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SEISMIC INTERPRETATION & RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

UNIVERSITAS GAJAH MADA 20 OCT 2012

GERANICKY DELISATRA
PHE ONWJ

Presentation Outline
Introduction Fundamental of Seismic Seismic Data Acquisition & Processing Seismic Interpretation Reservoir Characterization Method

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Presentation Outline
Introduction Fundamental of Seismic Seismic Data Acquisition & Processing Seismic Interpretation Reservoir Characterization Method

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Introduction
Seismic play an important role in every phase of oil & gas industry Exploration phase usually 2D seismic data; exploration play concept, prospect identification, exploration well drilling, appraisal well drilling Development phase usually 3D seismic data; reservoir characterization, geological modeling, infill well drilling, field development EOR usually 4D seismic data; reservoir monitoring

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

BASIN FLOOR MUDSTONES Deep Water Sands (Fans)

Exploration

Basement high/ Thinned section

Mass Transport Complex

Deep Water Sands (Fans)

SLOPE MUDSTONES

Nonmarine

SHELF MUDSTONES

Structural Trap

Stratigraphic Trap

Working with minimum data; wells, seismic, etc Building exploration concept Prospect identification Prove petroleum system If exploration well succeed, drill appraisal well to estimate reserve accumulation

Source Rock ?

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Development

Dealing with numbers of well data, 3D seismic, engineering data More detailed work; field scale to reservoir scale Reservoir characterization; property prediction, fluid identification Building geological model as an input for reservoir simulation

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

EOR

Using 4D seismic data Monitoring movement of CO2 injection

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Presentation Outline
Introduction Fundamental of Seismic Seismic Data Acquisition & Processing Seismic Interpretation Reservoir Characterization Method

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Basic Seismic Concepts


RC IA1 IA2

S=R*W
S = Seismic R = Reflection Coeff. W = Wavelet

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Polarity & Phase


Reverse Polarity Normal Polarity

Minimum Phase

RC +

Zero-Phase

RC +

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Knowing Polarity & Phase

What is the polarity and phase of the above seismic section?

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Exercise
RC Shale = 2.4 g/cc V = 3000 m/s RC1 Tight Limestone = 2.7 g/cc V = 6000 m/s RC2 S

Shale = 2.4 g/cc V = 3000 m/s


RC3 Wet Sandstone = 2.6 g/cc V = 4000 m/s

*
RC = (IA2 IA1) (IA2+IA1)

IA = x V

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Vertical Resolution

Remember:

=Vxf
Where = wave length (m) V = velocity (m/s) f = frequency (Hz) Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Presentation Outline
Introduction Fundamental of Seismic Seismic Data Acquisition & Processing Seismic Interpretation Reservoir Characterization Method

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Seismic Data Acquisition


Type of survey:
Land Transition Marine

Type of data:
2D 3D

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Land Acquisition

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Transition Zone Acquisition

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Marine Acquisition

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Seismic Processing

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Presentation Outline
Introduction Fundamental of Seismic Seismic Data Acquisition & Processing Seismic Interpretation Reservoir Characterization Method

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

What is seismic interpretation?

Seismic 2D/3D data

Subsurface Geological Information

Required Data for Seismic Interpretation


Basemap Well Data and of courseSeismic Data

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Basemap
Basemap is useful to know your map view location while interpreting seismic section Basemap will give us information about coordinates, well location, 2D seismic lines, 3D seismic area, scale bar, etc.

Well Data
Type of well data: Digital data (LAS or ASCII format) Hardcopy (Final well report, well completion, etc.) Well Data: Logs: Gamma Ray, SP, Resistivity, Density, Porosity, Sonic Checkshot Well data will give us information about geological condition, interest zone, tested zone, top formation, etc.
CS KORINCI-1A
TIME (ms) 0 0 200
DEPTH (m)

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

400 600 800 1000 1200 y = 0.0003x 2 + 0.6078x + 9.5 R2 = 0.9992

General Steps in Seismic Interpretation


WELL-SEISMIC-TIE

FRAMEWORK MAPPING
- HORIZON PICKING - FAULT MAPPING

TIME-STRUCTURE MAP TIME-DEPTH CONVERSION DEPTH-STRUCTURE MAP

Well-to-Seismic Tie
A process of tying well data with seismic data by correlating synthetic seismogram with seismic data Matching between well marker (formation top, top/bottom reservoir, etc.) with certain reflector event in seismic data Decide which reflector event will be picked as horizon

Top B2a

Top B2b Top B3a

Top B4a

This step is done after defining which recletor event will be picked as horizon Most of seismic interpretation work is horizon picking Purpose : framework mapping, amplitude mapping

Horizon Picking

What event to be picked? Well-to-seismic tie will give you the answer

Horizon Picking

Structure Mapping

Amplitude Extraction

Fault Interpretation
Fault interpretation must be confirmed with regional geology (strike/dip), tectonic regime (extensional/compressional), etc. Know your fault better; is it normal fault? Thrust fault? Wrong fault interpretation will lead into wrong framework

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Time-Structure Map
Picked horizon and fault will be grid to generate structure map. Since horizon value is in time domain, the structure map is called time-structure map To have a real subsurface information, time-structure map should be converted into depth-structure map

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Time-Depth Conversion
CS KORINCI-1A

Required data to convert timestructure map to depth-structure map is velocity Remember; D = V x t Velocity data can be obtained from:
Checkshot Stacking data VSP

TIME (ms) 0 0 200


DEPTH (m)

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

400 600 800 1000 1200 y = 0.0003x 2 + 0.6078x + 9.5 R2 = 0.9992

Depth-structure map is a product of multiplying time-structure map with velocity function. Velocity is varied with depth and geological condition

Depth-Structure Map
Time-structure Map Depth-structure Map

Depth-structure map represent subsurface structural condition Due to velocity variation, depth-structure map can be different with timestructure map Depth-structure map should be confirmed with depth at well location

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator (DHI)


A quick look for hydrocarbon indicator Common DHI: Bright spot Dim spot Polarity reversal Flat spot Can be a pitfall too!

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Bright Spot

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Dim Spot

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Polarity Reversal

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Flat Spot

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Some Technique to Guide Seismic Interpretation


There are some technique to guide seismic interpretation Using seismic attributes (phase, frequency, amplitude) Good for quick interpretation

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Coherency
Reflectivity (amplitude) Coherence
Coherency attribute detects discontinuity in seismic reflector Good in detecting fault or stratigraphic features

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Instantaneous Phase
Reflectivity (Amplitude)

Instantaneous Phase

Instantaneous Phase attribute balance the weak and strong reflector Good in tracing reflector continuity
Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Instantaneous Frequency
Reflectivity (Amplitude)

Instantaneous Frequency

Instantaneous Frequency gives an information regarding frequency at certain time Gas column will absorp frequency content, therefore, frequency below gas column will be decreased Good in analyzing bright spots

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Some Problems & Pitfall


False Bright Spot Pull-up effect Mis-tie

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False Bright Spot

Gas sand and coal have a low impedance contrast with overlying shale Both gas sand and coal will give strong negative amplitude Lesson learned: bright spot is not always a good news!

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Pull-up Effect

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Mis-tie
Mis-tie is a time gap between intersecting seismic lines due to different vintage or different processing parameter ataupun parameter processing yang berbeda Mis-tie only occur in 2D seismic data

Presentation Outline
Introduction Fundamental of Seismic Seismic Data Acquisition & Processing Seismic Interpretation Reservoir Characterization Method

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Reservoir Characterization Method


Seismic reservoir characterization is necessary to predict reservoir property (porosity, Sw, etc.) and its fluid contents (oil, gas, water) More quantitative analysis Require Rock Physics Basically, there are 2 main methods:
Seismic AI Inversion Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) Multi-attribute

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Seismic AI Inversion

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Basic Theory
Earth Seismic Acquisition Seismic Seismic Inversion AI Reservoir Characterization
Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Wavelet

= Seismic

Wavelet

= AI

Earth

Workflow
Feasibilty Study

Wavelet Estimation

Buidling Initial Model

Invert Seismic

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Workflow
Feasibilty Study

Wavelet Estimation

Buidling Initial Model

Invert Seismic

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Workflow
Feasibilty Study

Wavelet Estimation

Buidling Initial Model

Invert Seismic

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Workflow
Feasibilty Study

Wavelet Estimation

Buidling Initial Model

Invert Seismic

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

AVO
AVO stands for Amplitude Variations with Offset, or Amplitude Versus Offset The AVO technique uses the amplitude variations of prestack seismic reflections to predict reservoir fluid effects

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Basic Concept

Velocity

NMO
+ + + =

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Basic Theory
Offset

Time

56 Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

AVO Classification
The Rutherford and Williams classification scheme as modified by Ross and Kinman (1995).
Class 1 AI Sand > AI Shale

Class 2 AI Sand AI Shale

Class 3 AI Sand < AI Shale 57 Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Straight toCase Study!!!

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Background

Shallow biogenic gas in Lower Petani Fm. main exploration target Appear as bright spot on Post-stack seismic section Coal in Upper Petani Fm. also appear as bright spot Bright spot can be a DHI, but also a pitfall as well Several dry-holes by the same pitfall
UGM-1 UGM-2

Coal

Gas Sand

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

What Makes it Happen?


Top Gas Sand

Decrease Impedance
UGM-1 UGM-2

Top Coal

Decrease Impedance
Decrease in Impedance cause a negative Reflective Coefficient, and therefore appear as strong negative amplitude in seismic section

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Relationship Between AI & AVO Class


Shallow biogenic gas are above 1200 m AI value of gas sands < shale Low impedance sand The crossplot between AI and depth suggest that those shallow gas is classified into class 3 gas sand

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

AVO Modeling of Gas Sand and Coal


Property Synthetic Modeling AVO Curve

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AVO Classification

Gas Sand

Intercept (-) Gradient (-) AVO Class 3

Coal

Intercept (-) Gradient (+/-) AVO Class ???

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

AVO Cross-plot Theory


AVO cross-plotting involves plotting the intercept against the gradient and identifying anomalies. The theory of cross-plotting was developed by Castagna et al (TLE, 1997, Geophysics, 1998) and Verm and Hilterman (TLE, 1995)

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

AVO Crossplot Analysis


Cross-plot between intercept and gradient of pre-stack data confirms the model Gas sand anomaly is fall into class 3 gas sand region, while coal is tend to fall between mud-rock line and class 4 region

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Multi-attribute
Multi-attribute analysis is a method which uses more than one seismic attribute to predict reservoir physical properties based on well logs data (Russell et. al, 1997)

You dont have to remember this!

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Comparison between Inversion and Multi-atttribute


Multi-attribute

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Workflow
Feasibilty Study

Log Prediction

Generate Pseudo-log Volume

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Workflow
Feasibilty Study

Log Prediction

Generate Pseudo-log Volume

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Workflow
Feasibilty Study

Log Prediction

Generate Pseudo-log Volume

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Other Methods
Other methods in seismic reservoir characterization is a combination of Inversion and AVO For example:
Lamda Mu Rho (AVO inversion) Simultaneous inversion (AVO inversion) Elastic Impedance/Extended Elastic Impedance (AVO inversion)

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ

Image Rights
Images are courtesy of:
BP PHE ONWJ Chevron Fugro-Jason PGS Elnusa EMP

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Thank You

Geranicky Delisatra, Geophysicist PHE ONWJ