binary data stream.

10.31 Design a modulo-3 counter using D flip-flop that counts as 011011. The unused state 00 goes to 01 at next clock trigger. 10.32 Design a modulo-5 counter using D flip-flop the unused states of which go to one of the valid counting state at next clock trigger. 10.33 Design a circuit using JK flip-flop that behaves both as a modulo-5 and modulo-3 counter depending on how it I initialized. 10.34 Design a modulo-8 counter (a) using SR flip-flop and (b) using T flip-flop. 10.35 Design a sequence generator with minimum number of flip-flops that generates sequence 110001 repetitively. 10.36 Design a sequence generator with minimum number of flip-flops that generates sequence 10110001 repetitively.

SECTION 11.1 AND 11.2 11-1 Draw state transition diagram of synchronous sequential logic circuit using Mealy Model that detects three consecutive zeros from an input data stream, X and signals detection by making output, Y=1. 11-2 Convert Mealy Model of problem 11-1 to Moore Model using conversion rules. 11-3 Using Moore Model draw state transition diagram of a serial parity checker circuit. If the number of 1s received at input X is even, parity checker output, Y=0. If odd number of 1s are received at X then Y=1. 11-4 Convert Moore Model of problem 11-3 to a Mealy Model. 11-5 Using Moore Model draw state transition diagram of the circuit that generates a single pulse of width equal to clock period when enabled by E=1. The circuit is reset by E=0 at any stage. 11-6 Draw state transition diagram of sequence detector circuit that detects 1101 from input data stream using both Mealy and Moore Model. SECTION 11.3 AND 11.4 11-7 For Mealy Model state transition diagram of sequence detector problem shown in Fig. 11.2b use following state assignment and get corresponding state synthesis table for JK flip-flop based solution. a : B=0, A=0 b: B=0, A=1 c: B=1, A=1

11-8 For Mealy Model state transition diagram of sequence detector problem shown in Fig. 11.2b use following state assignment and get corresponding state synthesis table for JK flip-flop based solution. a : B=0, A=0 b: B=0, A=1 c: B=1, A=1 d: B=1, A=0

11-9 Give design equations for problem 11-7. Compare this with solution given in section 11.4.

11-10 Give design equations for problem 11-7. Compare this with solution given in section 11.4. 11-11 Give design equations for problem 11-1 for implementation with D flip-flops. 11-12 Implement circuit diagram for problem 11-1 using JK flip-flops. 11-13 How many memory elements are necessary for Mealy and Moore Model in sequence detector problem 11-6. 11-14 Implement (a) parity checker circuit of problem 11-3 and (b) single pulse generator circuit of problem 11-5. SECTION 11.5 TO 11.7 11-15 Show how using an additional column in ROM the combinatorial circuit of Fig. 11-9 for sequence detector problem can be dispensed of. 11-16 Implement ROM based solution for problem 11-6 where output is directly derived from ROM. 11-17 In vending machine problem of section 11.6 we want to add an additional function. We give the customer an option to get back the coins he has deposited if he finds himself short of money or changes his mind midway. However, this function does not work if the cost of the product is reached. A push button switch, P is used for this which when pressed generates P=1 and returns the coin deposited thus far by activating C=1. Show what changes in ASM chart of Fig. 11-12 are necessary for this. 11-18 Draw ASM chart for problem 11-5and implement the circuit using ROM. 11-19 Find the minimum number of states necessary to represent following state table both by row elimination and implication table method. Present State a b c d e f g 11-20 Next State X=0 X=1 f d c f f b e g a d g b a d Present Output X=0 X=1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1

Reduce following state table using implication table method. Next State X=0 X=1 h c c d h b f h c f f g g c a c Present Output X=0 X=1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0

Present State a b c d e f g h SECTION 11.8

11-21 State the condition of stability in asynchronous sequential logic. 11-22 One of the two inputs of a two input NOR gate is fed back from the output. Write its state stable and encircle stable states, if any. 11-23 For state table in problem 11-30 show the stable states, if any. 11-24 For state table in problem 11-30 show how the circuit behaves when xy=11 and A changes as 10.

11-25 There are three inputs A, B and C to an asynchronous sequential logic system. If ABC=111 at any given time write the allowed combination of inputs that can follow. 11-26 Draw state table of following asynchronous sequential logic circuit.

x A X

B
SECTION 11.9 11-27 When does oscillation occur in an asynchronous sequential logic circuit? 11-28 How can essential hazard be prevented in asynchronous sequential logic circuit? 11-29 There are two inputs A, B and three feedback outputs x, y and z of an asynchronous sequential logic system. If xyzAB=10011 gives a stable state and input AB changes as 1110, which of the following next state does not give racing problem 10110, 00110, 11010, 00010 and 11110? 11-30 Find out potential problems in following state table where A is input and x and y are output feedbacks.
A xy 0 1 00 01 00 01 00 01 11 10 11 10 10 01

SECTION 11.10 11-31 The T filp-flop has a single input T, and single output Q. For T=0, output does not change. For T=1, output complements and remains at that value as long as T=1. Draw its (a) state diagram and (b) primitive flow table. 11-32 For problem 11-31, use state reduction technique to check if a reduced flow table is possible. 11-33 Find design equations for problem 11-31 after appropriate state assignment. 11-34 Design a parity generator using asynchronous sequential logic that gives output=1 when it receives odd number of pulses and output=0 if the number of pulses received is even. (Hint: State transition diagram is same as problem 11-31) 11-35 Draw state transition diagram of a modulo-3 counter for asynchronous sequential logic. The counter counts number of pulses appearing at its input and generates output=1 when three pulses arrive else output=0. 11-36 Design modulo-3 counter stated in problem 11-35 using asynchronous sequential logic. 11-37 We require a circuit which will suppress narrow positive spikes on a signal line. The output of the circuit will be an inverted and slightly delayed version of the input minus the spikes. Construct the primitive flow table and show one state assignment scheme. 11-38 Get design equations for problem 11-37 and implement the circuit. Verify how it does noise suppression. 12-14 Why data integrity of optical memory is better than magnetic memory? 12-15 What is the data transfer rate of a 52X CD-ROM drive? 12-16 Briefly explain Read, Write, Erase process of CD-RW media. 12-17 What is the data transfer rate of 8X DVD-ROM drive?

SECTION 16-1 16-1 For memory configured as in Fig, if immediate addressing is allowed what is the maximum value of number (in decimal) can be loaded through instruction fetch? 7 Opcode 5 4 Address 0

16-2 What is the minimum size required for MAR if memory addressed has size 1K16? 16-3 For a more complex computer design, 75 different instructions are required. What size of IR would you likely to choose? 16-4 Draw data path of the computer described next. The computer in addition to what is described in section 16-2 has two more registers P and Q, which can transfer data to/from ACC via BUS. It also has a CY flag that stores ALU overflow and a Z flag that is set when all the bits of ACC are zero. SECTION 16-2 16-5 What does the following statement mean 16-6 Explain the meaning of (X + Y) : A B XY : A B

16-7 Give the final content of ACC when following statements are executed T1 : ACC ACC MDR T2 : ACC ACC 16-8 State what the following statement performs for the computer described in problem 16-8. T1 : ACC ACC + MDR CY & T2 : P ACC CY & T2 : Q ACC SECTION 16-3 16-9 Show how shift left operation with carry is executed. 16-10 Show how shift right operation with carry can be executed. 16-11 Consider the first instruction of the simple computer is replaced by MVI that moves immediate data (immediate addressing) to ACC. Write micro operations for this instruction. What change in hardware is required for this? 16-12 Consider the first instruction of the simple computer is replaced by LDI that moves indirect data (indirect addressing) to ACC. Write micro operations for this instruction. Does it require any change in hardware? SECTION 16-4 16-13 What does LOADMAR = T0 + T2 mean?

16-14 Explain if there will be any problem if by mistake the control unit is developed on logic equation LOADMAR = T0 + T2 + T4. 16-15 Show using diagrams control inputs to ALU. Consider IC 74181 (Section 6-10, Chapter 6) is used as ALU. 16-16 Show using diagrams control inputs to Memory. SECTION 16-5 16-17 How many clock cycles are required to execute program given for example 16-7? 16-18 How many clock cycles are required to execute program given for example 16-8? 16-19 If the two numbers used in example 16-7 are 5 and 8, and data section immediately follows program section show the memory values in binary after the program is executed? How will it be represented in hexadecimal? --------Example 16-7 Write a program for this computer that adds two positive integers, available in memory locations addr1 and addr2, multiplies the sum by 5 and stores final result in location addr3. Consider, the numbers are small enough not to cause any overflow i.e. data at every stage require less than 8-bits for its representation. Solution Addition of two numbers is straightforward and can be done using LDA and ADD instructions. For multiplication with 5 we have to use an indirect technique. Two left shift give multiplication by 4 and one addition will make it multiplication by 5. Alternatively, 5 ADD operations will also give multiplication by 5. The program can be written as follows. LDA addr1 ADD addr2 STA addr3 SHL SHL ADD addr3 STA addr3 HLT Note that, we have used addr3 as intermediate storage of addition result. Since in the computer designed there is no instruction to place data on a register from ACC (and also retrieve the same) we had to use memory. Storing intermediate results in registers speeds up the process but here we are limited by the architecture and instruction set available. Also note, we could have used any other available memory location for intermediate storage. -------16-20 If the two numbers used in example 16-8 are F216 and D616 and data section immediately follows program section show the memory values in binary after the program is executed? -------Example 16-8 Write a program for this computer that performs bit-wise Ex-OR operation on two numbers available in memory locations addr1 and addr2. The result is to be stored in location addr3.

Solution Our designed computer can perform only two kind of logic operations AND and NOT. Therefore, we break Ex-OR logic of two numbers say A and B in such a way that there is only AND and NOT operator. Y = A B = AB + AB = ((AB).( AB)) [From DeMorgans Theorem]

Thus the program can be written as shown next. The logic operation performed by each instruction is shown as comment after semicolon. LDA NOT AND NOT STA LDA NOT AND NOT AND NOT STA HLT -------16-21 Write a program that compares two binary data located in addr1 and addr2 of memory by making all the bits of addr3 one if two numbers are exactly equal. 16-22 Write a program that executes following where Dataaddr refers to data corresponding to address addr. Dataaddr7 = (Dataaddr1 + Dataaddr2 + Dataaddr3 + Dataaddr4) 3 - (Dataaddr5 + Dataaddr6) 2 addr1 addr2 addr3 addr2 addr1 addr3 addr3 ;A ; A ; AB ; ( AB) ;B ; B ; AB ; (AB) ; (AB).( AB) ; ((AB).( AB))