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DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER-PARALLEL FLOW AIM: To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient on the given double

pipe heat exchanger theoretically and experimentally and also to determine the LMTD heat transfer and effectiveness of double heat exchanger for parallel flow. INTRODUCTION: Heat exchangers are the devices in which heat is transferred from one fluid to another. The necessity for doing so arises in a number of industrial and domestic applications. Some example are radiation of a car, lorry etc, the condensate at the back of the refrigerator, air conditioner,etc.. Heat exchanger are classified into three categories Transfer type Storage type Direct type

A transfer type of heat exchanger is one in which both fluid passes simultaneously through the seprate walls. In practice most of the heat exchanger is further classififed according to flow arrangement. Parallel Flow in which fluids flow in same direction Counter Flow in which fluids flow in opposite direction Cross flow in which fluids flow at right angle to each other A simple example of transfer type heat exchanger which can be used in the form of tube in tube. One fluid flow through the inner tube and other through the annular is surrounding it. The heat exchanger takes place across the wall of the inner tube. The function of heat exchanger is to increases the temperature of cold fluid and to decrease the temperature of hot fluid. The two fluids enter at the same end of the system and leaves at the same end and flow parallel to each other through out the unit is termed as parallel flow.

Parallel flow

DOUBLE PIE HEAT ECHANGER (PARALLEL) FLOW RATE (m3/s) Hot water Coldwater

S.N0

HOT FLUID TEMPERATUE (C) Thi Tho

COLD WATER TEMPERATURE (C) Tci Tco

FACTOR INFUENCING: Hot fluid temperature Cold fluid temperature Number of tubes Number of passes Direction of passes Flow rate Properties of fluid Material thickness Geometrical configuration of heat exchanger

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Concentric double pipe Outlet and inlet pipe Heater and preheater Thermocouple Temperature indicator Pipes Volumetric pipes Cold water source Stop watch

FORMULA: Individual film coefficient: To calculate hi

hiDi ---------- =0.023 NRe0.8 NPr0.33 (/w)0.14 K


NR e = Gt Di / Gt = Mass flow rate of water / flow area Flow area = / 4 (Di2)

NPr = Cp / K Di = D22 D12 Where, Di inner diameter of the tube (m) K Thermal conductivity of water(W / m K) hi heat transfer coefficient of flowing fluid in inner tube ( W / m2K ) To find out outside heat transfer co-efficient:

h0 Do ---------- = 0.023 NRe0.8 NPr0.33 (/w)0.14 K


Where, D0 = ( D3 D2 ) NRe=Gt D0 / Gt= mass flow rate / flow rate Flow rate = /4 (D22-D12) ( m2 ) Where, D2 outer diameter of inner pipe ( m ) D1outer diameter of inner pipe ( m ) hoheat transfer coefficient of fluid flowing in outer tube (W / m2K) Overall heat transfer coefficient: Uclean = { 1/hi + 1/ho + Rw} Where, hi inside heat transfer co-efficient ( W / m2K ) ho outside heat transfer co-efficient ( W / m2K ) Rw Thermal resistance Doln(Do/D1) -----------------2 Kw

Rw = Where,

Kwthermal conductivity of the material (W/ mK) Heat Duty: Qh = mh Cph (Thi-Th0) (kW)

Where, QhHeat transfer in hot fluid (W) mhMass flow rate of hot fluid ( kg /s ) Cphspecific heat capacity of hot fluid (kJ/ kg K) Thihot water inlet temperature (C) Th0hot water outlet temperature (C) Qc = mcCpc(Tc0-Tci) ( kW) Where, Qcheat transfer in cold fluid (W) mcmass flow rate of cold fluid ( kg / s ) Cpcspecific heat capacity of cold fluid (kJ / kg K) Tcocold water temperature outlet (C) Tcicold water inlet temperature (C) Logarithmic mean temperature difference (Thi-Tci)-(Tho-Tco) ---------------------------ln[(Thi-Tci)(Tho-Tco)]

LMTD = Where,

Tci temperature of cold water inlet (C) Thotemperature of hot water outlet (C) Thitemperature of hot water inlet (C) Tcotemperature of cold water outlet (C) Overall heat transfer coefficient Q ---------- (W/ m2K) ATm A Area of heat transfer = DoL ( m2 ) Tm F x LMTD FCorrection factor Q Amount heat transfer (W)

Uexp= Where,

Effectiveness 1- exp{(-UA/Cmin)(1+Cr)} -------------------------------1+Cr

Where, Eeffectiveness UOverall heat transfer coefficient ( W /m2 K ) Cr Cmin / Cmax CminMinimum heat capacity Rate CmaxMaximum heat capacity rate A Area of heat transfer ( m2)

If mhCph<mcCpc Then Cmin=mhCph Cmax==mcCpc If mcCpc<mhCph Cmin=mcCpc Cmax=mhCph

PRECAUTION: Water is opened and outlet walls must be opened. Before switching on the heater first check water flow. Any leak in tubes is to be checked and to be corrected. The flow rate must be constant. Thermocouple must be checked before taking reading.

PROCEDURE: Water is allowed to pass through the heater. Switching on the power supply to provide heat to the heater which acts as hot water inlet. Flow rate of hot water outlet and coldwater outlet are adjusted ,so that both are same of measured using measuring flask Water was circulated till the steady state was reached and then inlet and outlet temperature is noted. Repeat the experiment for various flowrate.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Boiler,super heater,condenser at the power plant Used to condense and evaporate in industry Heat exchanger are used in refrigerant and ac system Automobile radiator. Evaporator and chiller for milks

RESULT: The double pipe heat exchanger of parallel flow Individual film co-efficient hi = ho = Qh = Qc = = Uthe = Uexp = E =

Heat duty

LMTD Overall heat transfer co- efficient

Effectiveness