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Drive Test Analysis


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Upon completion of this course, you will be able to: Understand the common procedure Of drive test data analysis Identify the basic problems and cause of the problems Propose the solutions to solve the network problems

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Chapter 1 Common procedure of drive test data analysis Chapter 2 Case study for drive test analysis Chapter 3 Practice on drive test analysis

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Common procedure of DT data analyze


1. Check if the Drive test KPIs meet the requirement. If not, identify the problematic log files. Capture the figure and events (e.g. locations, time, identify problematic cells) Check the RxLevel and RxQual distribution, check if they are related to the points that miss the KPI requirement? (If new site or cluster) Check the distribution of each BCCH (CGI), pay attention to the crossed feeder. Analyze the points that miss the KPIs point by point. (To make the analysis more comprehensive , get more information from engineering parameters, BSC data configuration, traffic statistic and BTS alarms) Identify the possible causes of each problem points ,discuss with customers Propose solutions and get approval from customers before execute the change request Re- Drive Test to verify the problem after implemented the solutions
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5. 4.

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Chapter 1 Common procedure of drive test data analysis Chapter 2 Case study for drive test analysis Chapter 3 Practice on drive test analysis

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Coverage
Downlink RxLevel Coverage of single cell Coverage of whole network

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Coverage
Network Coverage is evaluated by: RxLev = EIRP(dBm) L(dB) Where: EIRP = Effective Isotropic Radiated Power L = Propagation Losses EIRP(dBm) L(dB) RxLev(dBm) Unexpected coverage (overshooting)

Good coverage

In urban area, Lower Antenna Height (<=25m), Greater downtilt (>=6 degree), and Lower EIRP (<=41 dBm) are used to control overshooting & interference.
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Coverage(one cell)
The following example shows the downlink RxLevel(Dedicated Mode) decreases when MS is driving away from BTS.
Downtilt: 0 drgree

The RxLevel decrease faster when Antenna Downtilt increase.

RxLevel

Variation s due to Rayleigh fading Global means Variation due to shadowing


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Downtilt: 8 drgree

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Coverage(Network)
The picture shows the coverage of a city, which contains good and bad coverage areas. The distribution of downlink RxLev concentrates from -80 to -95 dBm.

Good Coverage

Bad Coverage

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Coverage Issues
Coverage hole Sudden Decrease on Signal Level Line of Sight Lost Lack of Dominant Server Coverage Overlapping Overshooting

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Coverage Hole
Legend
RxLevel

Poor Coverage Areas

Bad RxQuality

Call Drop

RxQuality

RxLevel(Serving Cell) is about (or less than) -95 dBm RxLevel(Neighbours) are about (or less than) -95 dBm
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Sudden Decrease on Signal Level


RxLev(Serving Cell and Neighbors) decrease in a short time. Check if there is big change of testing environment, e.g. check if the test was performed on a highway and that particular area was a tunnel or not. Signal level on the chart will make a curve rather than unstable changes. This usually cause Ping Pong Handovers

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Line of Sight Lost

Signal Strength of Serving cell make fast up and down due to far away server being blocked by obstacles from the terrain. The other way, signal from the server lose line of sight(LOS) to the mobile because of a hill of something.
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RxQuality goes worse when the level drops down fast

Lack of Dominant Server


Signal Level of more than one cell (Serving Cell and Neighbors) are not high enough.

This might happen because the MS is located on the cell borders and there is no any best server to keep the call.

Lack of Dominant Server Causes too many handovers

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Coverage Overlapping
Signal Level of 34 cells are too closed to each other.

This might point overlapping cells.

This will cause quality problems because of frequency reuse and frequent HO Immediate action to optimize cell coverage should be taken by power reductions, downtilt or other configuration changes.
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Overshooting
MS is covered by the serving cell, but is outside the cell BSC thinks that it is neighbor cell A and makes a handover to cell A The MS is not near cell A so the assigned TCH for the handover is not used Cell A will have unused TCH (handover) The call might be dropped because it cannot make the handover or bad quality
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Serving cell

BTS

Other cell B BSIC 1 Freq. A

Neighbour cell A BSIC 1 Freq. A

Coverage spot (island effect)

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Propose solutions for Coverage Issue

Solution of low coverage Solution of no dominant cell ,overshooting and overlapping

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Solutions of Low Coverage


Possible solution can be listed as below:
New Site Proposal Sector Addition Site Configuration Change (Antenna Type, height, azimuth, tilt changes) Loss or Attenuation Check ( Feeders, Connectors, Jumpers, etc..)

Proposal
New Site Proposal

Remark

How to do
Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the best locations to put new sites Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the recommended azimuth of new sectors Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the recommended height, type, azimuth or down tilt of sector.

Most effective solution, but the cost is highest Effective solution Sector Addition but only for Omni-Site Difficult, high cost Height Difficult, high cost Type Antenna Easy to operate Azimuth Downtilt Easy to operate Only for troubleshooting Feeders Hardware Connectors Only for troubleshooting Only for troubleshooting Jumpers

Referring to hardware checking guide

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Solutions of overshooting or overlapping


Possible solution can be listed as below:
Site Configuration Change (Antenna Type, height, azimuth, tilt changes) Cell Configuration Change (Carrier Power Type, Static TRX Power Class, Fine Tuning of Static TRX Power)

Proposal
Antenna Height Type Azimuth Downtilt

Remark
Difficult, high cost Difficult, high cost Easy to operate Easy to operate

How to do
Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the recommmended height, type, azimuth or downtilt of sector. Referring to Data Configuration Reference Help

Parameter

Easy to operate, but with Output Power related risk of coverage reduction

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Cross Feeder
What is crossed feeder issue (1)
The term crossed feeder is used to describe the problem that arises when the feeders for two or more sectors in a site are inadvertently connected incorrectly. For Example, consider a new cell site that has three sectors, A, B, and C:

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What is crossed feeder issue (2)


The crossed feeder problem would arise if the feeder for sector A is connected to sector C and vice versa. When this happens, the sectors typically continue to provide good coverage. However, the network parameters for the two sectors are also reversed. For example, the parameters storing the sectors' BCCH and lists of adjacent sectors would be swapped. For example, suppose we run a drive test through the area served by the cell whose feeders are crossed display the ServBCCH attribute on the Map while the cell sectors are colored by BCCH. This is what we might see:

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What is crossed feeder issue (3)


There are 3 types of crossed feeder:
Crossed transmit feeders

Crossed receive feeders

Crossed transmit and receive feeders

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The problems raised by crossed feeder issue

Normal Situation

Crossed Feeder Situation

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The problems raised by crossed feeder issue


Crossed feeder will raise many problems, such as: A greater degree of interference A poor uplink signal strength A poor performance of handover

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How to detect crossed feeder issue by DT


Crossed transmit feeders Crossed transmit feeders will result in the swap of 2 or more sectors BCCH frequency and TCHs. As the sectors are pointing in the incorrect direction, performance will suffer as the frequency plan has been changed and a greater degree of interference will be present. In DT, we will find that the handset receives the signal which shouldn't have been received in the current cell.

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How to detect crossed feeder issue by DT


Crossed transmit feeders

In the example shown above, point A is in the area of coverage of Cell D3, but the handset at point A receives the stronger signal of Cell D2. It indicates that TX feeders were crossed between Cell D3 and Cell D2.
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How to detect crossed feeder issue by DT


Crossed receive feeders It is not easy to detect this fault by DT, because the BCCH frequencies will appear exactly as they were designed. However, the statistics for the cell would help us to detect the fault: Uplink signal strength would be very poor Link balance would be larger than expected Handover success rate would be very low

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How to detect crossed feeder issue by DT


Crossed receive feeders The MR measurement is very useful in detecting this type of feeder cross. Uplink-and-Downlink Balance Measurement per TRX and TCH Receive Level Measurement per TRX are the most useful statistics . For example, if the uplink-and-downlink balance is always in level 10 or level 11, we can consider that there is something wrong in the receive path of the site, crossed receive feeder is a possible problem.

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How to detect crossed feeder issue by DT


Crossed transmit and receive feeder The symptom is similar with the fault crossed transmit feeder, and we can detect the fault by DT easily .

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Poor Quality Issue


Downlink RxQual Issue
What is RxQual Issue The problems raised by RxQual issue

How to detect quality issue by DT


Bad Quality due to Signal Strength FER is Bad Bad Quality due to Signal Strength FER is OK Bad Quality due to C/A Interference Bad Quality due to Time Dispersion

The solution to RxQual issue


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What is RxQuality Issue


Bad RxQual is one of the biggest problems in a Network. The RxQual that a network operator can offer to customers mostly depends on the RxLevel and the interference of the network. There are two types of RxQual problems, uplink RxQual and downlink RxQuality. We can only detect downlink RxQual problem by DT, however, if the downlink RxQual is bad in one cell, there is a risk that there would be problems on the uplink as well.

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What is RxQual Issue

Good RxQua lity

Bad RxQua lity

RxQual is divided into eight levels which are from 0 to 7, the level 0 is the best and the level 7 is the worst.

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The problems raised by RxQual Issue


Bad RxQual may raise many problems, such as:
Difficulty in accessing the network Dropped calls due to bad quality Poor handover success rate Low MOS value (poor speech quality)

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Bad Quality due to Signal Strength FER is Bad


As the signal strength drops down, the quality of the call becomes worse being effected by interference and/ or fading. Consequently the system becomes weaker to handle the interference. Drop calls and ping pong handovers usually happen in such environments. RxLev (Serving Cell and Neighbors) is not high enough (about less than -95dbm). Maybe there are interferences in this region for bad FER.
Bad RxLev Bad RxQual Bad FER

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Bad Quality due to Signal Strength FER is OK


This case is similar with the previous except for FER. Signal strength is also bad in this, but FER is still fine. FER is ok, it means that there is no obvious interference in the area. The coverage is usually the problem in this situation.

Bad RxLev Bad RxQual Fine FER

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Bad Quality due to C/A Interference


There is adjacent channel interference in this case and the RxQual is not good. Bad Quality due to Adjacent Interference. Adjacent BCCH between best server and best neighbor.

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Bad Quality due to Time Dispersion

Site Reflecting object

MS Time dispersion is caused by the reflections. The MS uses all or most of the received power, instead of only the direct signal, there is a larger probability to decode the information. So the RxQual will be very bad perhaps.

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Bad Quality due to Time Dispersion


The MS is near the cell, it is less than 1 mile far away. The RxQual is very bad for the bad C/R, in which, R stands for reflected signal and C stands for original signal. The TA is too high. It is because that TA stands for the reflected signal but the original signal.

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The solution to RxQual issue (1)


RxQual Issue Solution
Find out the interference source (e.g. frequency planning) or /and Bad Quality due to Signal Strength FER is Bad adjust the azimuth or down tilt of the antenna or /and adjust the power of the transmitter(s) to improve coverage There is no obvious interference in Bad Quality due to Signal Strength FER is OK this situation. Adjust the azimuth or down tilt of the antenna or /and adjust the power of the transmitter(s) to improve coverage

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The solution to RxQual issue (2)


RxQual Issue Solution

Bad Quality due to C/A Interference

Avoided adjacent frequencies in the same cell and preferably in neighboring cells as well.

Move the site to be placed near the reflecting Bad Quality due to Time Dispersion object to prevent time dispersion. Another efficient solution is to modify the antenna arrangement, either in azimuth (horizontally) or by tilt (vertically).

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Interference Issue
Hardware Problem TRX Problem Feeder & Arrester Problem Intra-Interference Adjacent channel & Co-channel Inter-modulation Interference Inter-Interference Other Equipment

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Co-Channel & Adjacent Channel Interference


As beside Figure show Station A~D, Supposing the frequency N have already allocated to cell A-3.so frequency N can not be allocate to A1A2B1B2B3C1C2 C3D1D2D3; and frequency N1 can not be allocated to cell A1 A2A3B1C2D1D2 (No ,hoping)

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Co-Channel & Adjacent Channel Interference


As below, From the neighbor list ,BCCH 73 interfered BCCH 72,it is adjacent interference. When the co channel or adjacent channel happen

It will bring the strong interference. The typical phenomena: High Rxlev Worst Rxqual

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C/I Problem
C/I Definition C/I: Carrier signal /Interference signal Optimize C/I method Improve Coverage Decrease Interference

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C/I Problem due to poor coverage

RxLevel(Serving Cell) is about (or less than) -95 dBm; RxLevel(Neighbours Cell) is about (or less than) -95 dBm; Result: Worst C/I due to poor coverage.
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C/I Problem due to Interference (frequency)

RxLevel (Serving Cell) is about -70dBm; (strong) RxLevel (Neighbors Cell) is about -65 to -80 dBm Result: Worst C/I due to interference ( no dominant cell)
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The solution to Interference, C/I,BER issue (1)


Interference Issue
Serious interference due to Co-channel or Adjacent channel Serious interference due to feeder or Arrester Problem

Solution
Adjust cell frequency or adjust coverage Check whether the Feeder and antenna tightening, or direct replacement its.

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The solution to Interference,C/I,BER issue (1)


C/I Issue Solution
Improve coverage by adjusting antenna azimuth and downtilt or add new sites Ensure the interference source and solution as interference solution.

Worst C/I due to poor coverage Worst C/I to interference

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The solution to Interference,C/I,BER issue (1)


BER Issue Solution
Improve coverage by adjusting antenna azimuth and downtilt or add new sites Ensure the interference source and solution as interference solution. Checking transmission alarm in M2000 At first check equipment alarm in M2000,ensure which TRX is problem

Worst BER due to poor coverage Worst BER due to interference

Worst BER due to Transmission

Worst BER to TRX

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Handover Issues
What is
Handover procedure in network? Handover Um signaling flow? Purpose of Handover Analysis in DT?

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Handover Procedure
Uplink MR (Measured by BTS) RXLEV Uplink RXQUAL Uplink TA Current BTS TX power

Neighbor Cell_1 Neighbor Cell2 Serving Cell Serving Cell Neighbor Cell2

MS in dedicated mode will continuously perform measurements on serving and neighbor cells. Measurement Reports are sent to BSC and used in the handover algorithm.

Downlink MR (Measured by MS) Downlink RXLEV(Sever) Downlink RXQUAL(Sever) RXLEV_NCELL(n) on the 6 best neighboring cells (+BSIC)

BSC

Serving BSC decides whether a handover is necessary and send HO command

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Handover signaling on Um(TEMS Message)


Tell MS how to access to Target TCH Channel

Target cell Description Target BCCH of Neighborschannel Description Channel Type, Timeslot Serving Cell: to be measured
TSC DL DTX is ON RF is -109+ RxLev(sub) hopping 62 =--49dBm MAIO, HSN RxQual (sub) is 0

Handover Complete Handover Success!!!


Only after SABM & UA in Layer2 Message, handover success!

The RxLev of Neighbors


Inter cell Synchronous Handover Speech version: EFR

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The purpose of Handover Analysis


The purpose of handover analysis in DT is understand the wireless handover performance of network. find out whether the handovers are healthy in this network. what is typical handover failure in this network. find out whether neighbor audit work is needed in this network.

To make optimization of HSR, the most effective way is based on traffic analysis, combining DT events, neighbor audit, and data configuration audit together.

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Handover Types
Different handover types by network topology Different handover types by algorithm PBGT handover Quality handover Edge Handover Intracell Handover Other types of handover

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Handover Types(Network Topology)


Operator MSC MSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

BTS

BTS

BTS

BTS

BTS

BTS

CELL CELL CELL CELL CELL CELL CELL CELL


Synchronous Asynchronous

Case1 Intra cell HO Case2 Synchronous Inter cell HO

Case 2 Case 1 Case 3

Case 4

Case 5

Case3 Asynchronous Inter cell HO Case4 Inter BSC HO Case5 Inter MSC HO

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Handover Types(Algorithm)
OM Forced HO

In DT, the most common handover types happens in following order of priority

Directed Retry

TA Emergency HO

Edge HO

TA RxQuality RxLevel
Rapid Level Drop HO Bad Quality HO Layer HO

PBGT OL&UL
Interference HO

PBGT HO

Fast Moving MS HO

HO

Load HO

Overlay/Underly HO

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PBGT Handover
PBGT HO Exp: When:
RXLEV_NCELL(n) (RXLEVEL+ PWR_DIFF) > HO_MARGIN Serving Cell Target Cell

MS is handed over to the neighboring cell . HO_MARGIN is usually set to 3 to 6 dB. HO_MARGIN could be increased to reduce number of handovers. HO_MARGIN should be decreased if faster handover decision is wanted. PBGT Handover is considered as most healthy handover in a network.

HO_MARGIN > 0
RXLEV_NCELL(n)

RX LEVEL + PWR_DIFF

PBGT HO

Power-budget Distance

A typical PBGT HO

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Quality Handover
Quality Handover Exp: When:
DL RxQuality >= DL Quality HO Threshold

handover caused by DL RxQuality takes place. When:


UL RxQuality >= UL Quality HO Threshold

handover caused by UL RxQuality takes place. DL&UL Quality HO Thresholds are generally set to 6. UL Quality HO cant be monitored in DT. Handover was performed to a better quality cell just after experiencing quality problems.

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EDGE Handover
Edge Handover Exp: When:
DL RxLevel < Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshold

handover caused by DL RxLevel takes place. When:


UL RxLevel < Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold

handover caused by UL RxQuality takes place. UL EDGE handover cant be monitored in DT. Handover was performed to the cell with higher downlink Rxlev.

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Intracell Handover Based on Interference


The Intracell Handover feature aims to maintain good quality by performing a handover to a new channel within the same cell when uplink or downlink interference is detected. Interference is defined by bad RxQual and high enough RxLEV. Intracell HO also can be triggered by:
Rate change between Full rate and Half rate Handover between overlaid and underlaid subcell.

An example of intracell handover after experiencing quality problems.


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Other types of handover


Other types of handover are not easy to judge or not easy to encounter in DT test, for example : TA handover Directed Retry Load handover Rapid Level Drop HO Fast Moving MS HO For analysis of different types of handover or handover caused by uplink, it is recommended by traffic analysis or single-user signaling tracing.

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Handover Issues
What is
Dragged Handover Power Control Effect PingPong Handover Missing Neighbor Relation Fake Neighbor Handover Failure

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Dragged Handover
There will be such cases that you will notice handover process taking place a little late, which is called dragged handover.
First thing to check will be handover margins between the neighbors. If margins for level, quality or power budget handovers are not set correctly, If margins are too much, handover will happen late, vice versa.

A Quality handover should happen earlier

Dragged handover events often occur after a GSM serving cell loses dominance for a significant time period. Dragged Handover often cause Call Drop or Handover Failure.

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Power Control Effect


Power Control Effect sometimes may mislead us, you might think that handover is happening too late between two neighbors. When the call is continuing on a timeslot that belongs to TCHTRX, power control feature will try to reduce output power as much as possible until a quality problem occurs. Thats why you will see serving cell signal level is less than neighbors level. It looks less but in reality, the signal level on BCCH TRX is still higher than neighbors broadcasting level.

Power control

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Ping-pong Handover
Ping-pong handovers occur when the MS is handed over from one cell to another but is quickly handed back to the original cell.
The shot shows two pingpong handovers displayed on the map along with the Servering CI attribute. The first ping-pong handover is from cell 12424 to cell 12368 and back and the second is from cell 12424 to cell 12366 and back. Changes in the value of the CI is shown below the route. It can be clearly visualized by lines to cells display.

Ping-pong HO

For most cases, Ping-pong Handover is caused by no dominant cell. There was a handover back to cell 12366 after the second ping-pong handover, but this was outside of the defined window. The change in dominance after the handover was 9dB, which represents a much healthier handover.
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Missing Neighbor Relation


If a handoff is not performed to a neighbor cell that seems to be best server, there is a possibility of a missing neighbor relation. This will happen with sudden appearance of strong cell in the neighbor list just after a handover.

The shot shows after second handover in the red box, a much stronger Serving Cell appears. ( suspect there might be missing neighbor in the 1st HO attempt) At this time Neighbor audit should be performed.

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Fake Neighbor Relation


Sometimes you will see a good handover candidate in the neighbor list but handover will not take place and call will drop.

Although that overshooting cell with a very good signal level appears in neighbor list, in reality it is not. Just because the serving cell has another neighbor cell use same with the same BCCH&BSIC ,so the measurement of the overshooting cell appears in the list.

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Handover Failure
Handover Failure: Handover attempt was failed and the call returned back to its all channel.

Target Cell is BCCH is 13 BSIC is 65 Target channel is 900M RF Failure Handover hopping Channel. Half Rate MA list is 1, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 MAIO is 4, HSN is 31, The TSC is 5. handover has not successfully completed Channel mode is AMR(SV3) yet! Handover Failure is Another example: Excessive Number of Handover caused by T200 Expired

Failure due to Hardware Problem

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Proposal of Handover Issue


Dragged Handover PingPong Handover Missing Neighbor Relation Handover Failure

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Solutions of Handover Issues


Issue
Dragged Handover

Proposal
Check if the parameter of handover, such as: PBGT, Quality, Interference, Edge handover threshold, and P/N Value is set too high. Check if there is no dominant coverage. Referring to the solution of Low Coverage. Check if the traffic volume of target cell is high or has congestion at measuring time. Check if there is hardware problem. Referring to hardware checking guide Check if there is no dominant coverage. Referring to the solution of Low Coverage.

Ping-pong Handover

Check if the parameter of handover, such as: PBGT, Quality, Interference, Edge handover threshold, and P/N Value is set too low . Check if there is overlapping coverage area, which may also cause ping-pong handover. Neighbor Audit. Check if there is neighbor missing according to data configuration in OMC. Find out the cause of Handover failure form Um signaling flow from Layer2 and Layer3 Message. Check if the HSR between source and target cell is low. If it is, find the root cause of handover failure reasons by traffic statistic analysis.

Missing Neighbor

Handover Failure

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