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Threads

What is thread?
Helical ridge of uniform section formed on inside or outside of cylinder or cone

Thread Applications:
Used to fix temporarily one part to another Provide accurate measurement, as in micrometer Transmit motion
Worms transmit motion on shafts perpendicular to each other Worm & Gear

THREAD TERMINOLOGY
External (male) thread Internal (female) thread
External thread Internal thread A thread cut on the outside of a cylindrical body. A thread cut on the inside of a cylindrical body.

THREAD TERMINOLOGY
Right-hand thread Left-hand thread
Thread that will assemble when turned clockwise. Thread that will assemble when turned counter-clockwise.

THREAD TERMINOLOGY
Crest Root Thread angle
External Thread
Thread angle

The peak edge of a thread. The bottom of the thread cut into a cylindrical body. The angle between threads faces. Internal Thread

Root Crest

Crest

Root

THREAD TERMINOLOGY
Major diameter Minor diameter
External Thread
Minor dia. Major dia.

The largest diameter on an internal or external thread. The smallest diameter on an internal or external thread. Internal Thread

Minor dia.

Major dia.

THREAD TERMINOLOGY
Pitch Lead
External Thread The distance between crests of threads. The distance a screw will advance when turned 360o. Internal Thread

Lead

Pitch Pitch

THREAD TERMINOLOGY
The lead and the pitch of a single lead thread are the same.
On double lead threads, the lead is twice the pitch.

A double lead thread has two start points.


Single Start Double Start

Single Lead

Double Lead

THREAD TERMINOLOGY
Helix Angle Depth of thread Flank
External Thread
Helix Angle

Angle that thread makes with plane perpendicular to thread axis Distance between crest and root measured perpendicular to axis Thread surface that connects crest with root Internal Thread
Helix Angle

Depth of Thread

Depth of Thread

Flank Flank

THREAD TERMINOLOGY
Thread Form
Form is the profile shape of the thread. Example : knuckle thread form

Thread Forms
According to use and shape, threads are classified as follows:
V Thread Square Thread Acme Thread Buttress Thread Knuckle Thread Worm Thread
Power Thread Used for power transmission

V Thread
These are classified as follows: Metric International Standard British Standard Whitworth (BSW) British Standard Fine (BSF) British Standard Pipe (BSP) American National or Seller Thread

ISO (METRIC) THREAD


Internal thread
60o

P/4

External thread
Pitch, P

Center of thread assembly The pitch, p of the thread is expressed in mm

ISO (METRIC) THREAD


60 included angle D (Internal) = 0.6143 x pitch Crest = .125 x pitch Root = .250 x pitch

METRIC COARSE THREAD


Nominal size M6 M8 M10 M12 Major diameter 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 Pitch 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 Minor diameter 4.92 6.65 8.38 10.11 Tap drill size 5.00 6.75 8.50 10.00

Metric thread Minor diameter Tap drill size In thread drawing, the following relationship is used. Minor diameter = Major diameter Pitch

METRIC FINE THREAD


Nominal size M8 Major diameter 8.00 Pitch 0.75 1.00 0.75 1.00 1.25 Minor diameter 7.188 6.917 9.188 8.917 8.647 Tap drill size 7.25 7.00 9.25 9.00 8.75

M10

10.00

Minor diameter Tap drill size Example: M8x1.0 means that the thread major diameter is 8mm and its pitch is 1.0mm

British Standard Whitworth (BSW) Thread


.6403 D = .6403 x P or N .1373 R = .1373 x P or N

Square Thread
Being replaced by Acme thread because of difficulty in cutting it Often found on vises and jack screws
Square Thread

D = .500P F = .500P C = .500P + .002

ACME Screw Thread


Replacing square thread in many cases Used for feed screws, jacks, and vises
D = minimum .500P F = .3707P = maximum .500P + 0.010 C = .3707P - .0052 (for maximum depth)

ACME Thread

Worm Thread
Used to mesh worm gears and transmit motion between two shafts at right angles to each other but not in same plane
Worm

D = .6866P F = .335P C = .310P

Methods of Thread Cutting


On Lathe Using Tap & Die