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AE2255 PROPULSION-1 QUESTION BANK UNIT-1 1. Define Froude efficiency, what is its effect on thrust? 2 2.

Compare air breathing engine and rocket engine. 2 3. Define SFC.Write down its significance. 2 4. Mention the factors affecting thrust. 2 5. Find the propulsive efficiency of a jet engine moving with 300 m/s at 7000m altitude and its exhaust gas velocity is 600 m/s. 2 6. Define by pass ratio. 2 7. Why rate of thrust for an air breathing engine decreases with altitude and increases for non air breathing engine? 2 8. Differentiate between Scramjet & Ramjet engine. 2 9. Why is the reverse diffuser impractical? 2 10. What are the advantages and disadvantages of cooling gas turbine blades? 2 11. Mention relative merits of jet engines over piston engines. 2 1. An advanced fighter engine operating at Mach 0.8 and 10Km altitude where, Ta=223.297K & Pa=0.2649 bar has the following uninstalled performance data and uses a fuel with C.V= 42,800KJ/Kg: Thrust = 50 KN Mass flow of air = 45Kg/s Mass flow of fuel = 2.65 Kg/s Determine the specific thrust, thrust specific fuel consumption; exit velocity, thermal efficiency, propulsion efficiency, and overall efficiency (assume exit pressure equal to ambient pressure). 16 2. Find specific thrust and SFC of a simple turbojet engine, having the following component performance at which the cruise speed and altitude are M 0.8 and 10000m. Select ambient condition from the gas table. Compressor pressure ratio Turbine inlet temperature Isentropic efficiency: Of compressor c Of turbine t Of intake i Of propelling nozzle j Mechanical transmission efficiency m Combustion efficiency b Combustion chamber pressure loss Pb 8.0 1200K

0.87 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.99 0.98 4% of compressor outlet pressure. C.V of fuel is 43,000 KJ/Kg, assume data if necessary, Cpa Cpg 16 3. (a) Explain with neat sketch operating principles of turbofan engine 8 (b) What is thrust augmentation? Explain any two methods of thrust augmentation with sketches. 8 4. Compare the characteristics, advantages & disadvantages of turbojet, turbofan and turboprop engine. 5. (i)Discuss the different methods of thrust augmentation. Draw T-S diagram for turbojet engine with thrust augmentation. 8 (ii) Discuss the typical turbojet cycle performance with suitable sketches. 8

6. A turbojet engine is traveling at 270 m/s at an altitude of 5000m. The compressor pressure ratio is 8:1 and maximum cycle temperature is 1200K. By assuming the following data, Ram efficiency 93% Isentropic efficiency of compressor 87% Pressure loss in combustion chamber 4%of compressor delivery pressure Calorific value of fuel 43,100 kj/kg Combustion efficiency 98% Mechanical transmission efficiency 99% Isentropic efficiency of turbine 90% Propelling nozzle efficiency 95% Ambient conditions at 5000 m are 0.5405 bar and 255.7 K. Calculate the (i) Specific thrust and (ii) TSFC 16 7. (i) Define thrust of an engine and derive the thrust equation for a general propulsion system. 8 (ii) Discuss the typical turbojet cycle performance with suitable sketches. 8 8. An ideal turbojet flies at sea level at a Mach number of 0.75. It ingests 74.83 kg/s of air, and the compressor operates with a total pressure ratio of 15. The fuel has a heating value of 41,000 kj/kg, and the burner exit total temperature is 1389 K. Find the thrust developed and the TSFC. Assume that the specific heat ratio is 1.4. 16 4 kg/h at 150C &1.03 bar and is compressed 9. Air enters a turbojet engine at a rate of 12*10 adiabatically to 1820C & four times the pressure. Products of combustion enter the turbine at 8150C & leave it at 6500C to enter the nozzle. Calculate the isentropic efficiency of the compressor, the power required to drive the compressor, the exit speed of gasses & thrust developed when flying at 800 km/h. Assume the isentropic efficiency of the turbine is same as that of the compressor and the nozzle efficiency is 90%.Assume the data required suitably. 16 10. A jet propelled plane consuming air at the rate of 18.2 kg/s is to fly at Mach number of 0.6 at an altitude of 4500m (Pa = 0.55 bar, Ta = 255K ). The diffuser which has a pressure coefficient of 0.9, decreases the flow to a negligible velocity. The compressor pressure ratio is 5 & maximum temperature in the combustion chamber is 1273 K. After expanding in the turbine, the gases continue to expand in the nozzle to a pressure of 0.69 bar. The isentropic efficiency of compressor, turbine and nozzle are 0.81, 0.85 & 0.915 respectively. The heating value of the fuel is 45870 kj/kg. Assume Cp = 1.005 kj/kg-K, Cpg = 1.147 kj/kg-K. Calculate (i) Power input to the compressor (ii) Power output of the turbine (iii) The fuel air ratio (iv) The thrust provided by the engine (v) The thrust power developed. 16 UNIT-II 1. What are the requirements of an aircraft intake? 2 2. Write notes on pressure recovery factor of the intake? 2 3. What are the starting problems in supersonic inlets? 2 4. What are the factors to be considered while designing a subsonic inlet? 2 5. What are the factors to be considered while designing a supersonic inlet? 2 6. What is meant by sub critical mode of inlet operation? State its advantages and disadvantages. 2 1. (i) Explain successive steps in the acceleration and over speeding of a onedimensional supersonic inlet with sketches. 8 (ii) Derive the relation between area ratio Amax/Ai and external deceleration ratio

ui/ua. 8 2. A supersonic inlet is designed with a two-dimensional conical spike (with two half-cone angles 100 and 200 relative to the axial centerline, respectively). The inlet is to operate at a flight Mach number of 1.9.The two standing oblique shocks are attached to the spike and cowl, and a converging inlet section with a throat of area A* is used to decelerate the flow through internal compression. Assume = 1.4 and internal diffuser pressure recover factor r = 0.97. Estimate the overall recovery factor d on the assumption that the inlet starts (i.e., the normal shock is swallowed). Also, find the required A*/A1. 3. What are the different modes of inlet operation? Explain with suitable sketches. 16 4. Air enters a two-dimensional supersonic diffuser at a pressure of 14.102 kPa, a temperature of 217 K, and with a Mach number of 3.0. The two-dimensional oblique shock diffuser has an oblique shock angle of 27.80, which is followed by a normal shock. Determine, assuming constant specific heats. (i) The velocity, total temperature and pressure of the air entering the oblique shock. (ii) The Mach number, total pressure after the oblique shock. (iii) The flow deflection angle. (iv) The Mach number, total and static pressure and static temperature after the normal shock. UNIT-III 1. What is need for supersonic combustion? 2 2. Define equivalence ratio and stochiometric fuel air ratio. 2 3. Define efficiency of the combustor. 2 4. What is the purpose of primary air in combustion chamber? 2 5. What is the purpose of secondary air in combustion chamber? 2 6. What is the purpose of dilution air in combustion chamber? 2 7. Define combustion intensity? 2 8. State the advantages and disadvantages of annular combustor. 2 1. (a) What are the important factors affecting combustor design? 8 (b)Write down the methods of flame stabilization and explain with sketch. 8 2. (a)What are the three types of combustion chamber? Compare its advantages and disadvantages. 8 (b) Name the material used for combustion chamber and discuss the special qualities of the material used for combustion chamber? 8 3. (a)What are the factors affecting combustion chamber? Explain briefly? 8 (b) With the aid of a simplified picture explain the operation of a flame holder. 8 4. (i) With a neat sketch explain the working of a combustion chamber. 8 (ii) Consider n-decane fuel, balance the chemical equation for the stoichiometric combustion of this fuel in air and find the stoichiometric fuel-to-air ratio. 8 UNIT-IV 1. What is choked nozzle? 2 2. Is it possible to have over expanded jets in convergent nozzle? Justify your answer. 2 3. Give any four functions of an exhaust nozzle. 2 1. (a) Plot Mach number, static temperature, static pressure and static density variations along the longitudinal axis of a convergent-divergent nozzle, when it flows full. Explain the variations. 8 (b)A De Laval nozzle has to be designed for an exit Mach number of 1.5 with exit diameter of 200 mm. Find the ratio of throat area/exit area necessary. The reservoir conditions are given as Po = 106 Pa, To = 200C. Find also the maximum mass flow rate through the nozzle. What will be the exit pressure and temperature? 8 2. A converging-diverging is designed to operate with an exit Mach number of 1.75. The nozzle is