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AIM: To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient theoretically and experimentally and also to determine the LMTD, heat transfer and effectiveness of the given double pipe heat exchanger for counter flow. INTRODUCTION: Heat exchangers are the devices in which heat is transferred from one fluid to another. The necessity for doing so arises in a number of industrial and domestic applications Some common example are radiations of a car, lorry etc. The condensate at the back of the refrigerator, air conditioner, etc.. Heat exchanger are classified into three categories Transfer type Storage type Direct type A transfer type of heat exchanger is one in which both fluid passes simultaneously through the separating wall. In practice most of the heat exchanger used is further classified according to flow arrangement. Parallel Flow in which fluids flow in same direction Counter Flow in which fluids flow in opposite direction Cross flow in which fluids flow at right angle to each other FACTORS INFUENCING: Overall heat transfer coefficient depends on Hot fluid temperature Cold fluid temperature Number of tubes Number of passes Direction of passes Flow rate

Counter flow



APPARATUS REQUIRED: Concentric double pipe Outlet and inlet pipe Heater and preheater Thermocouple Temperature indicator Pipes Volumetric pipes Cold water source Stop watch

FORMULA: Individual film inside heat transfer coefficient:

hiDi ---------- =0.023 NRe0.8NPr0.33(/w)0.14 K


Di inner diameter of the pipe (m) Viscosity of fluid (kg / ms) K Thermal conductivity of water ( W/m K) hi heat transfer coefficient of flowing fluid in inner tube ( W/ m2K) NR e = Gt Di / Gt = Mass flow rate of water / flow area NPr = Cp / K Cp specific heat capacity of water ( J / kg K) Individual film outside heat transfer co-efficient:

h0Do ---------- = 0.023 NRe0.8 NPr0.33 (/w)0.14 K

D0 = ( D02 D12 ) / 2 NR e = Gt Do / Mc Gt = mass flow rate / flow rate = ------------------/4( D22-D12) Where, D2inner diameter of outer pipe ( m) D1outer diameter of inner pipe ( m) Overall heat transfer coefficient: Uclean= { 1/h0 + 1/hi + Rw }-1 D0ln(D0/Di) Rw= -----------------2 Kw Where, Kwthermal conductivity of the material Heat Duty : Qh = mh Cph (Thi-Th0) W Where, Qh Heat transfer in hot fluid ( W )

mh Mass flow rate of hot fluid ( kg /s ) Cph specific heat capacity of hot fluid (J / kg K) Thi hot water inlet temperature ( C ) Tho hot water outlet temperature ( C ) Qc = mc Cpc (Tc0-Tci) Where, Qc heat transfer in cold fluid ( W ) Mc mass flow rate of cold fluid (kg / s) Cpc specific heat capacity of cold fluid ( J / kg K ) Tco cold water temperature outlet ( C ) Tci cold water inlet temperature ( C ) Logarithmic mean temperature difference: (Thi-Tco)-(Tho-Tci) LMTD =___________________ ln[(Thi-Tco) / (Tho-Tci)] Where, Tci Tho Thi Tco temperature of cold water inlet (C) temperature of hot water outlet (C) temperature of hot water inlet (C) temperature of cold water outlet (C)

LMTD correction factor: Tm = LMTD x F Where, F Correction factor Overall heat transfer coefficient: Q Uexp= -------A * Tm Where, A Area of heat transfer = D2L ( m2 ) Do Outer diameter of inner pipe ( m ) L Length of the pipe ( m) Effectiveness: 1- {exp(-UA/Cmin )(1-Cr)} -------------------------------(1-(Cr exp(-UA/Cmin )(1-Cr)

E= Where, E U

Effectiveness Overall heat transfer coefficient ( W / m2C )

Cr Cmin / Cmax Cmin Minimum heat capacity rate Cmax Maximum heat capacity rate PRECAUTIONS: All outlet valves must be opened. Before switching on the heater, first check water flow. Any leak in test tubes is to be checked and to be corrected. The flow rate must be constant.

PROCEDURE: Water is allowed to pass through the heater. Switching on the power supply to provide heat to the heater which acts as hot water inlet. Flow rate of hot water outlet and cold water outlet are adjusted, so that both are same of measured using measuring flask. Water was circulated till the steady state was reached and then inlet and outlet temperature is noted. Repeat the experiment for various flowrate. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Boiler, super heater, condenser at a power plant. Used to condense and evaporate in industry. Heat exchangers are used in refrigerant and ac system. Automobile radiator. Water heater and cooler. RESULT: The double pipe heat exchanger of counter flow Individual film co-efficient hi = h0 = Qh = Qc = = Uthe = Uexp = E =

Individual heat duty

LMTD Overall heat transfer co- efficient