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TITLE Section-1 Guidelines on Environmental Impacts and Need for Small Hydropower Projects 1.1 Small Hydro-Potential and Projects 1.2 Environmental Impacts of Small Hydropower Projects 1.3 Positive Impacts 1.4 Meaning of EIA 1.5 Need of Guidelines for EIA of Small Hydropower Projects Environmental Acts and Procedures for Clearance of Hydropower Projects in India 2.1 Environmental Acts 2.2 Procedure for Obtaining Environmental Clearance Baseline Data 3.1 Land Environment 3.2 Air and Water Environment 3.3 Biological Environment 3.4 Socioeconomic Environment Environmental Impact Assessment Methodology 4.1 Levels of EIA 4.2 EIA Procedure 4.3 Methods for Impact Identification and Assessment 4.4 Socio-economic Assessment Water Quality Monitoring Program 5.1 Effects on Water Quality 5.2 Purpose of water Quality Monitoring 5.3 Sampling Design 5.4 Regulatory Audit 5.5 Interpretation of Monitoring Results Stake Holders in EIA Process 6.1 Ways to Identify Stakeholders and Group Representatives 6.2 Involving Stakeholders 6.3 Public Consultation Principles and Procedures of an Environmental Management Plan 7.1 Environmental Monitoring 7.2 Environmental Auditing 7.3 Implementation of Environmental Management Plan Preparation of Terms of References 8.1 Basic Objectives and Purpose 8.2 Good practice Criteria for the Preparation of TOR PAGE NO. 1 1 3 4 5 6 8 8 10 16 16 18 20 20 22 22 22 26 29 32 32 34 34 38 39 42 43 43 45 47 47 49 49 58 58 59








TITLE Annexure I Annexure II Annexure III Annexure IV Annexure V Useful References Definition of Terms Related to Soil, Air and Water Environment of a Hydropower Project Environmental Standards prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board Format of Environmental Impact Assessment Document Environmental Appraisal Questionnaire As Prescribed in Appendix I Form of EIA Notification (MoEF, 2006)

PAGE NO. 64 66 72 75 77


Developing countries need increased energy supplies in order to bring about improvement in the quality of life of their people. Sustainable and environmentally sound progress towards energy self reliance is probably best achieved through development of renewable energy sources as these will eventually be the only sources available to sustain the societies. Out of various renewable energy sources, small hydropower is the only source which has sufficient potential to accommodate remote area needs. Although the adverse environmental impacts of individual small hydropower project (SHP) may not be significant and yet, the aggregate impact of several such projects in vicinity could be of a magnitude to cause significant damage to the environment. EIA study should provide information based on scientific analysis and adequate data basis as such information is to be placed in public domain and is subject to critical review by public. As a scientific analysis of the environmental constraints the EIA constitutes an important part of pre-project study which helps in improving project standard. EIA study is aimed at protecting the environment by integrating the environmental issues in planning process. 1.1 SMALL HYDRO POTENTIAL AND PROSPECTS Small hydro is a renewable, non-polluting and environmentally benign source of energy. In India, depending on the capacities, small hydropower projects are categorized as Micro, Mini and Small hydro projects as under. Mini hydro - 10 kW to 99 KW Micro hydro - 100 kW to 999 kW Small hydro - 1,000 kW to 25,000 kW Depending on the head, SHPs may be further classified as low head (below 3 meters), medium head (from 30 75 meters) and high head (above 75 meters). The estimated potential of small hydro power in India is about 15,000 MW. Thus far about 4250 potential sites have been identified aggregating to a capacity of 10,000 MW. However, so far 466 projects in 29 states aggregating to 1530 MW have been installed and projects amounting to 610 MW are under implementation. This offers a tremendous potential of small hydro power to be tapped in India. A very large number of villages have potential for setting up mini, micro and small hydroelectric projects. It presents a huge business potential for investors and equipment manufactures.

Potential available - 15,000 MW Installed so far - 1530 MW; 1.2 Projects under implementation - 610 MW

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SMALL HYDROPOWER PROJECTS A hydropower scheme entails change in use of land and water. Magnitude of such

change depends on the selected site configuration. An illustrative site configuration is shown below. The environmental impacts of SHPs are positive (favourable) and negative (undesirable) in nature.

Figure 1.1: Physical components of small hydropower project The environmental impacts of small hydropower project may be summarized as follows: Table 1.1: Environmental impacts of small hydropower projects Activity Construction of road, dam, surface power house and switch Adverse Impact 1. Reservoir sedimentation and deterioration of water quality 2. Air and noise pollution and disturbance to flora and fauna by work force 3. Visual intrusion caused by construction activity 4. Disturbance of recreational spots (e.g. waterfalls) and activities 5. Soil erosion due to removal of vegetation and excavation of construction material 6. Alteration in ground water flow Construction transmission line of 1. Damaging flora due to right of way clearing 2. Endangering the lives of fauna

yard, diversion tunnel, channel

3. Visual intrusion Stream diversion 1. Loss of habitat of fish and other aquatic flora and fauna 2. Decrease in dilution capacity of stream 3. Depletion in ground water recharge where diversion is taken off from effluent stream 4. Loss of waterfalls and other recreational activities Ponding 1. Flow disruption 2. Channel degradation during generation or spilling and flushing of silt from dam 3. Trapped nutrients and sediments, eutrophication 4. Changed water temperature 5. Changes in land uses: (a) submergence of agricultural and forest land (b) submergence of human settlement and displacement of population (c) submergence of

through channel and conduit

monuments/sites of historic importance (d) loss of whitewater recreation 6. Change in aquatic plant life and fish species 7. High evaporation rate 8. Sedimentation adversely affects fish spawning areas by burying them 9. Provides increased habitat for mosquitoes and snails which are vectors of diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue, encephalitis and schistosomiasis Operation hydropower station of 1. Increase in pollution concentration in the downstream due to release of pollutants from residential areas, hydropower plant 2. Released water containing low dissolved oxygen 3. Fish mortality from turbine passage 4. Sonic impact: noise level may increase Peaking operation of power station 1. Damage to fish spawning ground and nesting ground for water fowls and other aquatic birds 2. Erosion of banks 3. Transport of nutrients from the shallow water to deeper water in pond 4. Affects recreational facilities due to fluctuating water level 5. Exposure of drawdown zone creates visual intrusion


POSITIVE IMPACTS Positive environmental impacts of hydropower projects are somehow ignored as a

routine probably due to the fact that these projects are conveniently considered as demanding an environmental price. It is equally important to highlight and quantify (to the extent possible) positive environmental impacts of SHPs. Positive Socio-Economic Impacts 1. No transmission loss due to commercial availability of power at customers door step 2. Multiplier effect of electricity on economy of the area especially in remote areas such as agro-industrial units 3. Improvement of agricultural produce through lift irrigation which requires energy 4. Project related infrastructure (roads, health facilities, education facilities will help the local people as well as project affected people. There will be net improvement in community health 5. Improvement in living standard of local people 6. Creation of reservoir will increase potential for fish and fisheries (catch and income) 7. Generation of employment opportunities locally. Direct employment during construction and indirect employment in allied activities 8. Motivation of higher literacy 9. Check on migration from villages to towns, thereby checking urban concentration of population 10. Increasing tourism potential water sports, boating, fishing etc. 11. It helps in checking deforestation which is taking place to meet food, fodder and fuel demands in rural, remote areas. 12. It is significant for off-grid, rural, remote area applications in far flung isolated communities having no chances of grid extension for years to come. It is operationally flexible, suitable for peaking support to the local grid as well as for stand alone applications in isolated remote areas. 13. Small hydro does not require much expertise to build and operate. Components of small hydro projects are simple and fairly visible at site. They can become centre of education. 14. In specific cases SHPs are eligible for carbon credits through reduction in CO2 emission and adding sink for CO2 via plantation schemes. Positive Ecological/Environmental Impacts 1. Clean and renewable source of energy. SHPs result in saving of non-renewable fuel resources such as coal, liquid fuels and gases. 2. It is benign source of power generation, harnessing only gravitational potential of water to make it yield energy in a continuum

3. Decrease of pollution in the area (hydro replacing diesel generation, electricity replacing polluting energy sources) 4. Increased water surface creates habitat for aquatic life in or near the reservoir. Receiving waters create dry mudflats which provide feeding sites for migratory birds and breeding habitat for resident species. 5. Improved ground water table enhancing greenery all around 6. Improvement towards vegetation and plantation associated with the project

(compensatory afforestation) and thus providing sink for CO2 emission 7. Improved habitat 8. Lake shore environment in otherwise dry areas 9. Modification of micro climate due to storage and regulation of water to a more or less uniform pattern. This also leads to a somewhat stabilizing impact on local environment influencing flora and fauna aquatic as well as terrestrial. 10. SHPs are environmentally more friendlier than conventional large hydro plants: a. Non-involvement of setting up of large dams and thus not associated with problems of deforestation, submergence or rehabilitation b. Non-polluting and environmentally benign. It is one of the least CO2 emission responsible power sources, even by considering full energy chain right from the impact of production of plant equipment etc. c. Least impact on flora and fauna (aquatic and terrestrial) and biodiversity due to localised nature of activities 11. There may be overall improvement in biodiversity due to creation of habitats. 1.4 MEANING OF EIA EIA is an activity designed to identify, predict and describe in appropriate terms the primary and secondary changes due to a proposed action. Such actions may include policies, plans, programmes and projects. EIA covers the biophysical environment, mans health, the quality of life and social environment, and communicates results in a form which is understandable by the community and decision makers. Thus, EIA is required not only for a particular hydropower project but also for a set of projects (existing and proposed) under a plan or a programme. The EIA should contain descriptions of both the likely beneficial and adverse impacts (short and long-term). The EIA approach should be inter-disciplinary, systematic,

comprehensive and capable of presenting results that are understandable to non-experts. Assessments should indicate the possible need for pollution control measures, health care programmes and environmental monitoring on the basis of an understanding of the affected environment. The EIA process does not stop at the production of an Environmental Impact

Statement (EIS) or the granting of project authorisation, but continues throughout the life of a project. The potential advantages of EIA are more efficient use of resources and improved quality of life. If the probable environmental, social and health consequences of proposed development are known from an early stage, attempts can be made to minimise adverse impacts and maximize beneficial impacts. 1.5 NEED OF GUIDELINES FOR EIA OF SMALL HYDROPOWER PROJECTS A series of standards, guidelines and manuals have been brought out by various agencies dealing with environmental impact assessment of large river valley/hydropower projects. However, such literature for small hydropower projects is not available. There is an urgent need to develop and adopt simplified guidelines for SHPs. Guidelines have been issued by Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) for diversion of forest land for non-forest purposes and for EIA of river valley projects. These guidelines are exhaustive covering wide range of environmental subjects. Small hydropower projects may not require same type of scrutiny as that required by large projects. Further, in depth study of some of environmental aspects may not be necessary. Basic physical character of SHP and the local factors influencing the environment are to some extent similar to those of large projects; the only difference is in terms of magnitude of change in the use of land, water and other resources. Further there are certain positive impacts (socio-economic and environmental) unique to small hydropower. Several of the positive socioeconomic impacts are intangible in nature (i.e. not quantifiable) and yet could be significant. Intangibility does not imply insignificance. There is an urgency to accelerate development of small hydro and remove regional imbalances in economic development. Private sector has a big role to play in development of SHPs. Standards and guidelines are required to help concerned agencies in carrying out EIA in a systematic and scientific manner and thus avoiding delay in clearance of the projects. Keeping the above in view, these guidelines have been prepared to address needs of SHPs. The following aspects are covered in this manual:

various acts and decision making process as followed in India for obtaining environmental clearance. baseline data required as per environmental indicators the EIA methodology procedure for water quality monitoring and auditing methods and procedures for engaging stake holders principles and procedures of environmental management plan

the preparation of terms of references and good practice criteria some terms related to environment standards of environmental parameters used in India prescribed format of EIA document Environmental Appraisal Questionnaire as prescribed in Appendix I Form I of EIA notification (MOEF, 2006) Useful references

2.1 ENVIRONMENTAL ACTS Adequate provisions for protection of environment and forests are made in the Constitution of India. Article 47 provides for protection and improvement of health. Article 48(A) is directed towards protection and improvement of environment and protection of forest and wildlife. Article 51(A) says it is the duty of every citizen to protect and improve natural environment. Following the UN Conference on Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972), a constitutional amendment (42, 1976) inserted relevant provisions for environment protection in Constitution in Part IV Directive Principles and Part IVA Fundamental Duties. In order to ensure sustainable development from water resources angle the Government of India has enacted various Acts and Legislations. Prominent among these is the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 through which the Government has acquired wide powers for protecting the environment. Some other acts related to Water and Environment are Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) (Cess) Act, 1977 (amended in 1991), Forest Conservation Act, 1980, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification of MOEF 2006 and the Ministry of Environment and Forests Notification of January 1977 constituting the Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA). The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 seeks to maintain or restore wholeness of water and the Central and State Pollution Control Boards have been established under this Act. According to the Water Cess Act, 1997, both Central and State Governments have to provide funds to the Boards for implementing this Act. The Forest Conservation Act, 1980 provides for compensatory afforestation to make up for the diversion of forestland to nonforest use. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 was enacted in 1986 for the protection and improvement of human environment. Recently, Government of India has constituted Water Quality Assessment Authority (WQAA) vide MoEF/Nc. J-15011/8/2000-NRCD dated 29th May, 2001 under the chairmanship of Secretary, MOEF, exercising the powers under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. This authority exercises the powers and functions under the said Act for several functions. Some of these relevant to hydropower projects are given below: To direct various agencies to standardize methods for water quality monitoring To ensure quality of data generation of utilization thereof To make measures so as to ensure proper treatment of waste water with a view to restoring the water quality of the river water bodies to meet the designated best uses

To maintain minimum discharge for sustenance of aquatic life forms in riverine system To promote rain water harvesting To utilize self assimilation capacities at the critical river stretches To constitute/set up state level Water Quality Review Committees (WQRCs) to coordinate the works to be assigned to such committees To deal with any environmental issues concerning surface and ground water quality referred to it by central Government or the State Government relating to the respective areas, for maintaining and/or restoration of quality to sustain designated best-uses.

TABLE 2.1: KEY ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATIONS AND GUIDELINES Operational agencies/key players Central and State Pollution Control Boards


Scope and objective

Key areas

To provide for the prevention and Water Prevention and control Control of Pollution of water pollution and Act, 1974, 1988 enhancing the quality of water Air Prevention and To provide for the Control of Pollution prevention and Act 1981, 1987 control of air pollution To consolidate acquisition of common property such as forests; halt Forest Conservation Indias rapid Act, 1980, 1988 deforestation and resulting Environmental degradation Wildlife Act, 1980 Protection

Controls sewage and industrial effluent discharges

Environment Protection Act, 1986 Environmental Clearance Notification, 2006 OF MoEF (GOI) National Policy on R&R, 2003 of Min. of Rural Development, GOI

Central and State Controls emissions of Pollution Control air pollutants Boards Regulates access to natural resources, state has a monopoly government right over land; State Central categorize forests And Restriction on de- government reservation and using forest for non-forest purpose Creates protected advisory areas (national Wildlife boards; Central Zoo To protect wildlife parks/sanctuaries) categorize wildlife Authorities which are protected Central government umbrella To provide for the An nodal agency MoEF; protection and legislation; can delegate powers improvement of supplements pollution to state department of laws Environment Environment Environmental Impact Project Developer, Assessment of Environmental State and Central Projects; Environment Protection Governments. Management Plans Resettlement and Rehabilitation of Social Issues State Government project affected people


PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE Before January, 1994, it was an administrative requirement for the mega projects to

obtain environmental clearance from the MOEF, Government of India. However, in order to assess the impacts of the developmental projects/activities on the environment, MOEF issued a gazette notification on the EIA on January 27, 1994 (as amended on May 04, 1994) and made environmental clearance statutory for all the projects located in ecologically sensitive/fragile areas as notified by the Government of India from time to time, besides various categories of the projects as specified in the schedule of the notification. These also include water resource development (WRD) project. MOEF has issued a revised gazette notification on 14th September, 2006 suppressing the earlier notification of January 27, 1994. The new gazette notification is based on National Environment Policy which was approved by Union Cabinet on 18th May, 2006. Flow chart depicting procedure of environmental clearance is given in Figure 2.1. Flow chart depicting appraisal procedure is shown in Figure 2.2. 2.2.1 Requirements for Environmental Clearance The gazette notification dated 14th September, 2006 stipulates two regulatory authorities to deal with environmental clearance for all new project and expansion/modernization of existing projects. Central Government in Ministry of Environment and Forests State Environmental Assessment Authority (SEIAA) for Category A projects 50 MW for category B projects if located wholly or partially within 10 km from boundary of notified protected area/critically polluted area/ecosensitive area for category B projects 25 MW and <50 MW

The Regulatory Authority (RA) will provide environmental clearance based on recommendation of expert appraisal committee (EAC). In the absence of a duly constituted SEIAA or state level EAC, a category B project shall be treated as a category A project. 2.2.2 General Conditions Any project or activity specified in category B will be treated as category A if located in whole or in part within 10km from the boundary of (i) protected area notified under Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 (ii) critically polluted areas as notified by Central Pollution Control Board from time to time, (iii) notified ecosensitive area, (iv) interstate boundaries and international boundaries All kinds of projects located in ecologically sensitive/fragile area (e.g. Doon Valley in Uttaranchal and Aravali range in Rajasthan etc.) as notified by the Government of India from time to time have to obtain environmental clearance compulsorily irrespective of the size, cost


and whether they are listed in the schedule of the EIA notification or not. All the projects located in/near wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, wetlands, mangroves, biosphere reserve also need environmental clearance. Therefore, even a small hydropower project (<25 MW) will require environmental clearance from competent authority if: (i) (ii) it is located in ecologically sensitive fragile area the project in conjunction with existing or proposed hydropower projects may have cumulative adverse impacts. 2.2.3 Documents Required with the Project Proposal It is mandatory to submit the following documents alongwith project proposal before starting any activity at the project site: a) Environmental Appraisal Questionnaire as prescribed in Appendix I Form I of EIA notification (MOEF, 2006) b) Feasibility/project report (1 copy) c) Final EIA report (20 hard copies and one soft copy) d) Final layout plan (20 copies) e) Video tape or CD of the public hearing proceedings 2.2.4 Stages in Environmental Clearance Figure 2.1 depicts procedure for environmental clearance. Any person who desires to establish a project of any category (A or B) shall submit an application to the Department of Environment (MOEF)/State Government dealing with the environment. The application shall be made in prescribed form. The environmental clearance process for new projects will comprise of a maximum of four stages, all of which may not apply to particular cases as set forth below in this notification. These four stages in sequential order are:Stage (I) Screening It is only for category B projects and activities. In case of Category B projects or activities, this stage will entail the scrutiny of an application seeking prior environmental clearance by the concerned State level Expert Appraisal Committee (SEAC) for determining whether or not the project or activity requires further environmental studies for preparation of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for its appraisal prior to the grant of environmental clearance depending up on the nature and location specificity of the project. Purpose is to determine whether or not project requires EIA report (termed B1 type project). If EIA is not required then it is B2 type project. MOEF will issue guidelines from time to time for


categorization as B1 and B2. For categorization of projects into B1 or B2, the Ministry of Environment and Forests shall issue appropriate guidelines from time to time. Stage (II) Scoping Scoping refers to the process by which the Expert Appraisal Committee in the case of Category A projects or activities, and State level Expert Appraisal Committee in the case of Category B1 projects or activities, including applications for expansion and/or modernization and/or change in product mix of existing projects or activities, determine detailed and comprehensive Terms Of Reference (TOR) addressing all relevant environmental concerns for the preparation of an Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Report in respect of the project or activity for which prior environmental clearance is sought. The Expert Appraisal Committee or State level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned shall determine the Terms of Reference on the basis of the information furnished in the prescribed application form including Terns of Reference proposed by the applicant, a site visit by a sub- group of Expert Appraisal Committee or State level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned only if considered necessary by the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned, Terms of Reference suggested by the applicant if furnished and other information that may be available with the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. All projects and activities listed as Category B shall not require Scoping and will be appraised on the basis of application form and the conceptual plan. It is required for category A and B1 projects. Purpose is to determine detailed and comprehensive terms of reference for preparation of EIA report. For category A, hydroelectric project item 1(c) (i) of schedule of TOR shall be conveyed along with clearance for preconstruction activities. Stage (III) Public consultation Public Consultation refers to the process by which the concerns of local affected persons and others who have plausible stake in the environmental impacts of the project or activity are ascertained with a view to taking into account all the material concerns in the project or activity design as appropriate. It is required for category A and B1 project with some exceptions e.g. modernization of irrigation projects, expansion of roads and B2 type and projects, projects concerning national defence and security. MOEF (2006) has specified procedure for conduct of public hearing. Purpose is to take into account concerns of local affected persons and others who have plausible stake in environmental impacts. Based on this, appropriate changes in the draft EIA and EMP shall be made. Applicant may submit a supplementary report to draft EIA for appraisal. The detailed methodology for public consultation is explained in Chapter 6.


Stage (IV) Appraisal Figure 2.2 depicts the procedure for project appraisal. Appraisal means the detailed scrutiny by the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee of the application and other documents like the Final EIA report, outcome of the public consultations including public hearing proceedings, submitted by the applicant to the regulatory authority concerned for grant of environmental clearance. This appraisal shall be made by Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned in a transparent manner in a proceeding to which the applicant shall be invited for furnishing necessary clarifications in person or through an authorized representative. On conclusion of this proceeding, the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned shall make categorical recommendations to the regulatory authority concerned either for grant of prior environmental clearance on stipulated terms and conditions, or rejection of the application for prior environmental clearance, together with reasons for the same.


Figure 2.1: Flow chart describing procedure of environmental clearance



Documents: Final EIA or Draft EIA reports and supplementary reports, video tape/CD of public hearing, layout plan, project feasibility report and Form 1

Scrutiny by RA office with respect to TOR (30 days)

EAC/SEAC completes approval (60 days)

EAC/SEAC meeting Applicant makes presentation

Minutes displayed on website (5 days)

Clearance given, environmental safeguards and conditions specified or reasons for rejection are explicitly stated
Figure 2.2: Flow chart describing Appraisal procedure by Regulatory Authority (RA)



Baseline data is required to describe environmental and socio-economic status of project site and project impact area for pre-project condition. It consists of primary data (field tests, surveys, measurements) and secondary data (published information, unpublished information available with various agencies). Much of the required secondary

data/information is often available within the various government agencies. Major difficulty with the unpublished information is determining which of it is important and then correctly interpreting it while eliminating all the unimportant data. The data is compiled for: Land Environment, Water Environment, Air Environment, Noise Environment and Socio-economic Environment. Primary data related to the environmental attributes like air, noise level, water quality and soil are collected from field studies. A structured questionnaire is used for collection of primary information on socioeconomic aspects. Ecological information is collected from field studies as well as secondary sources. A summary of environmental attributes related parameters and source of information is given in Table 3.1. 3.1 3.1.1 LAND ENVIRONMENT Land Use Land use and land cover patterns are important in environmental impact assessment study from the point of view that land use describes the present use such as agriculture, settlement etc. and land cover describes the material on it such as forest, vegetation, rocks or building etc. Land cover of the 10 km radius study area with reference to the site can be derived using latest cloud free satellite imageries. The data is geo-referenced using SOI 1:50000 scale toposheets with the help of standard data preparation techniques in GIS software such as ERDAS IMAGINE. Interpretation of the geo-referenced data is done using standard enhancement techniques and ground truthing. The land use is explained in terms of type and areal extent i.e. dense vegetation, medium vegetation and sparse vegetation which refers to the crown cover density of >40%, 10-40% and <10% respectively. The major components may be as follows: (a) Land details for various project components (in ha) (b) Agriculture: (i) Irrigated (ii) Un-irrigated (c) Forest type (with density of vegetation) (iii) Cropping pattern


Table 3.1: Environmental attributes, parameters and source of information S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Attribute Land Use Soil Geology Seismology Parameter LAND ENVIRONMENT Land use pattern Soil Characteristics Soil erosivity in catchment area Geological Status Seismic Hazard Source District Planning Map Field studies, GIS based information Project Pre-Feasibility Report Pre-Feasibility Report Project Pre-Feasibility Report Field studies Project Pre-Feasibility Report Field Studies Field Studies India Meteorological Department Field Studies Field Studies, Information from Forest department and Literature Study Field studies, Fisheries Department, Literature review Field Studies, Literature review.

10 11

WATER ENVIRONMENT Catchment Area, Flow, Water Resources Design Water Quality Physical, Chemical and Biological parameters Hydrology Drainage area and pattern Ambient Air Quality SPM, RPM, SO2, NOx and CO Meteorology Temperature and Relative humidity Temperature, Relative humidity, Rainfall, Wind Speed and Wind Direction Noise Noise levels in dB (A) BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT Ecology Flora & Fauna Diversity


Aquatic Ecology

Density & diversity of aquatic species SCIO-ECONOMIC Socio-economic characteristic of the affected area


Socio-economic aspects (d) Homestead land (e) Grazing land (f) Fallow (g) Marshes (h) Water bodies (i) Road (j) Railway (k) Bridges (l) Airport


Drainage Pattern (a) Data regarding flash floods, frequency of occurrence (b) Ground water strata (c) Springs



Soils The locations for collection of soil samples should be well distributed to represent the

spatial variation in project area. The soil samples are to be analysed for the following parameters: (a) Land capability classification (for agricultural land) (i) Physical properties of soil (soil texture, porosity, particle size distribution) (ii) Chemical properties of soil (pH, electrical conductivity, cations, anions) (iii) N, P, K content 3.1.4 Catchment Profile (Directly Draining) (a) Drainage pattern (b) Watershed characteristics (i) Size (ii) Shape (iii) Relief (iv) Slope (v) Drainage (vi) Pattern and density (c) Ground water potential and runoff behaviour (d) Sediment/silt yield data (e) Existing cropping pattern (f) Migrant behaviour of human and livestock population Geomorphology/Geology (a) Data with reference to the entire project area (rock type, slopes, strata, minerals etc.) (b) Seismic zones/classification (c) Data pertaining to occurrence of earthquakes AIR AND WATER ENVIRONMENT Water Quality Parameters To generate baseline data for existing water quality in the project area, water samples (composite) should be collected and analysed for examination of water and wastewater as per the standard procedure such as given in Protocol for Water Quality Monitoring ( or the relevant code of the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The details for conducting water quality assessment are given in Chapter 5. These water samples are to be assessed for the following parameters: Physico-chemical pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, TDS and TSF, turbidity, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, iron, nitrate, phosphate, BOD, COD (b) Bacteriological E coli, coliform (c) Depending upon the pollution source concerned heavy metals namely mercury, arsenic etc. also to be analysed (d) Base line data: (i) Pre-construction: Two season data i.e. high flow and lean flow (ii) Post-construction: Water quality parameters upstream of the project site to be compared with the quality downstream of the project site (a)


3.2 3.2.1



Hydrological Data (a) Monthly discharge data at dam site (b) Lean season flow (cumec) (i) upstream of project site (ii) downstream of the project site (c) Water required for (cumec) (i) power generation (ii) irrigation (iii) domestic/industrial use (d) Ground water profile pre-monsoon/post-monsoon

3.2.3 Meteorology Seasonal-monitored data (monthly basis) (i) Temperature (in 0C) (a) Maximum (b) Minimum (c) Mean (ii) Mean rainfall (in mm) (iii) Wind speed (km/h) (a) Maximum (b) Minimum (c) Mean (iv) Windrose diagram for winter, summer, rainy season and annual (iv) Humidity (mean monthly) (v) Evaporation (observed class A pan evaporation or estimated using appropriate method) 3.2.4 Air Quality (a) Season wire/air quality (SPM, NOX, SO2, CO) (b) Construction material required (Table 3.2) (c) Dust emissions (i) Quarry sites (ii) Haulage roads (iii) Construction activity (iv) Stone crusher

Table 3.2: Construction material required (clause 3.2.4 b) List of construction Quantity Source of materials to be used at all (tonnes/month) material stages of construction Peak Average Cement Stone Steel Sand Other 3.2.5

Means of transportation (source to storage site) with justification

Noise (a) Major sources of noise in the project area (stationary and mobile) (b) Level at source (dB) (c) Level at project boundary (dB)


3.3 3.3.1

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT Aquatic Aquatic ecosystem to be studied over an area atleast between 2km upstream of the

project site and atleast 2 km downstream of the project site. The study should include the following: (a) Fish species of commercial value (b) Resident species (c) Migratory species, their spawning ground, fish morphology, anatomy, feeding pattern, breeding pattern etc. Aquatic ecological analysis may be made following the methods outlined in Wetzel and Likens (1991) and APHA (1998). Periphyton, phytoplankton, macrobenthos and zooplankton should be studied for frequency, density, abundance and diversity indices. 3.3.2 Terrestrial An inventory of flora, listing of rare, endangered, economically important and medicinal plant species should be prepared and their frequency, abundance and density should be determined. Quadrate method is generally used for sampling. Flora (a) Major forest products and dependability of the local communities on these such as fuel wood, edible species, construction material etc. (b) Forest type (c) Trees, shrubs, herbs (d) Rare and endangered species (e) Endemic species (f) Economically important species Fauna (a) Aerial distance of National Park/Sancturay/Biosphere Reserve etc., if any in the vicinity, from the project site (b) Rare and endangered species (c) Endemic species (d) Species of special interest to local population and tourists (e) Migratory route of animals, if any, in the project area 3.4 3.4.1 SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT Demographic Profile (gender based details of the population) (a) Rural/urban (b) Population density (c) SC/ST and others (d) Literacy (e) Employment and occupation (f) Economic status (land holding/house holding) Details of Villages to be Affected (a) Total no. of villages



(b) Total no. of families (i) Tribal (ii) Others (c) Total population (i) Tribal (ii) Others 3.4.3 Village wise Land Details (a) Name of village (b) Total land (c) Land coming under project area (d) Main occupation of villagers (i) Agriculture (ii) Service (iii) Labourers (iv) Business Details of Families to be Displaced Population Homestead oustees only Tribal Others


Name of village

Land oustees only Tribal Others

Land and homestead oustees Tribal Others


Infra Structure Development (a) Education (b) Industrial development (c) Drinking water (d) Communication (e) Roads (f) Electricity (g) Sanitation Cultural Sites (a) Places of worship (b) Archeological sites/monuments (c) Anthropological sites Health Profile (a) Existing health (b) Screening of the facilities urgent labour (i) No. of persons to be employed for construction (average and during peak period) (ii) No. of persons to be employed from the affected population (iii) Details of temporary labour colonies (c) Disease surveillance (i) Endemic health problem (ii) Epidemic prevention and control (iii) Probability of the occurrence of malaria etc.





This section aims at description of environmental impact assessment (EIA) methodology with reference to water resource projects. As a scientific and technical analysis of the environmental impacts, the EIA constitutes an important part of the project studies which alongwith techno-economic studies contribute to improving the project standard. 4.1 LEVELS OF EIA The potential scope of a comprehensive EIA system is considerable and can include appraisal of policies, plans, programmes and projects. Even if policies were not environmental in nature, they might still have severe environmental implications. The top tier of EIA application would be a Policy EIA which attempts to assess the environmental and health implications of national policies. For example, agricultural policies may cause severe ecological impacts or energy policies will influence the demand for natural resources and affect industrial development. At a lower level a Plan EIA would seek to identify key environmental factors affecting land use such as agricultural land quality and resources exploitation. EIAs could assist in the identification of preferred areas where certain types of development might be encouraged. A Programme EIA would be prepared for a series of like projects, such as in a river basin development scheme in which different hydropower projects including SHPs may be constructed at different times. A Project EIA would be undertaken when local environmental issues are particularly important for individual projects. It should be recognised that EIA is not a universal panacea, it may have restricted use in certain areas of decision-making. Most EIA experience is related to projects (Project EIA); very few plan EIAs have been undertaken. 4.2 EIA PROCEDURE The key activities are screening, scoping and assessment which will be discussed in detail in following sections. These steps require intensive interaction between the human resources and information resources available for a proposed project. Finally, an EIA has to be organized to address certain specific topics. Most EIAs cover the following features: Description of the proposed project, Description of the proposed location or study area, including information about physical resources, ecological resources, human and economic development and existing quality of life


Alternatives considered (including no-action), Potential impacts and benefits including evaluation of each alternative considered, Mitigation of adverse effects, Irreversible and irretrievable commitment of resources, Identification of temporary, short-term and long-term effects, Disposition of reviews comments, Summary, conclusions and recommendations, Monitoring, Addition of other features or topics particular to the proposed project. Screening Screening is a procedure which aims to identify, as early as possible, those projects with


potentially significant impacts, that should therefore be subject to EIA. Projects can be investigated and, if no significant impacts are anticipated, they can then be exempted from further environmental analysis. According to MoEF guidelines, Category B projects or activities (see Chapter 2) are subjected to scrutiny by concerned State Level Expert Appraisal Committee for determining whether or not the project or activity requires an EIA. Those requiring EIA are termed as B1 project and those not requiring EIA are termed as B2 project. For categorization of projects into B1 or B2, the MoEF shall issue appropriate guidelines from time to time. A number of approaches to screening can be identified. These are listed and discussed below:

Project thresholds, Locational criteria, Positive and negative lists, Initial Environmental Evaluations (IEEs), Thresholds Thresholds may be developed on the basis of size, cost or pollution levels. For example, in India, a policy has been established (MoEF, 2006) that all hydropower projects with installed capacity less than 25 MW would not be subject to prior environmental clearance by competent authority. This approach, unfortunately, neglects the implications of several small hydropower developments in vicinity, each below the threshold, but which in combination may cause significant adverse impacts and thus should be subject to EIA. Locational criteria Locational criteria usually involve designation of sensitive areas, for example nature preserves, national parks, historical/religious sites and biospheres. Thus any project or activity


in category B will be treated as category A if located in whole or part within 10 km from the boundary of protected areas/critically polluted areas/notified ecosensitive areas etc. Positive and negative lists The approach is based upon a list of proposed projects for which an EIA is always required (positive list) and a list for which no EIS is required (negative list). Initially, some work is needed to justify the inclusion of one project and the exclusion of another. Example: individual industries located in notified ecosensitive zone (positive list)/biotech parks (negative list) Initial environmental evaluation An initial environmental evaluation (IEE) approach requires considerably more understanding of a project and its environs than the approaches described previously. IEEs operate on a project-by-project basis and consequently it is impossible to make generalizations as to which project will be subject to an EIA. However, the RA is an essential precursor to an IEE since it provides sufficient information on pollution loads and levels to allow decision to be made on the need for an EIA. An IEE-approach is presented in the UNEP guidelines (United Nations Environment Programme, 1980) for the assessment and siting of industry. This approach requires a systematic identification of possible interactions between the characteristics of the proposed development, and those of the size and surroundings. Both an interactions matrix and screening tests may be needed for this approach. There are several general criteria that can be used when making a decision as to the environmental effect of an activity. These criteria are not mutually exclusive but are very much interrelated. Magnitude : This is defined as the probable severity of each potential impact. Will the impact be irreversible? If reversible, what will be the rate of recovery or adaptability of an impact area? Will the activity preclude the use of the impact area for other purpose? Prevalence : This is defined as the extent to which the impact may eventually extend as in the cumulative effects of a number of stream crossings. Each one taken separately might represent a localized impact of small importance and magnitude but a number of such crossing could result in a widespread effect. Coupled with the determination of cumulative effective is the remoteness of an effect from the activity causing it. The deterioration of fish production resulting for access roads could affect sport fishing in an area many miles away and for months or years after project completion.


Duration and Frequency : The significance of duration and 1frequency can be explained as follows. Will the activity be long-term or short-term? If the activity is intermittent, will it allow for recovery during inactive periods? Risks : This is defined as the probability of serious environmental effects. The accuracy of assessing risk is dependent upon the knowledge and understanding of the activities and the potential impact areas. Importance : This is defined as the value that is attached to a specific area in its present state. For example, a local community may value a short stretch of beach for bathing or a small marsh for hunting. Alternatively, the impact area may be of a regional, provincial or even national importance. Mitigation : Are solutions to problems available? Existing technology may provide a solution to a silting problem expected during construction of an access road or bank erosion resulting form a new stream configuration. While single screening approaches may be applied, they may also be used in conjunction with each other. Screening techniques can, therefore, vary in sophistication, but there is considerable merit in keeping this activity as simple as possible. A simple approach such as a positive and negative list approach, will allow both the development proponent and the authorizing agency to clearly understand EIA requirements in advance. This approach may need to be reinforced with an IEE approach in order to accommodate non-listed projects. Alternatively, a simple questionnaire approach may be acceptable.

4.2.2 Scoping (Depth of Analysis) Scoping is the procedure used to determine the "terms of reference" of an EIA and concentrates on identifying those issues which require in-depth analysis. Scoping has the following specific objectives: To identify the major environmental issues that must be assessed in the EIA. To determine the range of alternatives to the project which should be examined. To determine the boundary for the study in a geographical context. To establish a procedure for the preparation of an EIS and its format. Scoping often involves contact between those proposing a development and the public, and it is a procedure that allows interested persons to state their concerns before an EIA is undertaken. Participation of the public in scoping is important because it may help identify people who have useful knowledge about the proposed site. It also allows them to propose alternatives and suggest the kind of study that should be undertaken. Scoping is the first stage in creating public confidence in EIA and the decision-making process (US Council on Environmental Quality, 1981). It is helpful in providing participants with a report from the


developer which contains the preliminary information. This may allow any serious issue associated with a proposal to be identified early on. 4.3 METHODS FOR IMPACT IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT Although there are many types of EIA methods, this section will only discuss checklists, matrices, network and overlays manuals. These represent the most widely used methods. Before discussing these methods, it should be noted that evidence for their partial utility is often limited. Whenever possible evidence relating to this important aspect of methods will be considered. 4.3.1 Checklists The checklists method lists local environmental factors, which are likely to be affected where a development is planned. This list can contain broad categories of factors, for example, flora, fauna, hydrological regimes, surface water bodies and the atmosphere. Conversely, it can be extensive and detailed. An example of checklist is given Table 4. Another useful type of checklist is the "questionnaire", which presents a series of questions relating to the impact of a project. Checklists are used to provide answers to specific questions relating to the particular project being assessed. Once an initial question has been answered in the affirmative, additional questions investigate the nature of particular impacts in detail. There have been many attempts to develop checklists by the use of weighing and scaling. Numerical weights are assigned to items of a checklist in accordance with the relative importance of each item. Scaling is a procedure for reducing impacts on all items to a common arbitrary scale. These methods have not been widely used because of their complexity, cost and extensive data requirements. Also, they can be politically controversial due to the need to assign weights for relative importance to environmental components. 4.3.2 Interaction matrices A development of basic checklists is the interaction matrix. The most well known is the Leopold matrix development for the U.S. Geological Survey (Leopold et al, 1971). The matrix consists of a horizontal list of development activities displayed against a vertical list of environmental factors. The matrix is used to identify impacts by systematically checking each development activity against each environmental parameter. If it were thought that a particular development activity were to affect an environmental component, a mark is placed in the cell which occurs at the intersection of the activity and the environmental component. It should be noted that the matrix can be expanded to cover the construction and operational phases of various components on horizontal scale or more than one alternative can be represented on the horizontal scale. An illustrative example is shown in Table 4.1.


Table 4.1: Example: Checklist of impacts of a hydropower project

S. NO A. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B. 9 PROJECT PHASE / ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Impacts due to Project Location Displacement of People Loss of Land / Change in Land Use Encroachment into Forest Land / Loss of Forest Produce Encroachment into Nature Reserves & Wildlife Loss of Historical/Cultural Monuments Loss of Infrastructure Erosion and Silt Risks Disruption of Hydrological Balance Impacts due to Project Construction Soil Erosion at Construction Sites Muck Generation Transportation of muck and construction material Deforestation Human Health Water Quality Cultural Hazards Air and Noise Pollution Impacts due to Project Operation Reservoir Evaporation Losses Deforestation Effect on Wildlife Change in Water Quality & Risk of Eutrophication Increased Incidences of Water Borne Diseases Impact on Fish and Aquatic Life Public Health Drainage Positive Impacts Clean and renewable source of energy Employment Opportunities Catchment Area Treatment Recreation and Tourism Potential Additional Habitat for Aquatic Wildlife / Wetland Species Fisheries & Aquaculture potential Benefits to Economy Reduction in Air Pollution Reduction in Greenhouse gas Emissions Increased Infrastructure IMPACT POSITIVE NEGATIVE * * * * * * * * * * * NO CHANGE SHORT TERM LONG TERM

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * *

10 11 12 13 14 C. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 D. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

* * * * * * * * * * *


After the initial identification of impacts, it is possible to use the same matrix to indicate those impacts considered to be the most important. In the original Leopold matrix, scores from a 1-10 scale can be assigned to describe the importance and magnitude of individual impacts. Importance refers to the significance of an impact and magnitude to its scale and extent. Leopold-type matrices are easy to use and perhaps the most widely employed and successful of all EIA methods.

4.3.3 Network This method, although widely discussed in the EIA literature, has not been used as extensively as matrices and simple checklists. It was developed to explicitly consider the secondary, tertiary and higher order impacts that can arise from an initial impact. Checklists and matrices structure thinking towards impacts on single environmental entities. When using a matrix the effects of vegetation clearance, for example, are considered in relation to all listed environmental components. With this approach to impact identification, there is a danger that linked impacts are omitted. In this case, vegetation clearance can have an initial or primary impact on both soils and animal and bird life. However, the impact on soils can result in erosion and this can increase the sediment load in rivers. This sediment load can, in turn, affect life of reservoir and various forms of aquatic life. Should the river support a commercial or recreational fishery, then any changes in aquatic structure might have economic repercussions. 4.3.4 Overlays The overlays approach to impact assessment involves the use of a series of transparencies. The study area is subdivided into convenient geographical units, based on uniformly spaced grid points, topographic features or differing land uses. Within each unit, the assessor collects information on environmental factors and human concerns, through various sources/techniques. The concerns are assembled into a set of factors, each having a common basis and regional maps (overlays) are drawn for each factor. The degree of impact or importance of each factor is represented by varying the degree of shading with light shading indicating low impact and heavy shading the highest impact. The overlays are then stacked one on the other using the same reference points and the total degree of shading is visually observed. Those areas on the maps with the highest shading are thus the most acceptable alternatives. Because of the reduction in light transparency with each overlay, only about 10 maps or overlays can be used. This method is easily adaptable for use with a computer which may be programmed to perform the tasks of aggregating the predicted impacts for each geographical subdivision and of searching for the area least affected. Automated procedure can be used for selecting sequence of unit areas for routing highways, canal network, pipelines, and other corridors. The


computer method is more flexible, an advantage whenever the reviewer suggests that the system of weights be changed. The overlay approach can accommodate both qualitative and quantitative data. For example, water is often shaded blue while land elevation can be shown by contour lines. There are, however, limits to the number of different types of data that can be comprehended in one display. A computerized version thus has greater flexibility. Although in this case, too, the individual cartographic displays may be too complex to follow in sequence, the final maps (optimum corridors for each alternative, and comparisons amongst alternative) are readily prepared and understood. When using overlays, the burden of ensuring comprehensiveness is largely on the analyst. Also, the approach is selective because there is a limit to the number of transparencies that can be viewed together. Finally, extreme impacts with small probabilities of occurrence are not considered. A skilled assessor may indicate in a footnote or on a supplementary map, however, those areas near proposed corridors where there is a possibility of landslides, floods, or other unacceptable risks. Overlays do have some strong features too. For example, overlays may be mutually exclusive provided that checklists of concerns, effects, and impacts are prepared at the outset and a simplified matrix-type analysis is undertaken. Also, the objectivity of the overlay method is very good with respect to the spatial positioning of effects and impacts (e.g., area of land to be flooded), but is otherwise low. Overlays are not effective in estimating or displaying uncertainty and interactions.


SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT A hydropower project generally requires construction of the diversion barrage, headrace

tunnel, powerhouse etc. Construction of the project facilities would require acquisition of land, out of which part may be the government/forest land and the remaining private land owned by the individuals. Expropriation of private lands may cause social disruption and economic loss for the project affected families/people. The workers, which will be migrating in the project area during construction, would also cause certain demographic and social changes, since the project is normally situated in remote area. A survey should be undertaken to study and understand the socio economic conditions of these project-affected households and to examine the impact of the proposed project thereupon. Socio-Economic Profile of Project Affected People (PAP): It should cover analysis of the following: Sex and Age Educational Attainment: Religion and Caste


Occupation\ Family Income Marital Status Family Pattern and Size Enlistment Family Assets and Acquisition Infrastructure Facilities

Social Impact Analysis It should cover analysis of the following: Pressure on existing infrastructure/resources : Creation of the project infrastructure like roads, electric supply would also be available for the project affected people. Incidence of water related diseases: The aggregation of labour, discharge of uncontrolled wastewater and formation of stagnant water would result in occurrence/spread of diseases like malaria, cholera etc. Cultural conflicts: People in the project area have distinct habits of food and clothing along with deep religious faiths celebrating their festivals with great enthusiasm. Hence, chances of cultural conflicts may take place with that of migratory population. Cost of living and inflation: Minor increase in cost of living and inflation may be experienced in the project area as a result of increased commercial activities. Resettlement, Rehabilitation and Social Response Program (SRP) of the Project Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India have published the National Policy on Resettlement and Rehabilitation for Project Affected Families (NPRR-2003) in February, 2004 which gives guidelines for resettlement and rehabilitation of project affected families. Family to be displaced due to the project are to be identified. Only partial acquisition of agricultural land from the only four families of Lumber village would be necessitated for the project. If the number of affected families is much less than 250, then the NPRR-2003 is not compulsorily applicable. The affected families should be compensated for acquisition of their land in accordance with the local norms applicable for such acquisition. It is also obvious that such compensation would never render sufficient to compensate the indirect losses to the local people. The local population of the project area deserves certain incentives towards their social upliftment, so that they feel themselves an integral part of the overall development. With this principal objective in view, the project proponent should prepare a Social Response Program (SRP) for the project. The SRP should be carried out with active involvement of the affected people. It provides for livelihood support, infrastructure development, education assistance, public health facility,


gender support, water conservation and harvesting and creation of employment opportunities. A separate body comprising of representatives from project management & public representatives should be formed for monitoring and concerted evaluation of the SRP.



Assessment of potential impacts of a hydropower development to water quality first requires an effective plan to acquire sufficient baseline information to make the assessments. At the time of construction activities begin, a modified monitoring program is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of measures to prevent adverse effects to water quality. Ultimately, additional modifications to the monitoring plan are needed to evaluate the actual effects of the project on water quality and to enable identification of unanticipated effects and/or ineffective protection measures. The first monitoring plan, to develop a baseline of the information, should be a component of the Terms of References (TOR) developed within the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process. The second and third modifications to the baseline monitoring program are to be presented in the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) which is a part of the EIA report. 5.1 5.1.1 EFFECTS ON WATER QUALITY Water Quality Effects During Construction Generally, effects of construction on water quality in a river system stem primarily from the discharge of wastewater (both construction waste water and sanitary waste water from workforce housing areas) to the adjacent river and runoff from quarries and construction areas. Discharge of wastewater from construction areas that may affect water quality include discharge of water used to wash concrete mixing and hauling equipment, wash water used to prepare concrete aggregate, and other minor on-site discharges of water to the river system. Generally, the effect is an increase in suspended sediment loads and an increase in alkalinity of the water due to discharge of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), a component of concrete. However, dissolved solids may also increase significantly as a consequence of runoff from the construction area. If excavated material is deposited in or adjacent to the river channel, suspended solids concentrations and dissolved solids concentrations may increase further. Of particular concern with deposition of spoil materials is the potential for increasing concentrations of heavy metals such as iron, manganese, copper, lead, and other heavy metals. Deposition of suspended solids in the river channel downstream from the construction area may cause changes in the river channel if significant amounts of sediment is contributed to the river, and may cause problems with spawning areas of fish in the downstream reach of the river. Discharge of sanitary waste from work camps and other human sanitary facilities can affect Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) in the river as well as increasing fecal coliform


bacteria concentrations, an indicator of potential disease risk to to downstream users. Suitable handling and treatment of sanitary wastes will significantly reduce the potential for adverse effects to water quality from this source. Runoff from construction areas constitutes a more problematic situation. Potential water quality effects on runoff from construction sites include increases in sediment emanating from erosion from disturbed areas (construction staging areas, excavated areas, quarries, access road construction, spoil disposal areas), flushing of oils, greases and other hydrocarbon lubricants from maintenance areas, and potential flushing of other hazardous materials used at the project site for construction purposes. Containment of such materials and installation of erosion barriers will significantly reduce the potential effects to water quality. Maintenance of the erosion control measures and containment facilities must be accomplished throughout the construction period. 5.1.2 Water Quality Effects During Operation Most of the significant water quality effects are realized only after the project begins operation. At this time the affected river has been partitioned into two major components: Upstream of the project site and Downstream of the project site. Water quality effects upstream of the project site In general, a hydropower project can not and should not directly affect water quality conditions upstream of the project site. Any realized changes in water quality are generally attributable to changes in land use patterns, changes in population distributions and changes in industrial or commercial installations in the upper river basin. Consequently, any changes in water quality conditions upstream will be reflected in changes in water quality downstream. Management of land use, population distribution and industrial development upstream is basically the only option available to minimize these impacts. Water quality effects downstream of the project site The more significant effects of a hydropower development on water quality, at least from the perspective of ecological characteristics and human use, are generally realized in the river downstream of the project site. The magnitude of the changes in water quality parameters realized downstream from the project are attributable to the operating regime of the project which defines the hydrologic regime. Aside from the alteration of the hydrologic regime, two of the more common water quality parameters that are affected by a small hydropower development in the downstream reach are water temperature and dissolved oxygen. While the temperature regime in the river is not necessarily considered an adverse condition, it is the changes in the biological community that are affected by those changes that can become significant. The temperature regime of a river may affect the types of organisms


that are able to survive in the affected reach, the biological productivity within the reach (generally, biological production is positively correlated with temperature in aquatic systems), and the reproductive cycles of aquatic organisms downstream from the project. It should be noted that although some species may cue reproductive cycles on water temperature, other species cue their cycles on changing hydrologic regimes that may or may not be correlated with seasonal changes in water temperature. Therefore, the significance of predicted changes in water temperature must be framed in reference to the biological requirements of the organisms inhabiting the river downstream of the project. 5.2 PURPOSE OF WATER QUALITY MONITORING Generally, the statement of purpose for a water quality monitoring program is fairly straight forward. Though the development cycle, three basic monitoring programs will be designed and implemented corresponding to the baseline description period (EIA), construction period, and operation period. The primary purpose of the baseline monitoring program are twofold: First, the baseline monitoring program should provide sufficient information to enable accurate (justifiable) predictions of potential effects of the hydropower project on water quality parameters; second, the baseline data set will provide the standard against which project effects and/or mitigation effectiveness can be determined. Obviously, it is necessary to determine the starting point condition to determine if changes occur. The purpose of the water quality monitoring program for the construction period, likewise, can serve two purposes: First, the program should be designed to enable evaluation of the effect of various construction activities and construction related facilities on water quality; second, certain components of the program can provide further baseline information for determining the effect of project operation on water quality. The purpose of the final water quality monitoring program to be implemented during operation also has two purposes: First, data collected during the operational period are compared with the baseline data to determine if projections made in the EIA are accurate and mitigation or avoidance measures are effective; second, the monitoring program can be used to determine if changes occur during the operation period and might require attention and can be used as a basis to determine the sources of any pollutants. 5.3 SAMPLING DESIGN Design of the water quality monitoring program is key to obtaining a useful set of information for describing baseline conditions and measuring the effects of construction and operation on those conditions. Thus, the sampling design presented in the monitoring plans is the most important part of the plan.



Duration The duration of the water quality monitoring programs will vary according to the stage in

project development. For baseline monitoring, the minimum length of time necessary for basic understanding of cycles in water quality parameters is one year. The baseline monitoring program should provide sufficient information on all parameters included in the monitoring program to demonstrate annual cycles in concentrations or conditions. While the data set should provide at least one full year of sampling, continuing monitoring for longer periods would facilitate understanding of year-to-year variation in those parameters. Consequently, the baseline monitoring program should be implemented for as long as possible given the schedule for project construction and completion. Determination of the duration of the construction period monitoring program should correspond to the construction period, including preparatory period. In addition to monitoring the effects of construction, continuation of monitoring parameters included in the baseline program will provide additional foundation for measuring the effects of the project once it becomes operational. The duration of the monitoring program to be implemented during operation of the project will depend upon specific conditions at the project. For some parameters, the monitoring program could extend throughout the life of the project. For other parameters, sampling for a period of up to 5 years will provide an adequate basis for evaluating the effect of the project. 5.3.2 Sampling frequency As defined above, recommended parameters for inclusion in the baseline, construction period, and operational period include two groups: Those for general monitoring and those for assessment monitoring. During the baseline period (EIA preparation), parameters included in general monitoring should be measured on at least a biweekly basis, preferably on a weekly basis for one full year. Parameters included for the assessment monitoring include some parameters that should be measured on a monthly basis, with the remainder measured on a quarterly or seasonal basis through the planning phase of the project. The sampling frequency during the construction period, particularly for parameters that may be affected by construction activities should be measured at least on a monthly basis throughout the construction period. Parameters that are included in the general monitoring program and contribute to the baseline descriptions should be measured at the same frequency as determined for the planning (EIA) phase. The sampling frequency of parameters during the operational phase may be divided into two periods: Initial effects and long-term effects. The basic operational monitoring program should include sampling of the various parameters on at least a monthly basis for a period of up


to 5 years after initial operation of the project. Once the initial period expires, the monitoring program may be reduced to include the only a few basic, indicative parameters. If significant changes in one or more of the basic monitoring parameters occur, expansion of the monitoring program for a specified period of time may be necessary to identify the cause of those changes. In general, during the long-term monitoring phase, the basic set of parameters should be sampled on a monthly basis. 5.3.3 Sampling Locations The number of sampling locations for water quality will depend on the particular project configuration. For single projects (located on a single river), a minimum of three sampling locations is needed for both baseline monitoring and construction and operation monitoring. For construction monitoring, additional locations may be included to enable evaluation of possible pollutants from various areas of the construction facilities. For example, an additional location might be downstream from construction staging areas or downstream from labour camps. If some of these facilities are located on the tributaries of the main river, the samples should be collected upstream and downstream from those facilities. 5.3.4 Sample and Data Analysis To the extent possible, parameters recommended for the monitoring program, particularly those included in the general monitoring group, may be measured in the field with appropriate instrumentation and/or field kits. The remaining parameters generally require transport of water samples to a laboratory for analysis. For parameters that require laboratory analysis, sample bottles and containers with appropriate preservatives, if necessary, can normally be obtained from the laboratory. A preliminary list of water quality laboratories (private, governmental and non-governmental) is presented in Annexure 1. A list of possible field equipments to conduct the monitoring program is included in Annexure 2. As with any field or laboratory instrumentation, it is necessary to standardize the equipment according to manufacturer specifications throughout the field effort. All samples should be clearly labeled with an identifying number and all pertinent information regarding the sample recorded on separate data sheets for each location and sampling time. A sample data sheet for use in the field should be presented as part of the proposed monitoring plan. In addition to the field data sheets, it is highly recommended that a Chain of Custody form also be used to document delivery of the samples from the field to the laboratory. Samples collected for analysis in the field should be taken to the laboratory as soon as possible. The length of time a sample may be held prior to analysis can be determined in consultation with the laboratory. The water quality monitoring plans should include a section on the logistics of data collection and sample handling. Information to be included in the water quality monitoring plans


should include the field and laboratory procedures that will be used to analyze the samples. There are a number of Standard Methods for analysis of water quality. The particular methods that are to be used should be cited in the monitoring plan. Statistical analysis of the results of the water quality analysis will generally vary from phase to phase and project to project. For baseline monitoring, particular attention should be given to identifying seasonal cycles and longitudinal trends. The data may then be used to estimate how the project will affect each parameter. In some cases, it will be appropriate to use the data for calibration of one or more water quality simulation models. Relatively simple models are available to determine the effect of a project on water temperature and dissolved oxygen in the river. The most important component of the data analysis during the construction and operating periods is comparison of the pre-project condition or baseline condition with the construction and operating conditions. Such analysis will determine if and by how much impacts to water quality have occurred and are used as determinants of the effectiveness of any mitigation measures that have been incorporated into the project configuration. As construction and operating data are acquired over the duration of the monitoring program, additional analysis of trends in water quality changes may be identified from the monitoring data. Such trend analysis might include seasonal changes as well as changes that occur gradually through the years. 5.3.5 Identification of Water Quality Laboratory An important component of the water quality monitoring plans is the identification of the institutions responsible for collecting the samples and for conducting the analysis of those samples. Measurements of water quality parameters in the field and collection of the water quality samples for analysis in the laboratory may be performed by trained field technicians employed by the environmental consultant. Samples collected for laboratory analysis should be conveyed to the laboratory according to the protocol furnished by the selected water quality laboratory. 5.3.6 Quality Control An issue that should be addressed in the water quality monitoring plans relates to quality assurance that the data presented are accurate and reliable. An acceptable quality assurance program will consist of both external and internal controls by the laboratory providing the analytical evaluations of samples. First, the developer and/or the environmental consultant should implement an external quality control procedure. The procedure should at least include submittal of duplicate samples from one or more locations on each sampling data. These samples should be blind samples such that the water quality laboratory is unaware of which samples are duplicated. A second


possible component of an external quality control procedure could consist of periodic submittal of duplicate samples to a second laboratory, one not responsible for the routine analysis process. Second, the quality control procedures adopted by the water quality laboratory should be presented in the plans. An acceptable procedure should include duplication of samples by the quality control officer of the laboratory after submittal of the sample to the laboratory but prior to delivery to the laboratory technicians. The procedure should also include submittal of blank samples and spiked samples (samples with known concentrations of a parameter) to the laboratory technicians for analysis. Reports from the laboratory should include results of the internal quality control procedure for review by the developer/environmental consultant and the reviewing agencies. 5.3.7 Reporting Reporting of water quality data will be dependent upon the phase of the water quality monitoring program. Data and analysis of those data obtained during the pre-construction phase are to be presented in the EIA. As appropriate raw water quality data should be presented with the EIA to enable independent evaluation of results. A condition of the TOR may include a requirement for submittal of the water quality data in a standardized format for incorporation into a country wide data base. The water quality data should be submitted with the EIA. Reporting of results of the construction and operation monitoring program will also be submitted to the concerned agencies for review. The schedule for reporting the data will be negotiated as part of the approval of the EMP and will likely become conditions of the license to construct and operate the project. An appropriate schedule for reporting of results from the monitoring of construction activities would be on a quarterly basis. This will depend on the monitoring program itself and the frequency with which samples are being collected. Reporting of results of operation monitoring will likely be divided into two phases: an initial phase for a period up to five years with reporting on a semiannual basis and a second period following the initial period with reporting on an annual basis. 5.4 REGULATORY AUDIT In developing the regulatory audit procedure for a given hydropower project, the following areas should specified: 1. Purpose The comprehensive audit will cover all aspects of engineering, environmental and social considerations regarding the project. With respect to water quality, the regulatory audit will seek to determine if projections of the EIA are accurate and whether or not measures to mitigate


anticipated adverse effects are effective. Thus, the objective of the regulatory audit of the water quality monitoring program is to confirm the results of the monitoring program are accurate. 2. Acquisition of information and sampling design The regulatory audit of water quality monitoring will consist of two components: first, the audit will consist of a detailed review of data reported by the developer and construction contractor, including a review of the water quality control procedures and results implemented by the developer; second, the audit consist of an independent analysis of water quality conditions at the project site. This will consist of acquisition of measurements and samples in the same manner and location defined in the EMP. An independent laboratory, one not involved in the continuing monitoring program, should be selected to analyze the samples. Selection of the laboratory may consist either of using the governmental laboratory or another laboratory. 3. Analysis Analysis of results of the regulatory audit will consist of two factors: first, the data will be compared with available water quality standards established for hydropower projects; second, the data will be compared with results of the monitoring program submitted by the developer. 4. Presentation and reporting Results of the water quality component of the environmental audit are to be included in the environmental audit report submitted to the government. 5.5 INTERPRETATION OF MONITORING RESULTS

Pre-construction phase The basic presentation and interpretation of water quality information obtained during the pre-construction, EIA phase of project development is primarily the responsibility of the developer/environmental contractor. The interpretation will focus on two primary components: water quality conditions in the river in its current condition (i.e. description of the baseline condition) and projections of any anticipated changes in water quality conditions through construction and operation of the project. When reviewing water quality analysis presented in the EIA, the following questions should be considered: Do the results comply with the specifications defined in the TOR for monitoring water quality parameters ? Do the results adequately describe existing water quality conditions in the river prior to project construction ? Do the results demonstrate seasonal and annual variation in water quality conditions ? What are the potential effects of construction activities on water quality ? If adverse water quality impacts are expected, are the proposed mitigation measures and water quality management programs appropriate and what is the probability that the measures will be effective ?


What are the potential effects of operation on water quality in the reservoir and downstream from the reservoir ? If adverse water quality impacts are expected, what are the proposed mitigation measures and will they be effective ? If there is some uncertainty pertaining to potential water quality impacts or the effectiveness of a mitigation measure, what mechanism is available to remedy any unforeseen impacts or failures in the mitigation measures ?

Construction phase The developer/environmental consultant is required to conduct a water quality monitoring program during the construction phase. As discussed previously, some parameters may be monitored primarily to extend the baseline data to describe water quality conditions in the river prior to operation of the project. However, the more important component of the construction phase monitoring program will focus on the effectiveness of measure to manage contamination of water in the river resulting from various construction activities. Review of the reports of the water quality monitoring program should consider the following questions: Are results for all parameters defined in the water quality monitoring plan for the construction phase presented in the report ? For each parameter measured, is there evidence that construction activities have led to changes in water quality in the river downstream from the construction site(s) ? Based on the results presented, is the management of runoff from the construction sites effective ? Are any of the results unexpected in that they indicate deviations from previous measurements; are significantly different from baseline data, or are significantly different from expected results ? If deviations from previous measurements are detected or significant differences are present in the results, is there an explanation of why those differences have occurred ? Has the developer/ environmental consultant proposed remedial measures to correct the deviations or differences if it is clear that the differences are due to actions of the construction contractor ? Operation phase Results of the water quality monitoring program implemented once a project becomes operational are to be reviewed based on the baseline conditions, the effectiveness of any mitigation measures and comparison with what conditions were expected as set forth in the EIA. In conducting the review, the reviewer must consider whether or not any changes in observed water quality conditions constitute a significant degradation or improvement in water quality of the river. If some water quality parameters differ from exceptions, the reviewer must


also consider whether or not those changes are acceptable based on the analytic procedures used in making those predictions. This consideration must be made because many analytic processes may not be able to accurately predict future conditions because of the inherent variability of environmental conditions. When reviewing results of the monitoring program conducted during the operational phase of the project, the following questions should be considered: Are the results presented in the report complete ? Are the results compatible with base conditions and predictions of water quality conditions presented in the EIA ? Do seasonal changes observed in the results consistent with anticipated seasonal changes as described in base conditions and anticipated conditions ? Are there significant changes in one or more parameters from reporting period to reporting period ? Has the developer provided explanations of why have any observed changes occurred ? Are the changes due to the facilities and/or operation of them ? If after several reporting period, certain water quality parameters indicate a gradual change, has the developer explained why is that trend(s) occurring ? If significant, unexpected changes in water quality conditions have occurred that are attributable to facilities and/or operation, has the developer suggested any measures to adjust facilities or operating regimes to remedy the problem ?



A stake holder in the hydropower development is any individual, group, agency or organization affected by a project and/or with concern or interest in a development project and its outcomes, or in common resources impacted by a development project. A stake holder should be treated as a Partner in Development and not as opponent of the project. There are many potential stake holders/partners in hydropower development projects. Some like the local public, are involved at all stages, throughout the life of a project. And, they are often affected by it for years afterwards. Others become more or less important during various stages of the project development and implementation. The effects of a project on stake holders can be adverse or beneficial, direct or indirect, sooner or later. The identity of the stake holders, the timing of their involvement and the activities they may be encouraged and enabled to undertake depend largely on the type, size and location of a project as well as on the insightfulness, creativity, sensitivity and dedication to public involvement of the developer and the members of the Public Involvement Facilitation Team. The list of prospective stakeholders for hydropower projects includes some or all of the following. In every category gender must be considered; both women and men should be represented in activities, preferably in equal numbers. Stakeholders may be identified in terms of one or several of the following categories: affected local individuals, communities or households; government agencies and their representatives at various levels (center, district, local), from concerned ministries and departments; elected officials of concerned Gram Panchayats, municipalities, or constituencies; concerned business people and entrepreneurs; concerned NGOs, CBOs and user groups; political party representatives and local parliamentarians local influentials from affected area, such as informal or traditional community heads, school teachers, healers, social and religious leaders, and other notable women and men; health workers; social workers and marginal group workers (such associations or organizations dedicated to the upliftment of the poor, the landless, women, children and other vulnerable groups); and the project developers/proponents, themselves.


Generally speaking, those most directly affected by a project are clearly among the key stakeholders they are at the greatest risk, they feel the impacts most intensely, they benefit the most from opportunities; hence, they should be the first to be involved. The poor, landless, vulnerable and marginalized people are among these stakeholders, and it is they who are often the most difficult to get involved. Since local people will be stakeholders over most of the life of a project, their involvement and participation from the beginning is crucial to project success. The clearer the terms of public engagement and the more meaningful their involvement, the smoother and more sustainable and less conflicted the outcome will be. 6.1 WAYS TO IDENTIFY STAKEHOLDERS AND GROUP REPRESENTATIVES Stakeholders must be identified carefully. Since it may not be possible to involve each stakeholder, therefore, Stakeholder Committees should be formed that are representative of the affected public. Committee formation must proceed with the full involvement of the potential stakeholders. To create stakeholder committees that are truly representative of affected communities and groups requires that the process be participatory and transparent. Committee membership and representation should not be dictated by outsiders and to give more people an opportunity to vote and participate as representatives of the people, committee membership can rotate annually. There may be difficulty at first in identifying local groups, in selecting stakeholder representatives and stakeholder committees and in empowering and engaging them in meaningful ways. Discussing the purpose of such committees with public is important. Sensitizing them to their rights and to how they can participate is critically important. They should have a clear understanding of the responsibilities of stakeholder committees, the sorts of issues committee members may have to deal with and the seriousness of the decisions they may be called upon to make on behalf of their constituents. If there is difficulty in determining whom to select and how to organize a committee, it may help to discuss with the people of the community how they have dealt in the past with other activities requiring representative decision-making. Example on a set of questions which proponents may use to identify project stakeholders is given in the box below. 6.2 INVOLVING STAKEHOLDERS Stakeholder involvement begins with the identification of affected communities and groups, followed by the formation of representative committees, followed by identifying the core issues arising and followed, in turn, by a concerned effort to involve them easily and equitably in dealing with the issues, making suggestions and decisions, and taking action. Stakeholder


involvement in planning the mitigation of project impacts, and in monitoring, is especially important. Who might be affected, adversely or beneficially, directly or indirectly, sooner or later, by the project development? Who are the most vulnerable, the typically voiceless, for whom special efforts may have to be made? Who best represents those most likely to be affected? Who is responsible for what is intended by the project? Who is likely to mobilize for or against the project? Who can make what is intended by the project more effective through their participation and support, or less effective by their non-participation or opposition? Who must be fully informed and convinced for the project to proceed smoothly and conflict-free? Who can contribute financial, social and technical resources? In addition, the following questions should be answered affirmatively: Have the local communities, households, families, individuals or institutions most seriously affected by project activities been identified? Are the members of each community or stakeholder group able to select committee members to represent them, whom they respect and trust? Have conflict situations, and persons involved in serious local conflict, been avoided in the selection process? Are all sections of the community represented? Is there representative equity? Are the most vulnerable groups and women involved or well represented? Are stakeholders satisfied with the selection of their representatives to the stakeholder committees? Two most intense periods of local stakeholder involvement are at scoping and during the EIA study. Public inputs during scoping inform the writing of the TOR for EIA. The combined EIA study should be well informed through public participation. It leads to an EIA report which guides the impact mitigation process. 6.2.1 Memoranda of Understanding Experience shows that overlooking commitments made to local people and communities by developers has created unnecessary misunderstandings leading to conflict and delays in project works. Where misunderstandings arise, strikes typically follow. Strikes hinder project activities in both the short and long term. One pro-active way of heading off conflicts over misunderstandings is to assure that all involved have a clear idea of their roles and responsibilities proponent, local government agencies and stakeholders, alike as well as NGOs/CBOs, where appropriate. To accomplish this, two things must be done: Make no promises, commitments nor suggest courses of action without authority to do so; and Where commitments are realistic, appropriate and authorized, draw up and sign MOUs in each case, specifying the roles and responsibilities of all concerned and affected parties.



Training Some projects have demonstrated that training programmes for technical and economic

skills development and partnership are quite useful in reducing stakeholder frustrations in the face of changes which development inevitably bring to project-impacted communities. Priority should be given to preparing community members by enabling them to take up local employment opportunities. Training in skill-upgrading and other specialized employment pay off for proponent and local people alike by helping to meet the increased skilled manpower needs created by hydropower and other development projects. Similarly, training in other economic opportunities (e.g. fruit and vegetable production, poultry farming, animal husbandry) are also highly useful to farmers. Some of these activities should be the responsibility of local service agencies of the government working in close association with the proponent/developer. NGOs/CBOs can also help in this regard. The training of project affected people, women and men, in new skills is an effective strategy only if accompanied by actual employment resulting from firm market demand for new skills, or from new investments. The market for skills development should be carefully assessed before setting up training programmes. It is recommended that as new jobs open up that at least one person per household be employed by the project, to increase and spread local benefits and to enhance local support and well-being. 6.2.3 User Groups Stakeholders will inevitably include members of existing community resource user groups. In fact, the stakeholder group is, itself, a kind of user group focussed on both environmental and human resource impacts associated with hydropower projects. It is important to aid stakeholders in the formation or strengthening of user groups, to assume their smooth functioning and sustainability. It is equally important to encourage local government services agencies and NGOs, in their rural development roles. Key points about user groups development traditions and experiences can be learned by examining longstanding forest user groups, water user groups, and other pre-existing resource management groups. 6.3 PUBLIC CONSULTATION MoEF (Govt. of India) has specified guidelines for public consultation. Purpose is to ascertain the concerns of local affected persons and other persons who have plausible stake in the environmental impacts of the project. Public consultation is required for all Category A and Category B1 projects (see Chapter 2). Public consultation has two components: (a) a public hearing at the site or in its close proximity for ascertaining concerns of local affected persons


(b) obtain responses in writing from other concerned persons having a plausible stake in environmental impacts of the project or activity. A notice for environmental public hearing is issued by the State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) in at least two newspapers widely circulated in the region around the project, one of which shall be in the vernacular language of the locality concerned. Date, time and place of public hearing shall be mentioned clearly by the State Pollution Control Board. Public can submit its suggestions, views, comments and objections within 30 days from the date of publication of the notification. The participation in public hearing is open to the bonafide residents, environmental groups and other located at the project sites likely to be affected. Written

suggestions/representations can also be made by the public to the concerned State Pollution Control Board. SPCB shall arrange to video film the entire proceedings The composition of Public Hearing Panel consists of the following: (i) District Magistrate or his nominee (not below rank of ADM) (ii) Representative of the State Pollution Control Board The concerned persons are provided access to the draft EIA report and summary EIA report at the following places. Summary EIA report shall also be placed on website of SPCB. i. ii. iii. iv. v. District Magistrate Office District Industry Centre Office of the Zila Parishad/Local body as the case may be Office of the concerned State Pollution Control Board and its concerned regional office Regional office of MOEF The project proponent is required to make appropriate changes in EIA and EMP addressing all the material environmental concerns expressed by stakeholders. Chairman



There are two components of an environmental management plan (EMP): 1. Environmental Monitoring 2. Environmental Auditing


ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Environmental monitoring is one of the most important components of an EIA. It is

essential for: Ensuring that impacts do not exceed the established legal standards; Checking the implementation of mitigation measures in the manner described in the EIA report; Providing early warning of potential environmental damage. Principles of Monitoring Certain principles of EIA monitoring should be considered, and not overlooked. If the EIA monitoring process is to generate meaningful information and improve implementation of mitigation measures, it is desirable to accomplish the following activities: Carefully determine the indicators to be used in monitoring activities; Collect meaningful and relevant information; Apply measurable criteria in relation to chosen indicators; Pass objective judgements on the information collected; Draw tangible conclusions based on the processing of information; Make rational decisions based on the conclusions drawn; Recommend improved mitigation measures to be undertaken by the developer. Types of Monitoring Various types of monitoring activities are currently in practice, each of which is relevant to an EIA study. The main types are: (a) Baseline monitoring A survey should be conducted on basic environmental parameters in the area surrounding the proposed project before construction begins (Pre-Audit Study). Subsequent monitoring can assess the changes in those parameters over time, against the baseline.




(b) Impact monitoring Impact monitoring is designed to identify and measure changes in environmental variables. Environmental noise should be separated from trend as shown in Figure 7.1. The physical, biological and socio-economic and cultural parameters within the project area must be measured during the period of project construction and operation in order to detect environmental changes which may have occurred as a result of project implementation.

Figure 7.1: Representation of a change in trend of a dynamic variable (c) Compliance monitoring This form of monitoring employs a periodic sampling method, or a continuous recording of specific environmental quality indicators or pollution levels, to ensure project compliance with recommended environmental protection standards. Monitoring should be regular and performed long-term. Interruptions in monitoring may result in having insufficient data to draw accurate conclusions concerning project impacts. The main aim of EIA compliance monitoring is to provide the information required to ensure that project implementation has the least possible negative environmental impacts, and all possible positive impacts, in the project affected area. 7.1.3 Intensity of Monitoring It is not possible to monitor every single one of parameters that were investigated during the impact identification process. Therefore, a selection of Scoping Out should therefore be made of the most important and critical parameters that will best reflect the impacts of the project on its surrounding environment. The level or intensity of monitoring is to be determined on the basis of the known variability of each parameter, together with the potential severity of the environmental impacts that are being monitored.



Development of Monitoring Indicators For each of the impacts and corresponding mitigation measure indicators to be

measured during project construction should be developed. The indicators selected should reflect the condition of that particular component upon the measurement. 7.2 ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING The term Audit is usually associated with the professional of finance and accounting. Auditing refers to the examination and assessment of a certain type of performance. In the case of an EIA, an audit should assess the actual environmental impact, the accuracy of prediction, the effectiveness of environmental impact mitigation and enhancement measures, and the functioning of monitoring mechanisms. 7.2.1 Types of Audit The following types of audit are recommended for different aspects of the EIA process: (a) (b) (c) Decision point audit: It examines the effectiveness of EIA as a decision making tool. Implementation audit: It ensures that consent conditions have been met. Performance audit: It examines the effectiveness of project implementation and management. (d) Project impact audit: It examines environmental changes arising from project implementation. (e) Predictive technique audit: It examines the accuracy and utility of predictive techniques by comprising actual against predicted environmental effects. (f) EIA procedures audit: It critically examines the methods and approach adopted during the EIA study Audits are not required in all cases. At the project approval stage, however, both the project proponent and the authorizing agency should consider whether the application of a particular auditing technique is likely to result in new information or an improvement in management practices. Particular attention should be given to the cost-effectiveness of any proposed audit and to the technical difficulties likely to be encountered. Environmental auditing should compare monitoring results with data generated during the pre-project period. Comparisons can be made with similar projects or against standard norms. Relating actual impacts with predicted impacts will help in evaluating the accuracy and adequacy of EIA. 7.3 IMPLEMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN An EMP is a document to be developed during EIA preparation. An EMP refers to the document pertaining to project management, monitoring and auditing of the implementation of mitigation measures and the verification of predicted impacts in the project cycle. The following


are general procedures for the implementation of monitoring and auditing plans on development projects. 7.3.1 Activities Concerning Impact Monitoring The actual impacts caused by the project implementations should be closely monitored during the construction and operation of the project to examine the effectiveness of the mitigation measures. The following activities need to be concluded for impact monitoring: (a) Hold regular meetings with the local people and listen to their concerns to assess the impacts of the project on the community and the environment (b) During construction, regularly assess the stability of disrupted slopes. This is particularly necessary during the monsoon season. (c) During construction, inspect the levels of air, noise and water and land pollution at regular intervals and compare with national standards and baseline data. (d) During and after construction, conduct regular fish sampling to assess impact of the project on the fish population and their spawning and migratory behaviour. (e) With the help of the forest user groups, regularly monitor the condition of the local forest, and the use and trafficking of forest products. (f) Monitor the spoil disposal practices. (g) Monitor storage techniques for fuel and explosives kept in the project area to ensure safety to people and the environment. (h) Check the water supply and sanitation situation in the labour camps and the construction areas, and regularly test the quality of water being supplied to the construction workers. (i) Regularly check the health of the workers to ensure that there is no spread of communicable diseases. Also, regularly check the construction safely, ensuring the maintained health of the workers. (j) With the help of the local police, monitor, monitor the occurrence of criminal and socially undesirable activities. (k) Monitor the gender issues related to the project to ensure that neither males nor females bear an unfare share of negative impacts. (l) For at least three years following land acquisition, regularly survey the social and economic conditions of displaced families whose land and properties have been acquired by the project. 7.3.2 Formulation of Monitoring Plan/Schedule The monitoring plan includes the description of types of monitoring, the parameters to be monitored and methods to be used and schedules for operating monitoring activities. The following example (Table 7.1) illustrates the formulation of monitoring plan.


Table 7.1: Environmental monitoring plan: Impact monitoring

Method Location Schedule Physical environment Slopes Degree of slopes, Site observation Near unstable Continuously stability of slopes, slope areas during changes from the construction baseline data Water quality Temperature, pH, Water sampling See: Water Quality See: Water Quality turbidity, TSS, DSS, and testing, and Aspects Aspects hardness, chloride, comparison to sodium, oil and grease, ambient standards coliform, DO, BOD, COD, P, S, Chlorophyll Air quality Total suspended solid Low-volume In and around Continuous particulate, SO2, CO2, sampler, visual construction sites observation and NO2, PbO2, dust inspection, and along access sampling during accumulation from measurement, and roads construction construction activities comparison of data with ambient standards Biological environment Fisheries Size of fish population, Fish sampling and Upstream and At least three changes in spawning discussions with downstream of times a year: and migratory habits local fisherman project site before, during and after monsoon Forest and Number of trees, health Discussions with In/around Twice a year vegetation of trees, presence of user groups, local construction during ground cover people and the sites/camps, construction District Forest access roads, Office, field markets observation Socio-Economic and Cultural Environment Water supply Presence and quality of Site observation, Affected VDCs Continuously and sanitation water supply in local water testing and and construction during in the project homes and construction interviews with camps construction area areas, adequacy of local people sewerage system Public health Types of diseases and Discussions with Affected VDCs Monthly during amount of disease in the local people and construction construction the project area and and the health camps local community professionals at the local health post/hospital Resettlement Social and economic Discussions with Resettlement Regularly for at and conditions of the the displaced site(s) least three years Rehabilitation displaced people people, following land observation acquisition Economy Number of local people Records kept by Project site Twice a year employed by project project during and after management construction Infrastructure Number of households Records kept by Affected VDCs Two years after included in rural project project completion electrification by project management Parameter Indicators



Information Required for Environmental Auditing An environmental audit should be carried out after two years of project operation.

Information from monitoring output should also be utilized for carrying out the environmental audit. In general terms the environmental audit should gather information on the following areas: The condition of natural/social/economic resources prior to project implementation and after project construction is completed Whether the impacts forecast by the EIA occurred and, if so, the extent of these impacts Whether or not mitigation measures implemented are effective to control adverse impacts or enhance beneficial impacts Whether or not all landscapes degraded due to project implementation have been restored to their original (or better) conditions What are the impacts of boom-bust scenario among the workforce involved in project implementation and the local economy The overall effect on the local economy of project implementation Specifically, the following activities, and others as deemed necessary, need to be addressed for environmental auditing: How have the environmental conditions changed from the baseline conditions? Are there any problems relating to slope stability in the project area? Have slope stability and erosion control measures adopted by the project been effective in minimizing slope instability, erosion and landslides? What is the quality of water in the river and its tributaries? Did it change significantly from the baseline condition? Are there any bare or degraded areas around the project? What is the condition of the quarry sites, borrow areas and the spoil disposal areas? How are the local forest user groups functioning? What is the condition of the local forests? How are the families resettled by the project adapting to their new host communities? How have the local construction workers adapted to the loss of their jobs following the end of construction activities? What is attitude of the local people towards the project? What has been the impact of the project on local and national economy? Formulation of Auditing Plan/Schedule This is illustrated by an example in Table 7.2 below.



Table 7.2: Environmental auditing plan (A) Physical Environment (i) Air Quality Parameter Quality of air Indicators Location Total suspended solid particulate, SO2, Weir, access road, power CO2, NO2, PbO2, dust accumulation house and construction from construction activities in houses, plant areas vegetation, surrounding areas Methods Sources Low-volume sampler, visual Analysis of data, inspection, measurement and information from local their comparison with people, observation ambient standards

(ii) Noise and vibrations Parameter Indicators Location Methods Noise Noise levels and their comparison with Weir, access road, power house, Decibel meter ambient standards construction plant areas and nearby villages Vibration of Any case of hearing impairment, cracks Construction sites, locations of Interview, structures existed in houses and compensation cracked buildings observation

Sources Measurement and information from local people Local people, observation

(iii) Water quality Parameter Indicators Location Methods Sources Water quality Temperature, pH, turbidity, TSS, DSS, Headworks and Water samples collected from different Analytical data hardness, chloride, sodium, oil and power house sites source and comparisons with baseline data and ambient water quality grease, coliform, DO, BOD, COD, P, S, chlorophyll, NO2, CO2, SO2 (iv) Disposal of spoils and construction wastes Parameter Indicators Location Methods Disposal of construction Initiated erosion, affected Designated sites Observation/interview spoils the aesthetic value, affected forest and agriculture Side casting of excavated Initiated land erosion, local Intake, adits, power house Observation/interview soils and wastes drainage sites, access roads

Sources Local people observation


Local people observation



(v) Erosion and slope stability Parameter Indicators Location Methods Erosion and slope Eroded and unstable areas on natural slopes, Intake, road and power house Observation, stability collected data sites measurement Adequate drainage facilities such as catch Power house, intake, roads drains, herringbone drains, side drains, number and mostly in unstable areas of disturbed areas due to the lack of drainage Plantation of disrupted Revegetation of disturbed slopes Cut slopes and area and area slopes where vegetation was cleared Observation and photographs Visual observation, photographs Sources Local information, photographs, observation Local information, observation Local information, observation

(B) Biological Environment (i) Forest and vegetation Parameter Loss of timber Indicators Number of new houses in the project area, number of tea stalls and restaurants established during construction Volume of fuel wood trade, location of timber depots and fire wood sale in the project construction area Number of stumps of cut trees in nearby forest Alternative energy for Volume and type of fuel used in the cooking for labour force project area Harvesting and trade of Sales of medical herbs increased medicinal plants Physical forest condition of General condition of forest nearby Location Methods Sources Project site, roadside and Counting, Local people the vicinity of project observation and observation area record Project site, markets and Records, settlement areas observation Forest area nearby Project sites Project sites and markets Examination of forest Records from the contractors Information from local people and market Observation


Local people, available information, observation Local people, observation Local people, observation Local people

Forest near project site

Information and available local people


(ii) Wildlife Parameter Wildlife Indicators Location Wildlife hunting, trapping and poaching Forest area near the project site by workforce Trading of wildlife products (dried meat, Project site and markets hides, furs) Frequency of the birds and mammals Project area seen in the project site before and after the project (iii) Fisheries Parameter Fisheries Indicators Location Methods Species of fish occurrence as Sampling stations at the project sites Sampling compared with pre-project levels Fishing activities of workforce Project site Interview Use of explosives, electric rod and nets Project site Interview Sources Local fisherman Local people Local people Methods Sources Interview with Local people, observation local people and photographs Observation, Local people, observation interview and photographs Observation, Local people interview

(C) Socio-Economic and Cultural Environment (i) Employment opportunities Parameter Employment opportunities Indicators Number of local labourers employed in Project site the Project Construction Number of women in workforce Project sites Location Methods Analysis records, interview Records Sources of Records from contractor and local people Local people, records of contractor


(ii) Trade, Commerce and Industry Parameter Trade, commerce industry Indicators and Number of shops increased/decreased during construction Number of shops still in operation Establishment of industry in vicinity of project site Effects on already existing local and traditional industries Rentals of houses and land space, before, during and after the project Location Methods Roadsides and in project Records, interview sites Project sites surroundings Local area Local area and Records, interview Records, interview Inquiries, interview Sources Records, local people

Observation and local people Local people Local tenants local people and

(iii) Compensation Parameter Compensation Indicators Use of compensation received Location Local area/out of the area Methods Survey and interview Sources Local people

(iv) Occupational and Safety Hazards Parameter Indicators Occupational and Safety Types and numbers of Hazards accidents occurred during construction Adequacy of occupational safety measures provided by the project Facility of first aid emergency services provided Compensation to the loss of life or disability Location Project sites Methods Records, interview Sources Records from contractors and local people Records from contractors and local people Records of office and local people Records of contractors, office of project management and local people

Project sites

Records, interview

Project sites

Records, interview

Project sites

Records, interview


(v) Damages and Complaints Parameter Damages and Complaints Indicators Types of damages on personal properties Damages to local infrastructure such as roads, irrigation and bridges Compensation for maintenance and rehabilitation of infrastructure Losses caused by blasting, vibration and noise and compensation paid Location Methods Project sites and its Survey, interview and vicinities observation Within the periphery of Survey, interview and project area observation Sources Local people, observation, records Concerned agencies, local people

Project area

Records, interview

Concerned agencies, project management office and local people Local people and project management office

Project sites and its vicinities

Records, interview

(vi) Economic Condition Parameter Socio-economic change Indicators Changes in land patterns Location use Project area/VDCs Methods Interview/survey, observation Interview/survey, observation Market survey Sources Farmers and local entrepreneurs, observation Local people, business community, observation Local people, shop keepers

Price rise

Changes in local economy Project area/VDCs (standards of living) Rise in price in essential Local market commodities as compared to the prices of these goods before construction and adjusted for inflation



As per guidelines of MoEF, Govt. of India, terms of references for EIA are required for B1 and A category of projects. The TOR are to be submitted along with information in Form 1. These are finalized by Environmental Appraisal Committee and conveyed to the project proponent. In case the TOR are not finalized and conveyed within 60 days, the TOR suggested by proponent shall be deemed as final. 8.1 BASIC OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSE Terms of reference (TOR) is a document to be prepared by the project proponent, and submitted to the authorizing agency for approval. The basic objectives of the TOR are to: define what types of information are to be presented in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), delineate the relevant issues to be discussed, define what studies will be performed, explain who will conduct the studies, state when the studies will be conducted, and outline the basic structure of the EIA. The purpose of preparing the TOR for understanding an EIA of a proposed project is to ensure that the resulting EIA will be suitable for review and evaluation by the concerned governmental agencies. The TOR provides specific guidelines, including: identification and description of the issues to be investigated, systematization of the working procedures, delineation of the specific activities to be undertaken, fitting the EIA study into the context of existing policies, rules and administrative procedures, clarification of the responsibilities of the different institutional actors involved in the project cycle, setting out a time frame, with the required expert manpower for carrying out the EIA study, together with the estimated budget required accomplishment of the works within the specified time special emphasis to the most significant aspects of the study, and technical guidance relating to the main aspects of the environment which will require delineation during the EIA study.



Appropriate time for developing TOR Following the completion of scoping, a TOR should be developed based entirely on the

results of scoping. The most appropriate time for preparation of TOR is at the feasibility stage of the project cycle. 8.1.2 Responsibility for developing TOR The TOR evolves from the Scoping process in EIA. The critical issues identified during the scoping exercise, to be carried out in EIA study, should be included in the TOR. The project proponent should prepare a TOR that both delineates the scope of the EIA and provides complete guidance for undertaking the EIA study. After approval from the authorizing agencies the TOR becomes an official document. In the EIA report review process, the TOR serves as a standard document against which the subject matter covered in the EIA report will be evaluated. 8.2 GOOD PRACTICE CRITERIA FOR THE PREPARATION OF TOR The TOR must follow the prescribed TOR format in order to produce an EIA which follows the EIA format. The proponent should always bear in mind that the purpose of the TOR is to answer the following questions: 8.2.1 Why will it be done? How will it be done? When will it be done? Who will do it? How much will it cost? Name and Address of the Person/Institution Preparing the Report This section of the TOR should provide a concise description (corporate overview) of the organization that will be responsible for carrying out the EIA. The information given will be used by the concerned agencies to evaluate the institutional capabilities for carrying out the EIA. The information should at least include: the name of organization, address and contact numbers (telephone, fax, e-mail, website); the year the organization was established; and the approximate number of full-time professional staff. General Introduction of the Proposal This section must clearly state the objectives of the EIA, and the relationship of its results to project planning, design and implementation. It should highlight critical points in the decision making process linking environmental and social assessment and project execution.



The concerned agencies will require descriptions of the construction and operational phases of the proposed project. Based on the information already provided in the scoping document, these should include the projects: location and accessibility, design and layout, size and capacity, land requirements, raw materials, construction activities, energy and power source for construction, schedule, staffing, support facility services, labour requirements, and operation and maintenance activities. A map with the salient features of the project design should show the proposed project construction facilities at a glance. 8.2.3 Data Required for Preparation of EIA Report and Methodology of Data Collection The evaluation of the effects of hydropower on the environment and socio-economy requires adequate knowledge of the ecosystems, including the human communities, which exist within the area under influence of the project. Keep the data collection well focused. Based on the issues identified in the scoping document, this section should summarize what baseline data and information are needed, describe how they will be gathered, and explain how they will be used. The study goals must be clearly defined. The methodologies to be used for data collection should be briefly described, together with an explanation of how precise the information needs to be for decision-making. Predictive, quantitative models and standards should be proposed wherever possible to avoid vague and subjective predictions. In addition, public involvement to focus the analysis on locally important concerns and issues, and to ensure peoples participation, should be employed. 8.2.4 Policies, Laws, Rules, and Directives The purpose of this section is to establish that the organization responsible for carrying out the EIA is familiar with all of the relevant legislation of India. A summary should be made of the guidelines, procedural aspects, acts, rules, regulations and policies. Particular emphasis should be given to the policies and legal framework for sensitive issues such as pollution


standards, protected areas, endangered species, criteria for impact evaluation and relocation and compensation for project affected people. 8.2.5 Report Preparation Requirements Time By means of appropriate bar graph and simple critical path chart, the proposed plan for carrying out the EIA study should be indicated so that the project will be completed within a realistic time period. The graph or chart should indicate which studies are seasonally dependent, and the time frame must match the activities to be carried out. Estimated budget The total cost of the proposed EIA study should be given, together with estimates of the probable costs for any resulting Resettlement Plan, Mitigation Plan, Monitoring Plan, Auditing Plan, and Environmental Management Plan. Roughly, total cost for environmental integration in the project implementation can be expected to be in the range of 1% to 5% of the total cost of project construction which should be borne by the project proponent. Also to be included in the budget are the costs required for public involvement during EIA at sites, public hearings at project site, notices in newspapers and logistic support required for conducting public hearings. Specialists/Experts Starting with the team leader, a list of EIA project staff should be given, together with their key qualifications and affiliations. A description of proposed team staff should be presented including bio-data for all key personnel. A single individual should be designated as the EIA Team Leader, to be assigned full time for the duration of the project. It is most important that the expertise of the project staff is shown to cover all of the major issues identified in the scoping document. A hydropower engineer should be involved in the EIA study, as should a social scientist and/or socioeconomist familiar with India. 8.2.6 Approved Scope for the Preparation of the Report In this section, all impacts/issues determined and approved in the scoping document shall be incorporated. 8.2.7 Likely Environmental Consequences This section should consist of impacts identified in the scoping document and these impacts should be grouped into three basic categories as follows: Physical


Biological Socio-economic The potential impacts to be investigated by the EIA should be classified in terms of

whether they are direct or indirect, and the methods by which the evaluations of their effects will be made should consider the extent, duration and magnitude of each impact, including cumulative and residual impacts. 8.2.8 Alternatives for Executing the Proposal This section should outline how the No Action Option will be compared with the option of implementing variations in the design of the proposed project. The proposed methods will be expected to be capable of evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of both options in terms of economy and environment. The No Action Option is the existing scenario and describes status quo condition; whereas, under the condition with proposed project implementation, some changes are bound to take place. It is very important to explain here how different stakeholder groups will be incorporated into the consideration of alternatives such as: 8.2.9 design; project site; technology and operational methods, schedule, required raw materials; acceptability or otherwise of the risks likely to emerge while implementing the proposal; and other relevant points. Mitigation Measures, Environmental Management Plan and Auditing Plan Based on the issues identified in the scoping document, the probable mitigation measures should be summarized and their budgetary requirements should be estimated. The roles and responsibilities of concerned agencies at the central and local levels of administration in the implementation of mitigation measures proposed must also be included. The Environmental Management Plan and Auditing Plan should also be described. 8.2.10 Costs and Benefits This section must summarize the basic development issues or the problems that will addressed by the proposed activities. If possible, it should characterize the issues or the problems in a broader national context. The way in which the proposed project is expeted to address and resolve issues, or solve or alleviate problems, should be explained, with emphasis on sustainability. The critical requirements for the proposed activity to be successful in the longterm should be described, with emphasis on the major risks and benefits involved.


8.2.11 Monitoring Plan This section of TOR must outline how the monitoring plan of project construction and operation will be elaborated. Using the results from scoping, the list of indicators for each of the potential parameters to be monitored, together with the probable roles and responsibilities of the concerned agencies, should be listed. This information can be presented in a chart. A monitoring schedule should also be included. The cost required for conducting monitoring activities should also be indicated. 8.2.12 Relevant Information This section is related to the Appendices of the EIA report. It should provide preliminary list of the supporting information that it is expected will be used in the preparation of the EIA report. The list should include all relevant documents, maps, photographs, tables, charts, graphs and any questionnaires to be used for preparing the report.



MoEF. 2001. Environmental Impact Assessment A Manual, Impact Assessment Division, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. DOED. 2002. Manual for Preparing Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for Hydropower Projects. Department of Electricity Development, Kathmandu. DOED. 2002. Manual for Preparing Scoping Document for Environmental Impact Assessment of Hydropower Projects. Department of Electricity Development, Kathmandu. DOED. 2002. Manual for Preparing Terms of References (TOR) for Environmental Impact Assessment of Hydropower Projects, with Notes on EIA Report Preparation. Department of Electricity Development, Kathmandu. DOED. 2002. Manual for Reviewing Scoping Document, Terms of References (TOR) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Reports for Hydropower Projects. Department of Electricity Development, Kathmandu. DOED. 2002. Manual for Preparing Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) Report for Hydropower Projects. Department of Electricity Development, Kathmandu. DOED. 2002. Manual for Public Involvement in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process of Hydropower Projects. Department of Electricity Development, Kathmandu. DOED. 2002. Manual for Developing and Reviewing Water Quality Monitoring Plans and Results for Hydropower Projects. Department of Electricity Development, Kathmandu. DOED. 2002. Manual for Predicting, Rating, Ranking and Determination of Significant Impacts in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of Hydropower Projects. Department of Electricity Development, Kathmandu.

MoEF. 1996. Environmental Protection Act, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. MoEF. 1974 (amended in 1978 & 1988. Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 amended in 1988. Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981 amended in 1988.


Notifications MoEF. 2006. Environmental Impact Assessment Notification 2006 of Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India.

MoEF. 1981. Guidelines for River Valley Projects, Ministry of Environmental & Forests, Government of India. Guidelines for Sustainable Water Resources Development and Management, 1992, CWC National Guidance Manual on Environmental Impact Assessment, 2003, NEERI on behalf of MoEF



Abatement Accretion Acid Acid rain

A reduction in the degree or intensity The process of growth whereby material is added to the outside of non-living matter, the gradual increase in flow of stream due to influent seepage. Capable of donating hydrogen ions. Solutions of acids have a sour taste. Changes the colour of litmus paper from blue to red, and neutralizes bases. Rain that has become a weak acid solution because it has combined with sulphur dioxide from coal fired generating stations, non ferrous ore smelters and with nitrous oxide emissions from vehicles and fuel combustion. Amount of acids, given as milli-equivalent of a strong base per litre of water, necessary to titrate the sample to a pH value of 7. Adjustment to environmental conditions. The process of adding oxygen to water by physical or biological means to aid in purification. Living only in the presence of free oxygen Particulate matter in the form of dust, fumes or mist that can remain suspended in the air for long periods of time; usually under 1 micron in diameter. To establish a forest by artificial means on an area from which forest vegetation has always or long been absent. Water related The presence of substances in the air that adversely affect humans, animals, vegetation or materials. Simple, aquatic plants containing chlorophyll. Water which is high in sodium percentage but relatively low in total dissolved salts. The natural conditions (or environment) in a given place and time. An organism having ability to grow in the absence of free oxygen. The highest peak discharge during a water year in a stream. The use of artificial means to increase the production of aquatic organisms in fresh or salt water. Growing in water, not terrestrial. Land suitable for cultivation by ploughing or tillage, does not require clearing or other modification

Acidity of Water Adaption Aeration Aerobic (Oxybiotic) Aerosol Afforestation Aqua Air Pollution Algae Alkaline Water Ambient Anaerobe Annual Flood Aquaculture Aquatic Arable

Artificial Recharge Augmenting of the natural replenishment of ground water storage by some method Base Flow The sustained or dry weather flow of streams resulting from the outflow of permanent or perched groundwater and that draining from the V large lakes and swamps. Also, water from glaciers, snow and all other possible sources not resulting from direct runoff. The load of bed material layer where suspension is impossible for fluid dynamic reasons.



Benthos Biochemical

Organisms living in or on the bottom of a water body. Littoral organisms live between 0 to 200 m deep, and deep water organisms at 200+ m deep. Represents the amount of dissolved oxygen that will be required from water during the bacterial assimilation of organic pollutants. The difference in oxygen concentration of a water sample after five days of incubation at 200C/3 days of incubation at 270C.

Demand (BOD) Biodegradable Can be broken down to simple inorganic substances by the action of bacteria or fungi

Biological diversity The number of kinds of organisms per unit area or volume; the composition of species in a given area at a given time. Biological Indicator Biological Waste Biota Catchment Area Channel Check dam A species or organisms use to grade environmental quality or change Waste derived from living organisms. The plant and animal life of a region The drainage area of a river basin A natural or artificial watercourse of perceptible extent with a definite bed and banks to confine and conduct continuously or periodically flowing water A small dam designed to retard the flow of water and sediment in a channel used especially to control soil erosion.

Chemical Oxygen A measure of the oxygen equivalent which is required for the oxidation of an Demand (COD) organically polluted water supply. Coliform, Coliform Faecal Bacteria found in human and animal faeces. A high coliform count indicates potential contamination of a water supply by human waste and the potential to cause disease. Conjunctive use involves the coordinated and planned use of both surface water and ground water resources to meet water requirements.

Conjunctive use

Consumptive use The quantity of water used by vegetative growth of a given area in transpiration and or building of plant tissue and that evaporated from the adjacent soil or from intercepted Evapotranspiration precipitation on the area in any specified time. It is expressed in water depths units or depths area units per unit area and for specified periods such as days, months and seasons. Dam A barrier constructed across a river or natural water course for the purpose of: (a) Impounding water or creating reservoir (b) Diverting water there from into a conduit or channel fro power generation (c) Creating a head which can be used for power generation (d) Improving river navigability (e) Retention of debris (f) Flood control (g) Domestic, municipal and industrial uses (h) Preservation of wildlife and pisciculture (i) Recreation Storage of reservoir not susceptible to release by the inbuilt outlet means The permanent removal of forest and undergrowth A dam built to store streamflow or surface runoff and to control the release of such stored water.

Dead Storage Deforestation Detention Dam


Dissolved Oxygen Amount of oxygen needed for the respiration of the microorganisms responsible for (DO) aerobic decomposition of organic matter and for plants that are engaged in resynthesizing organic matter Dissolved Solids Drawdown Ecology Ecosystem Environmental Auditor Environmental Criteria Environmental Impact The total amount of dissolved material, organic and inorganic, contained in water and waste water The reduction in static head within the aquifer resulting from abstraction That branch of the biological sciences which deals with the relationship between organisms and their environment A complex system composed of a community of fauna and flora taking into account the chemical and physical environment with which the system is interrelated. A professional who approves legal environmental compliance for an organization, often a corporation, its directors and stakeholders. It parallels a financial audit. The need for such audits resulted from large court settlements for pollution damage. Standards of physical, chemical and biological components that define a given quality of an environment. (a) An effect on an environmental resources or value resulting from human activities (b) An effect of any kind of any components or the whole of the environment. Assessment of the impact generally involves two major elements a quantitative measure of magnitude and a qualitative measure of importance Document describing a proposed project, its probable environmental impacts and alternatives to the proposed project and associated environmental impacts. Physical, chemical or biological components and their interactions that can be stated in quantitative terms. Standards set to protect mans health and well being, to protect human health, environmental sustainability and aesthetics, and the well being of plant and animal life. (a) Eutrophication of any aquatic ecosystem is a multifaceted term associated with increased productivity, simplification of biotic communities and a reduction in the ability of the metabolism of the organisms to adapt to the imposed loading of nutrients. (b) Nutrient enrichment of lakes, ponds and other such waters that stimulates the growth of aquatic organisms that tends to a deficiency of oxygen in water body. Cropland left idle in order to restore productivity mainly through accumulation of nutrients, water and organic matter. All animal life associated with a given habitat, country, area or period. (a) It includes the water channel, the flood channel and that area of nearby low land susceptible to flood by inundation. (b) Adjoining land at the bottom of a valley of a stream flooded only when the stream flow exceeds the bankful discharge. All plant life associated with a given habitat, country or period. Bacteria are considered flora. The volume of water passing a given point per unit of time. The portion of the stream discharge that is derived from natural storage. An improvement of flow that results in better stream conditions for aquatic, terrestrial and other resources. The portion of surface water that infiltrates the stream bed and moves through pores in the subsurface.

Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Parameters Environmental Standards Eutrophication

Fallow Fauna Flood Plain

Flora Flow Baseflow Enhancement Flow Interstitial Flow


Minimum Flow Return Flow Fossil Fuels

Negotiated lowest flow in a regulated stream that will sustain an aquatic population of agreed upon levels. This flow may vary seasonally. That portion of water previously diverted from a stream and subsequently returned to that stream or to another body of ground or surface water. Coal, oil and natural gas. Remains of ancient plant and animal life consumed to produce energy.

Greenhouse Effect The increase in concentration of carbon dioxide and other gases in the earths atmosphere, causing a change in the ration of incoming solar energy to ongoing radiations, potentially warming the earth. Habitat Heavy Metals Hydroelectric Plant Hydrograph Hydrologic Cycle The natural environment in which a plant or animal lives. Metals with a density greater than 5 g/cc are known as heavy metals. An electric power plant using falling water as its motive force. A graph showing for a given point in a stream the discharge, stage, velocity or other property of water with respect of time. (a) The cycle of water movement from the atmosphere to the earth by precipitation and its return to the atmosphere by interception, evaporation, runoff, infiltration, percolation, storage and transpiration. (b) The continuous circulation of water from the atmosphere through soil to ocean (inter-relationships between precipitation, evaporation, ground water supplies, and water in general) In its original position or place. The process by which precipitation is retained by vegetation before the moisture reaches the ground Literally, all animals without a vertebral column. The supply of water by artificial means for raising crops Removal of excess, superfluous or gravitational water from land surface to prevent or to relieve water logging, the accumulation of harmful amounts of salts and deterioration of soil structure.

In situ Interception Invertebrates Irrigation Land Drainage

Land Reclamation Making land capable of more intensive use by changing its general characters, as by drainage of excessively wet land; irrigation of arid or semi arid land; or recovery of submergence land from seas, lakes, and rivers. Limnology (a) The study of freshwater lakes (b) The study of the physical, chemical, meteorological and biological aspects of freshwater Large forms of vegetation To render or become mild or milder; to modify. To moderate or make or become less severe, violent fierce, cruel, intense, harsh rigorous, painful etc. to soften, appease, meliorate, diminish, lessen, temper. A programme designed to measure, quantitatively or qualitatively, the level of a substance over a period of time. Pollutants whose sources can not be pinpointed. Pollutants from a widespread area. Referring to a water body low in nutrient supplies. Such water bodies contain little organic matter, have a high dissolved oxygen level and low numbers of aquatic organisms. (a) The most prevalent atmospheric pollutant is suspended particulate matter. Most particulate measuring devices are designed to measure the range between 1 to 10 micrometres. Large particles settle out of the air. However, the smaller

Macrophytes Mitigate

Monitoring Programme Non-point Pollution Oligotrophic

Particulate Matter


particles (less than 1 micrometre) are readily respirable contributing significantly to respiratory disease and reducing visibility. (b) Any material, except water in uncombined form, that is or has been airborne and exists as a liquid or a solid at standard conditions. Pediments Areas along the face of the uplifted mountain ranges which are relatively gently sloping and which have been formed by several factors including sheet erosion and deposition, stream braiding etc. The general slope of these areas is governed by the slope and erodibility of the underlying bedrock formations. (a) At a given temperature the intensity of the acidic or basic character of a solution. (b) pH is defined as coefficient extinction of hydrogen ions at a given temperature. (c) Negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in solution. (a) The alteration of the physical, chemical or biological properties of the atmosphere or any water supply including change in temperature, taste. Colour, turbidity or odour or the discharge of unnatural liquid, gas, solid, radioactive or any other substance which is likely to create nuisance problem or render the air and/or water supply injurious to public health or safety or render the air and/or water supply detrimental to wild animals, birds and fish or other aquatic life. The classical definition is the introduction of viable organisms to a body water. This definition precludes all forms of contamination. (b) The presence of matter or energy whose nature, location or quantity produces undesirable environmental effects. Any substance that is likely to create a nuisance problem or render the air and/or water supply injurious or detrimental to living organisms.



Potential The amount of water that could pass into the atmosphere by evapotranspiration if the Evapotranspiration amount of soil water were not a limiting factor. Pristine State Rain Forest Remote Sensing Resource Resource Conservation Resource Management Retention Dams Riverine Salinisation Sanctuary Sediment Soil Texture Species An animal hunted or killed and used as a food source by another animal. A tropical forest having an annual rainfall of at least 2540 mm. A method for determining the characteristics of an object, organism or community from afar. A tangible product of the earth or biosphere capable of serving, supplying or supporting some human purpose or need. Reduction of the amounts of solid waste that are generated, reduction of overall resource consumption and utilization of recovered resources. The introduction and enforcement of restraints, including specified technical practices, to safeguard the future of renewable resources and uphold the principle of sustained yield. Small earthen dams designed to retain water for only short periods of time to prevent excessively rapid runoff and erosion. Riparian; pertaining to a river bank Excess accumulation of salt An area usually set aside by legislation or deed to observe restriction for the preservation and protection of organisms. Usually finely divided organic and/or mineral matter deposited by air or water in nonturbulent areas. Refers to the relative proportions of the various size groups (sand, silt and clay) of the individual soil grains in a mass of soil. The basic category of biological classification intended to designate a single kind of animal or plant. Any variation among the individuals may be regarded as not affecting the essential sameness which distinguishes them from all organisms. A waterway in a dam or other hydraulic structures for the escape of flood/excess



water. It may be located either within the body of the dam or at one end of it or entirely away from it, independently in a saddle. Spring Stability (Ecological) Stream Restoration Undergrowth Water Criteria Watershed Wildlife Wildlife Habitat Zooplankton A localized site where ground water emerges from the soil. The tendency of systems, especially ecosystems, to persist relatively unchanged through time; also, persistence of a component of a system. Various techniques used to replicate the hydrological, morphological and ecological features that have been lost in a stream due to urbanization farming or other disturbance. Collectively, the shrubs, sprouts, seedlings and sapling trees and all herbaceous plants in a forest.

Quality Upper limits on dissolved or suspended constituents of water as set by a regulatory agency that governs the water sustainability for a designated use. The constituents might include dissolved solids, turbidity, pesticides, micro-organisms etc. The entire drainage area that contributes water to a system; the line of separation between adjacent water catchment areas. Undomesticated animals; often hunted or at least noticed by man and, therefore, consisting mainly of mammals, birds and a few lower vertebrates and insects. Suitable upland or wetland areas promoting survival of wildlife. Free swimming or floating animal plankton



NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pollutant Time Concentration in g/m3 Industrial Residential, area rural & other areas 80 120 80 120 360 500 120 150 1.0 1.5 5000 10000 60 80 60 80 140 200 60 100 0.75 1.00 2000 4000

Sensitive area 15 30 15 30 70 100 50 75 0.50 0.75 1000 2000

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

Annual Avg. 24 Hours Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2 Annual Avg. 24 Hours Annual Suspended Particulate Avg. 24 Matter (SPM) Hours Respirable Matter Annual Particulate (RPM) Avg. 24 size<10m Hours Lead (Pb) Annual Avg. 24 Hours Carbon Monoxide 8 Hours 1 (CO) Hour

NATIONAL AMBIENT NOISE STANDARDS Category of zones Day * 75 65 55 50 LEQ in db(a) Night 70 55 45 40

Industrial Commercial Residential Silence Zone **

* Day Time is from 6.00 AM to 9.00 PM. ** Silence Zone is defined as an area up to 100m around premises of Hospitals, Educational Institutions and Courts. Use of vehicle horn, loudspeaker and bursting of crackers is banned in these zones.


EFFLUENT DISCHARGE STANDARDS (INLAND SURFACE WATER) SR PARAMETER UNIT STANDARD NO. 1 Colour & Odor -All efforts should be made to remove colour and unpleasant odor as far as practicable. 2 Suspended Solids, Max mg/l 100 3 Particle size of Suspended Solids -Shall pass 850 micron IS Sieve 4 pH value -5.5 to 9.0 5 Temperature, Max oC Shall not exceed 5C above the receiving water temperature 6 Oil and grease, Max mg/l 10 7 Total residual chlorine, Max. mg/l 1.0 8 Ammonical nitrogen (as N), Max. mg/l 50 9 Total Kjeldah nitrogen (as N), Max mg/l 100 10 Free ammonia (as NH3), Max. mg/l 5 11 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (5 mg/l 30 days at 20C), Max 12 Chemical Oxygen Demand Max. mg/l 250 13 Arsenic (as As), Max. mg/l 0.2 14 Mercury (as Hg), Max. mg/l 0.01 15 Lead (as Pb), Max. mg/l 0.1 16 Cadmium (as Cd), Max. mg/l 2.0 Hexavalent chromium (as Cr+6), 17 mg/l 0.1 Max. 18 Total Chromium (as Cr) Max. mg/l 2.0 19 Copper (as Cu), Max. mg/l 3.0 20 Zinc (as Zn), Max. mg/l 5.0 21 Selenium (as Se), Max. mg/l 0.05 22 Nickel (as Ni), Max. mg/l 3.0 23 Cyanide (as CN), Max. mg/l 0.2 24 Fluorides as F, Max mg/l 2.0 25 Dissolved phosphates (as P), Max. mg/l 5.0 26 Sulphides (as S), Max. mg/l 2.0 27 Phenolic compounds (as mg/l 1.0 C6H5OH), Max. 28 Radioactive Materials Emitters, curie/ml, Max. Emitters, curie/ml, Max. 10-7 10-6 29 Bio-assay test -90% survival of fish after 96 hours in 100% effluent 30 Manganese (as Mn) mg/l 2.0 31 Iron (as Fe) mg/l 3.0 32 Vanadium (as V) mg/l 0.2 33 Nitrate Nitrogen mg/l 10.0


TOLERANCE LIMITS FOR INLAND SURFACE WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTIC pH value Dissolved Oxygen, mg/l, min Biochemical Oxygen Demand (5 days at 200C), mg/l Total coliform organisms, MPN/100 ml. Max Colour Hazen units Chlorides (as Cl), mg/l max Sodium Adsorption ratio max Boron (as B), mg/l. Max Sulphates (as SO4), mg/ l Nitrates (as NO), mg/l max Free Ammonia (as NH3), mg/l Conductivity at 25o C microhm/ cm Max Arsenic (as As), mg/l. Max Iron (as Fe), mg/l Fluorides (as F), mg/l Lead (as Pb), mg/l. Max Copper (as Cu), mg/l Zinc (as Zn) mg/l/ Max Manganese (as Mn), mg/l Total Dissolved Solids, mg/l Total Hardness (CaCO3), mg/l Magnesium (as Mg), mg/l Chlorides (as Cl), mg/l Cyanides (as CN), mg/l DESIGNATED USE CLASS OF INDIAN WATERS A B C D E 6.5 to 6.5 to 8.5 6.5 to 8.5 6.5 to 8.5 6.0 to 8.5 8.5 6 2 50* 10 250 400 20 0.05 0.3 1.5 0.1 1.5 1.5 0.5 500 300 100 250 0.05 5 3 500* 300 0.2 1.5 600 0.05 4 3 5000* 300 600 400 50 0.2 50 1.5 0.1 1.5 1.5 1500 0.05 4 1.2 1000 600 26 2 1000 2250 2100 600 -

A: Drinking Water Source without conventional treatment but after disinfections; B: Outdoor bathing organized; C: drinking water source with conventional treatment followed by disinfections; D: propagation of wildlife and fisheries; E: irrigation, industrial cooling, controlled waste disposal.



(Source: Environmental Impact Assessment Notification 2006 of MoEF, Govt. Of India) S.NO 1. EIA STRUCTURE Introduction CONTENTS Purpose of the report Identification of project & project proponent Brief description of nature, size, location of the project and its importance to the country, region Scope of the study details of regulatory scoping carried out (As per Terms of Reference) Condensed description of those aspects of the project (based on project feasibility study), likely to cause environmental effects. Details should be provided to give clear picture of the following: Type of project Need for the project Location (maps showing general location, specific location, project boundary & project site layout) Size or magnitude of operation (incl. Associated activities required by or for the project Proposed schedule for approval and implementation (A) Technology and process description Project description. Including drawings showing project layout, components of project etc. Schematic representations of the feasibility drawings which give information important for EIA purpose Description of mitigation measures incorporated into the project to meet environmental standards, environmental operating conditions, or other EIA requirements (as required by the scope) Assessment of New & untested technology for the risk of technological failure


Project Description


Description of Environment


the Study area, period, components & methodology Establishment of baseline for valued environmental components, as identified in the scope Base maps of all environmental components Anticipated Details of Investigated Environmental impacts due to Environmental Impacts project location, possible accidents, project design, project & construction, regular operations, final decommissioning or Mitigation Measures rehabilitation of a completed project Measures for minimizing and / or offsetting adverse impacts identified Irreversible and Irretrievable commitments of environmental components Assessment of significance of impacts (Criteria for determining significance, Assigning significance) Mitigation measures



Analysis Alternatives (Technology & Site)

of In case, the scoping exercise results in need for alternatives: Description of each alternative Summary of adverse impacts of each alternative Mitigation measures proposed for each alternative and Selection of alternative


Environmental Monitoring Program



9. 10.



Technical aspects of monitoring the effectiveness of mitigation measures (incl. Measurement methodologies, frequency, location, data analysis, reporting schedules, emergency procedures, detailed budget & procurement schedules) Additional Studies Public Consultation Risk assessment Social Impact Assessment. R&R Action Plans Project Benefits Improvements in the physical infrastructure Improvements in the social infrastructure Employment potential skilled; semi-skilled and unskilled Other tangible benefits Environmental Cost If recommended at the Scoping stage Benefit Analysis EMP Description of the administrative aspects of ensuring that mitigative measures are implemented and their effectiveness monitored, after approval of the EIA Summary & Overall justification for implementation of the project Conclusion Explanation of how, adverse effects have been mitigated (This will constitute the summary of the EIA Report ) Disclosure of The names of the Consultants engaged with their brief Consultants engaged resume and nature of Consultancy rendered


Basic Information Name of the Project: Location / site alternatives under consideration: Size of the Project: * Expected cost of the project: Contact Information: Screening Category: Capacity corresponding to sectoral activity (such as production capacity for manufacturing, mining lease area and production capacity for mineral production, area for mineral exploration, length for linear transport infrastructure, generation capacity for power generation etc.,) Activity 1. Construction, operation or decommissioning of the Project involving actions, which will cause physical changes in the locality (topography, land use, changes in water bodies, etc.)
Details thereof (with approximate quantities /rates, wherever possible) Yes/No with source of information data

S.No. 1.1

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20

Information/Checklist confirmation Permanent or temporary change in land use, land cover or topography including increase in intensity of land use (with respect to local land use plan) Clearance of existing land, vegetation and buildings? Creation of new land uses? Pre-construction investigations e.g. bore houses, soil testing? Construction works? Demolition works? Temporary sites used for construction works or housing of construction workers? Above ground buildings, structures or earthworks including linear structures, cut and fill or excavations Underground works including mining or tunneling? Reclamation works? Dredging? Offshore structures? Production and manufacturing processes? Facilities for storage of goods or materials? Facilities for treatment or disposal of solid waste or liquid effluents? Facilities for long term housing of operational workers? New road, rail or sea traffic during construction or operation? New road, rail, air waterborne or other transport infrastructure including new or altered routes and stations, ports, airports etc? Closure or diversion of existing transport routes or infrastructure leading to changes in traffic movements? New or diverted transmission lines or pipelines?


1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31

Impoundment, damming, culverting, realignment or other changes to the hydrology of watercourses or aquifers? Stream crossings? Abstraction or transfers of water form ground or surface waters? Changes in water bodies or the land surface affecting drainage or run-off? Transport of personnel or materials for construction, operation or decommissioning? Long-term dismantling or decommissioning or restoration works? Ongoing activity during decommissioning which could have an impact on the environment? Influx of people to an area in either temporarily or permanently? Introduction of alien species? Loss of native species or genetic diversity? Any other actions?

2. Use of Natural resources for construction or operation of the Project (such as land, water, materials or energy, especially any resources which are non-renewable or in short supply):
Details thereof (with approximate quantities /rates, wherever possible) with source of information data

S.No. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Information/checklist confirmation Land especially undeveloped or agricultural land (ha) Water (expected source & competing users) unit: KLD Minerals (MT) Construction material stone, aggregates, sand / soil (expected source MT) Forests and timber (source MT) Energy including electricity and fuels (source, competing users) Unit: fuel (MT), energy (MW) Any other natural resources (use appropriate standard units)


3. Use, storage, transport, handling or production of substances or materials, which could be harmful to human health or the environment or raise concerns about actual or perceived risks to human health.
Details thereof (with approximate quantities/rates, wherever possible) with source of information data

S.No. 3.1

Information/Checklist confirmation Use of substances or materials, which are hazardous (as per MSIHC rules) to human health or the environment (flora, fauna, and water supplies) Changes in occurrence of disease or affect disease vectors (e.g. insect or water borne diseases) Affect the welfare of people e.g. by changing living conditions? Vulnerable groups of people who could be affected by the project e.g. hospital patients, children, the elderly etc., Any other causes


3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5


4. Production of solid wastes during construction or operation or decommissioning (MT/month)

Details thereof (with approximate quantities/rates, wherever possible) with source of information data

S.No. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11

Information/Checklist confirmation Spoil, overburden or mine wastes Municipal waste (domestic and or commercial wastes) Hazardous wastes (as per Hazardous Waste Management Rules) Other industrial process wastes Surplus product Sewage sludge or other sludge from effluent treatment Construction or demolition wastes Redundant machinery or equipment Contaminated soils or other materials Agricultural wastes Other solid wastes


Release of pollutants or any hazardous, toxic or noxious substances to air (Kg/hr)

Details thereof (with approximate quantities/rates, wherever possible) with source of information data

S.No. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

Information/Checklist confirmation Emissions from combustion of fossil fuels from stationary or mobile sources Emissions from production processes Emissions from materials handling including storage or transport Emissions from construction activities including plant and equipment Dust or odours from handling of materials including construction materials, sewage and waste Emissions from incineration of waste Emissions from burning of waste in open air (e.g. slash materials, construction debris) Emissions from any other sources


Generation of Noise and Vibration, and Emissions of Light and Heat:

Yes/No Details thereof (with approximate quantities/rates, wherever possible) with source of information data with source of information data

S.No. 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

Information/Checklist confirmation From operation of equipment e.g. engines, ventilation plant, crushers From industrial or similar processes From construction or demolition From blasting or piling From construction or operational traffic From lighting or cooling systems From any other sources


7. Risks of contamination of land or water from releases of pollutants into the ground or into sewers, surface waters, groundwater, coastal waters or the sea:
Details thereof (with approximate quantities/rates, wherever possible) with source of information data

S.No. 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5

Information/Checklist confirmation From handling, storage, use or spillage of hazardous materials From discharge of sewage or other effluents to water or the land (expected mode and place of discharge) By deposition of pollutants emitted to air into the land or into water From any other sources Is there a risk of long term build up of pollutants in the environment from these sources?



Risk of accidents during construction or operation of the Project, which could affect human health or the environment
Details thereof (with approximate quantities/rates, wherever possible) with source of information data

S.No. 8.1 8.2 8.3

Information/Checklist confirmation From explosions, spillages, fires etc from storage, handling, use or production of hazardous substances From any other causes Could the project be affected by natural disasters causing environmental damage (e.g. floods, earthquakes, landslides, cloudburst etc)?


9. Factors which should be considered (such as consequential development) which could lead to environmental effects or the potential for cumulative impacts with other existing or planned activities in the locality
S. No. 9.1 Information/Checklist confirmation Lead to development of supporting. lities, ancillary development or development stimulated by the project which could have impact on the environment e.g.: Supporting infrastructure (roads, power supply, waste or waste water treatment, etc.) housing development extractive industries supply industries other Lead to after-use of the site, which could havean impact on the environment Set a precedent for later developments Have cumulative effects due to proximity to other existing or planned projects with similar effect Yes/No Details thereof (with approximate quantities/rates, wherever possible) with source of information data

9.2 9.3 9.4


Environmental Sensitivity
Aerial distance (within 15 km.) Proposed project location boundary



Name/ Identity

4 5 6 7 8 9 10



Areas protected under international conventions, national or local legislation for their ecological, landscape, cultural or other related value Areas which are important or sensitive for ecological reasons Wetlands, watercourses or other water bodies, coastal zone, biospheres, mountains, forests Areas used by protected, important or sensitive species of flora or fauna for breeding, nesting, foraging, resting, over wintering, migration Inland, coastal, marine or underground waters State, National boundaries Routes or facilities used by the public for access to recreation or other tourist, pilgrim areas Defence installations Densely populated or built-up area Areas occupied by sensitive man-made land uses (hospitals, schools, places of worship, community facilities) Areas containing important, high quality or scarce resources (ground water resources, surface resources, forestry, agriculture, fisheries, tourism, minerals) Areas already subjected to pollution or environmental damage. (those where existing legal environmental standards are exceeded) Areas susceptible to natural hazard which could cause the project to present environmental problems (earthquakes, subsidence, landslides, erosion, flooding or extreme or adverse climatic conditions)

(IV). Proposed Terms of Reference for EIA studies