Anda di halaman 1dari 97

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X

Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 1























































Vol. 1, No. 2/2012
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 2






































ABC Journals
- Online Submission
- Peer Reviewed
- Open Access
- Online Archives
- Paperless Review
- Prompt Feedback
- Well Indexed
- Global Circulation
- International Authorship


Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 3



ASIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
International Standard Serial Number: 2305-915X
Frequency: 2 issues per year
Established: 2012
www.ajase.weebly.com

Review Process: Blind peer-review

Volume 1, Number 2/2012 (Second Issue)


Published by

Asian Business Consortium





Copyright
Reproduction in any form or by any means of any part of this production requires the written
permission of the publishers.

















All communication should be addressed to the Managing Editor, AJASE
Email: abcjournals@gmail.com







Asian Business Consortium
www.abcreorg.weebly.com



Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 4




































AJASE is included and indexed in
Scribd., An online web-controlled datadase directory
BRP Bangladesh, Research Publishing Community, Bangladesh;
IndexCopernicus
TM
, Internationally recognized data base, Warsaw, Poland;
ASAs Publishing Options, An Authors Guide to Journals. Washington, DC 20005, USA;
getCITED, an online, member-controlled academic database directory and discussion forum; &
Publishing 1.com, Business Portals B.V., Ericastraat 19, 5615 BJ Eindhoven, The etherlands.


We are working closely
with many major
databases to get ABC
journals indexed,
including AcademicOne,
EBSCO, EI Compendex,
CAS, ProQuest, DOAJ,
and etc. We will gradually
publish the index
information of each
journal and try to have a
high ISI impact factor for
each journal eventually.

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 5



EDITORIAL BOARD


Advisor

Professor Dr. Mohammad Osman Gani Talukder
Vice Chancellor, Varendra University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh


Editor-in-chief

Dr. Asma Ahmad Shariff
Associate Professor, Center for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya, Malaysia


Managing Editor

Dr. Alim Al Ayub Ahmed
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Business, ASA University Bangladesh
Vice Chairman, Asian Business Consortium, Bangladesh


Consulting Editors


Dr. Iqbal Hossain, Professor of Statistics & Chairman, Faculty of Business, ASA University
Bamgladesh
Dr. Vinai K. Singh, Professor, Department of Applied Mathematics & Dean Academic, Raj
Kumar Goel Engineering College, Ghaziabad U.P., INDIA
Dr. Lutfar Rahman, Professor, Dept of Mathematics, Rajshahi University, Bamgladesh
Dr. Shahzad Ali Khan, Head of Department of Health Systems & Policy, Quaid-e-Azam
University, Pakistan
Dr. Hasan Mahmud Reza, Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacy, North South
University (NSU), Bangladesh
Dr. M. Abul Kalam Azad, Associate Professor, Department of Applied Mathematics, Rajshahi
University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Dr Pankaj, Chairperson, Research Degree Committee, Sr. A.P. & Research Coordinator,
Department of Mathematics, Indus International University, Una, H.P., India
Dr. Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Assistant Professor, Department of Genetics & Plant
Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh
Dr. Gulzar A. Khuwaja, Department of Computer Engineering, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia
Dr. Halenar Igor, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia



The Editorial Board assumes no responsibility for the content of the published articles.





Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 6
























Asian Business Consortium is a
self supporting organization and
does not receive funding from any
institution/government. Hence, the
operation of the journal is solely
financed by the processing fees
received from authors. The
processing fees are required to meet
operations expenses such as
employee salaries, internet services,
electricity etc. Being an Open
Access Journal, AJASE does not
receive payment for online
subscription as the journals are
freely accessible over the internet. It
costs money to produce a peer-
reviewed, edited, and formatted
article that is ready for online and
print publication, and to host it on a
server that is freely accessible
without barriers around the clock.

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 7




Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering
Blind Peer-Reviewed Journal
Volume 1, Number 2/2012 (Second Issue)


Contents

1. Effect of Fixed Horizontal Shading Devices in South Facing Residential
Buildings at Dhaka, Bangladesh
09-19
Saiful Hasan Tariq, & Mahbuba Afroz Jinia

2. Transformation and changing trend of urban living spaces: A case of Dhaka city 20-30
Maher Niger

3. Transformation of Dhanmondi Residential Area- Causes, Effects and
Proposal to Rejuvenate
31-47
Sonya Afrin, Ishrat Zerin, Subarna Sharmin, &
Kazi Murshida Morshed


4. Performance Analysis of UMTS Cellular Network using Sectorization
Based on Capacity and Coverage in Different Propagation Environment
48-55
M. S. Islam, Jannat-E-Noor, & Soyoda Marufa Farhana

5. Effect of Injection Pressure on the Perfomance and Emissions of Nerium
Biodiesel Operated Diesel Engine
56-64
Dr. Vinai K.Singh

6. Effects of Excess Bi2O3 on the Properties of La- doped Bismuth titanate
(Bi4Ti3O12) Ferroelectric Ceramics
65-69
Md. Aminul Islam, Dr. Abdul Gafur, & Dr. M. Saidul Islam

7. Relativistic Rule of Multiplication of Velocities Consistent with Lorentz Einstein
Law of Addition and Derivation of the Missing Equations of Special Relativity
70-83
Dr. M.O.G. Talukder, & Dr. Mushfiq Ahmad

8. Spatial Environmental Impact on Land Degradation in Bangladesh 84-90
Md. Mahmudur Rahman, Md. Mostafizur Rahman,
Tamanna Akter Tanu, & Md. Masuder Rahman









AJASE Publish
Online and Print
Version Both

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 8





























Asian Business Consortium
realizes the meaning of fast
publication to researchers,
particularly to those working
in competitive and dynamic
fields. Hence, we offer an
exceptionally fast publication
schedule including web based
& paper less prompt peer-
review by the experts in the
field and immediate
publication upon acceptance.


AJASE adopt a blinded review policy.
Authors are blind to reviewers. Typically,
the review period is within 6 weeks. If
authors do not receive a decision letter by
email in 8 weeks after the submission, the
corresponding author may send an email
to inquire the status of their submission.
If you need a shorter review period due to
special circumstances, you may request
such along with your explanation of the
situation by email; however, AJASE
cannot guarantee granting the request
because high quality judgment of
scientific work in short time is a
challenge.

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 9


Effect of Fixed Horizontal Shading Devices in
South Facing Residential Buildings at Dhaka,
Bangladesh
Saiful Hasan Tariq & Mahbuba Afroz Jinia

Lecturer, Dept. of Architecture, Stamford University Bangladesh


ABSTRACT
External shading devices have been utilized very extensively in the
residential buildings in the tropics to reduce the amount of solar radiation
occurring in the buildings. It is now widely accepted that architects should
encompass the environmental task of reducing fossil fuel energy
consumption in response to climate change. The study focuses on the
minimum depth required for the fixed horizontal shading device for
optimum shading performance at south faade for commonly used
opening sizes in the residential buildings in Dhaka city. Particular
emphasis has been given on the opening size, depth of the shading device,
vertical shadow angle during the warmest part of the day of warmest
seasons and the thermal performance for using different depth of shading
devices in various opening sizes. Two residential buildings are
fundamentally chosen as topic for this study. The units having two
different sizes of opening and shading systems are taken as the study
element. Difference between maximum outdoor temperature and indoor
temperature and the shadow patterns are taken into account during the
warmest part of the day to identify the parameters for existing thermal
performance due to shading devices. The field survey was conducted in a
sunny day to measure the temperature difference between indoor and
outdoor and the direct solar radiation in both study models. The shadow
simulation of the case studies were conducted by the Sketch up v7.0 having
location data and based on the dates and times of the warmest months. The
simulation is more visual than analytic. This paper is an outcome of the
study which encompasses the efficient shading device design strategy to
reduce direct solar exposure on the openings at south faade along with
the case studies in the context of Dhaka, Bangladesh and its effect on
building performance in terms of thermal performance.
Key words: Shading devices, Vertical shadow angle, Thermal performance,
Design strategy.
INTRODUCTION
The most significant factor affecting the architectural environment in the tropical region is solar
energy. Throughout the year, solar energy impinges on the building which influences either its
inside or outside climate. To control the effect of solar energy on the Indoor environment, it is
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 10


usual to concentrate on the role played by the building skin and fenestration, which act as a
filter between the outdoor conditions and those within the building. Focusing on the
fenestration, which is the critical point of indoor heat gain, heat transfer can occur by radiation,
ventilation (infiltration), conduction, and convection. Fenestration can contribute up to 22% of
energy consumption in residential buildings (Al-Mofeez et al, 1991).
External shading devices can be utilized to block the solar radiation before it reaches the indoor
environment. The greatest source of heat gain can be the solar radiation entering through an
opening. This could, in fact, increase the indoor temperature, far above the outdoor
temperature even in moderate climates, which is known as the Green House Effect
(Koenigsberger et al, 1973). Window glasses are particularly transparent for short wave infra-
red radiation by the sun, but almost opaque for long wave radiation emitted by objects in the
room. As a result the heat, once it has entered through a window, is trapped inside the
building. As the south faade gets maximum exposure to the solar radiation during the
warmest part of the day, the openings in this faade requires properly designed shading
devices to minimize the solar heat gain. Horizontal shading devices are appropriate to protect
the windows from solar heat gain at south orientation. It works efficiently from 10 A.M. to 2
P.M. when the sun is opposite to the window pane and at a high altitude (Anisur Rahman,
2007).
The study intends to set a parameter for the minimum required depth of the fixed horizontal
shading device at south faade for commonly used opening sizes in the residential buildings in
Dhaka city.
OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH:
The study focuses on the minimum depth required for the fixed horizontal shading device for
optimum shading performance at south faade for commonly used opening sizes in the
residential buildings in Dhaka city. Particular emphasis has been given on the opening size,
depth of the shading device, vertical shadow angle during the warmest part of the day of
warmest seasons and the thermal performance for using different depth of shading devices in
various opening sizes. The objective of the study can be summarized as follows:
- Practical understanding of the relationship between vertical shadow angle (VSA) and
depth of overhang of fixed horizontal shading devices.
- To find out the parameter for the optimum depth of the fixed horizontal shading device at
south faade for commonly used opening sizes.
- To explore the ideal shading device for South facing residential building with optimum
thermal performance.
METHODOLOGY:
Two residential buildings are fundamentally chosen as topic for this study considering their
long time use by the inhabitants. The units having two different sizes of opening and shading
systems are taken as the study element. Difference between maximum outdoor temperature
and indoor temperature and the shadow patterns are taken into account during the warmest
part of the day to indentify the parameters for existing thermal performance due to shading
properties.
The field survey was conducted in a sunny day to measure the temperature difference between
indoor and outdoor and the direct solar radiation in a selected south oriented room during the
warmest part of the day in both study models. The temperature data and vertical shadow
angle of the warmest months were taken by calculating the sun path diagram from the
ECOTECT v5.20. The shadow simulation of the case studies were conducted by the Sketch up
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 11


v7.0 having location data and based on the dates and times of the warmest months. The
simulation is more visual than analytic. From March to October this region faces pre-monsoon,
monsoon and post monsoon seasons, which are the warmer seasons in the local climate. From
12 P.M. to 2P.M is considered as the hottest part of the day in these months. The dates for
simulation have been selected randomly as 21st march, 21st June and 22nd September. The
selection of months has been made on the basis of pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon
seasons and the selection of dates made randomly. The 3d visual analysis of Sketch up shadow
simulation is made on these mentioned dates in three different time segments from 12 P.M. to
2P.M. The outcome of the simulation is then compared with the ideal ratios mentioned in
literature review. The thermal performance was measured on the date of 21st and 22nd
September in similar sky condition because of time constrains. At the End, the ideal condition
is picked based on the thermal performance in indoor due to proper shading system by
comparing the study models.

Diagram: 1.Diagram of the research process, Source: Author
CLIMATE OF BANGLADESH
Bangladesh has a subtropical monsoon climate characterized by moderately warm
temperature, high humidity and seasonal variations in rainfall. According to Atkinsons
widely used classification it can be categorized as warm-humid (Koenig Berger et al, 1973).
With the exception of the relatively dry western part of Bangladesh, most of the parts of the
country receive 200mm of average monthly rain fall. Generally, the climate has short and dry
winters with humidity between 45% and 71% while the summer is long and wet and then the
humidity lies between 84% and 92%. Meteorologically Bangladesh has four distinct seasons.
- Winter, from December to February (mean temperature between12
o
C and 28
o
C),
- Pre-monsoon, March to May (20
o
C and 35
o
C),
- Monsoon from June to September (25
o
C and 32
o
C)
- Post-monsoon covers October and November (17
o
C and 31
o
C).


Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 12


Table: 1. Classification of seasons
Bangla
Calendar
Months
Traditional
seasons
Meteorological
seasons
Gregorian
calendar
months
Chaitra Bashanta Pre- monsoon (hot-dry) March
Baishakh Grisha Pre-monsoon (hot- dry) April
Jaishtha Grisha Pre-monsoon (hot-dry) May
Ashaar Barsha Monsoon (hot-wet) June
Srabon Barsha Monsoon (hot-wet) July
Bhadra Sharat Monsoon (hot-wet) August
Aswin Sharat Monsoon (hot-wet) September
Kartik Hemanta Post-monsoon (hot-wet) October
Agrahayon Hemanta Post-monsoon (hot-wet) November
Poush Sheet Winter December
Magh Sheet Winter January
Falgun Bashanta Winter February
WEATHER OF DHAKA
Dhaka is located in central Bangladesh at 23
o
420N 90
o
2230E. Dhaka experiences a hot, wet
and humid tropical climate. The city has a distinct monsoonal season, with an annual average
temperature of 25
o
C and monthly means varying between 18
o
C in January and 32
o
C in May.
Approximately 87% of annual average rainfall of 2,123 millimeters occurs between May and
October.

Table: 2. Climate data for Dhaka (source: Weather base)

LITERATURE REVIEW
OBJECTIVES OF SHADING
Shading the glass affects the quantity of incident radiation and hence modifies both the heat
flow to the interior and indoor temperatures. It is useful to set out the purpose of shading in
some detail (Steemers et al, 2002). They are as follows,
- To minimize the total solar energy entering a room and thereby reduce the average
temperature of the room
- To prevent sunlight from falling directly onto occupants, resulting in an effective increase
of temperature of between 3
o
C and 7
o
C
- To prevent the brightly lit outside surface, clouds or sun.
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 13


CALCULATION FOR OPTIMUM SHADING
- It has been found from the investigation that horizontal shading devices were efficient at
south elevation only. These shading devices are appropriate to protect windows from
solar heat gain at south orientation. It works efficiently from 10 A.M. to 2 P.M. when the
sun is opposite to the window pane and at a high altitude. (Anisur Rahman, 2007)
- The depth of the overhang depends on the opening height and it is independent of the
window width. The performance of the horizontal shading device increases with the
increase of the depth of the overhang. The important factor is the ratio between the depth
of the overhang and the height of the opening. (Anisur Rahman, 2007)
- For optimum shading, the ratio between depth of overhang and height of the opening is,
D = 7/16 x H Where, D = depth of overhang H = height of opening

Fig: 1.schematic diagram showing parameters of horizontal shading device, Source: Anisur Rahman, 2007

- The ratio between the side offset from opening edge of overhang and height of the
opening is , W = H/2 Where, W = Side offset from opening edge H = height of
opening

Fig: 2.schematic diagram showing parameters of horizontal shading device, Source: Anisur Rahman, 2007

D=
7
16
H
H
sun
W=H/2 W=H/2
H
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 14


- For large height of openings, the shading devices require larger overhangs. Those
overhangs transforms into verandahs in most of the cases of fixed overhangs. Another
way of minimizing effective height of openings is by using several shorter depth
overhangs on the window pan instead of one large overhang. This system is not popular
among the residential buildings as it splits the vista through the openings.
- Optimum shading can also be determined by the ratio between Depth of overhang and
opening height, D = H / tan
Where vertical shadow angle = tan


Fig: 3.schematic diagram showing parameters of horizontal shading device, source: (Koenigsberger et al, 1973).
ANALYSIS
Both the study models have 30 wide road at south side (front) and a vacant opposite plot.
These study models has been selected for getting optimum solar exposure at south faade
without any obstacle during whole day. Having different types of opening and shading
systems were another selection criteria. Both of the units used the most common types of
shading systems usually practiced in local context. To be more specific in temperature data
collection, one south oriented room has been selected as field survey model and simulation
model as well. The field survey data has been taken in two back to back days with similar
climatic condition and in clear sunny day.
STUDY UNIT-1
Study unit-1 is the 2nd floor unit of a Govt. officers colony at Malibagh, Dhaka. A south-East
corner bed room has been selected for shadow simulation and field data collection. The
overhang at roof slab was not taken into account as it puts no impact on the glass surface.
H
sun
D
VSA = tan
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 15


The size of the opening at south faade is 6 x 4.5. The depth of overhang is 2 and the sill level
is at 2.5 level from floor.



Fig: 4.Plan, section and image of Study Unit-1, source: Author

At first, the requirement of overhang for an opening height of 4.5 has been checked.
D = 7/16 x 4.5 = 1.96
As the existing overhang is 2; so, theoretically it should be adequate for optimum shading
performance during the warmest part of the day.
The minimum requirement has also been checked by the calculation of vertical shadow angle.
Minimum vertical shadow angle data has been taken between 12 P.M. to 2 P.M. for the analysis.

Table: 3. Calculating depth of overhang from Vertical shadow angle (VSA) data
Date Minimum VSA (tan)
from 12 P.M. TO 2 P.M.
Opening height
H
Minimum Depth of overhang
D = H / tan
21st March 113.7 o 4.5 or 54 inch 1.97 < 2
21st June 82.8 o 4.5 or 54 inch 0.56 < 2
22nd
September
112.8 o 4.5 or 54 inch 1.89 < 2
The simulation study has been made in the dates of 21
st
march, 21
st
June and 22
nd
September in
three different time segment from 12 P.M. to 2 P.M. Simulation study shows the visual
outcome of shading performance of the Shading devices.


N
sun
2'-6"
4'-6"
2'
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 16




Fig: 5.sketch up shadow simulation study shows the shading performance of the shading device, source: Author

The simulation study shows that the 2 overhang of shading device is minimum required
depth for shading system where the opening height is 4.5. Having this depth of overhang the
glass surface gets the protection from direct solar exposure during the warmest part of the day
in a clear sky condition. The sectional perspectives of the study unit shows the shaded interior
space, which means less heat gain due to direct solar radiation and cooler indoor environment
than the outdoor. The temperature data was taken on 22nd September and Outdoor
temperature was measured at 33oC while indoor temperature was measured in constant air
change at 30.5oC during the time segment from 12 P.M. to 2 P.M.
STUDY UNIT-2
Study unit-2 is the 4
th
floor unit of an apartment building at Uttara, Dhaka. A south-West
corner bed room has been selected for shadow simulation and field data collection. The
opening at west side in the study unit was not taken into account as it gets no solar exposure
from west due to adjacent apartment building.
The size of the opening at south faade is 5 x 7. The depth of overhang is 3.33 and the opening is
used as an access way to the verandah which is providing support for the shading device.

Fig: 6.Plan, section and image of Study Unit-2, source: Author

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 17


At first, the requirement of overhang for an opening height of 7 has been checked.
D = 7/16 x 7 = 3.06
As the existing overhang is 3.33; so, theoretically it should be adequate for optimum shading
performance during the warmest part of the day.
The minimum requirement has also been checked by the calculation of vertical shadow angle.
Minimum vertical shadow angle data has been taken between 12 P.M. to 2 P.M. for the
analysis.

Table: 4. Calculating depth of overhang from Vertical shadow angle (VSA) data
Date Minimum VSA (tan)
from 12 P.M. TO 2 P.M.
Opening
Height H
Minimum Depth of
overhang D = H / tan
21
st
March 113.7
o
7 3.07 < 3.33
21
st
June 82.8
o
7 0.88 < 3.33
22
nd
September 112.8
o
7 2.94 < 3.33

The simulation study has been made in the dates of 21st march, 21st June and 22nd September
in three different time segment from 12 P.M. to 2 P.M. Simulation study shows the visual
outcome of shading performance of the Shading devices.



Fig: 7.sketch up shadow simulation study shows the shading performance of the shading device, source: Author

The simulation study shows that the 3.33 or 3-4 overhang of shading device is minimum
required depth for shading system where the opening height is 7. Having this depth of
overhang the glass surface gets the protection from direct solar exposure during the warmest
part of the day in a clear sky condition. The sectional perspectives of the study unit shows the
shaded interior space, which means less heat gain due to direct solar radiation and cooler
indoor environment than the outdoor.
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 18


In the study unit-2, a larger opening at south allows vista, good airflow and optimum daylight.
An opening size of 5wide and 7 height requires larger over hang, which is known from the
theoretical perspective. Larger overhang required more structural support from the
cantilevered floor. The extension of the floor space beneath the overhang was transformed into
verandah and the larger glass opening worked as the access way to the verandah as well. The
temperature data was taken on 21
st
September and Outdoor temperature was measured at
33.0
o
C while indoor temperature was measured in constant air change at 29.5
o
C during the
time segment from 12 P.M. to 2 P.M.
DISCUSSION
Both of the Study units used the most common types of shading systems usually practiced in
Bangladesh. The Study unit-1 had the fixed horizontal shading device cantilevered from the
lintel level of the opening. Both theoretical calculation and visual simulation study shows that
2 over hang is the minimum required shading depth for the opening of 4.5 height. The
performance of the shading device is also cross checked by taking the temperature data which
shows a 2.5
o
C temperature difference from out door to indoor in constant air change situation.
In the case of study unit-2 the space beneath the fixed horizontal shading device has been
transformed in to verandah because of large and accessible opening size. The verandah floor
slab provided support system for the large overhang. The verandah also works as a heat buffer
zone from the outside and keeps the indoor temperature cooler than outdoor. The temperature
data shows a 3.5
o
C temperature difference from out door to indoor in constant air change
situation during the warmest part of the day. The indoor of study unit-2 is also found to be 1
o
C
cooler than the Study unit-1 while the outdoor temperature was same (33
o
C). Reduced indoor
temperature signifies reduced energy consumption for thermal comfort. Therefore, for full
height openings (up to lintel level) at south faade, it can be recommended to use cantilever
verandahs with required depth for shading in the context of Bangladesh.
Both the study units show optimum shading performance during the warmest times of the
warmest months in the year. Either fixed horizontal shading or the cantilever verandah, both
of them are suitable for the context of Bangladesh, if properly designed by understanding the
relationship between the height of the opening and the depth of the overhang.
CONCLUSION
This study intended to set a parameter for the required depth of the fixed horizontal shading
device at south faade for commonly used opening sizes in the residential buildings in Dhaka
city. Two study units were taken into account for field survey and simulation study to test the
performance of the shading devices. The Thermal performance due to shading properties
during the warmest part of the day was found satisfactory in both study units. From the
temperature data, it is notable that proper use of shading devices may have significant impact
on thermal performance as well as reduced energy consumption to achieve the comfort
situation in built environment. Further study in this topic may enrich the field of sustainable
architecture and will put significant impact on the movement of low energy consumption.
REFERENCES
Koenigsberger, O.H. (1973), Manual of Tropical Housing and Building Design,
Part-1, Orient Longman.p.102-113
B. Givoni (1969), Man, Climate and Architecture
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 19


Anisur Rahman (2007), Performance Evaluation of Shading Devices Used in Tall Office Buildings of
Dhaka City, M. Arch. Thesis, (unpublished) Department of Architecture, Bangladesh
University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka.
Al-Mofeez, Ibraheem Abdul (1991), Insulation in the Opaque Envelope: Effects on Thermal Performance of
Residential Building in Hot-arid Climates, Dissertation for degree of Doctor of Philosophy in
The Texas A&M University, UMI dissertation information service, Michigan.
APPENDIX




Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 20


Transformation and changing trend of urban
living spaces: A case of Dhaka city
Maher Niger

Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka,
Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
With the changing communication technology, the traditional living spaces
need to be redefined with the changing forms and functions. The living
space is no more a very private space but a space within the space and a
window to the virtual communities. Houses have changed as people are
becoming physically and socially more integrated with the outside world.
Houses being built now differ radically from traditional houses in many
aspects, from their material and structure to style and appearance. With
growing urban living spaces, houses being built in most areas are
becoming less influenced by existing traditions and more influenced by
popular trends and communication patterns. This study aims to examine
the transforming changes and trends of the urban living spaces by
comparing houses built in different time periods in order to trace the
factors implying the changes. Some of the changing factors of trend and
adaptation includes; cultural practice, family size, technological changes,
and influence of land value. The case of Dhaka has been put forth, focusing
on influences from outside world, distinguishing globalization from a
more general process of modernization. This paper attempts to track the
changes of domestic spaces over time in underlying functional structures.
This paper focuses on how changes have come about within the domain of
the residence, discussing it in four broad phases: the urban beginnings, the
mid twentieth century, the post independence and the present developer
housing phase. Spatial patterns from various house types not only
illustrate different domestic experience but also identify the impact of
physical transformation by the process of urbanization.

Keywords: Changing Factors, Traditional, Trend, Urban living space,
Urbanization.

INTRODUCTION
Living spaces are a special kind of private space, where one seeks comfort and rest, among
other members of the family or by oneself if the person is single. The intimacy of the home first
lies in the simple fact that it is a delimited space, whose borders are recognized as such by
outsiders as well as insiders. Apartments are delimited by walls of course, but houses, too, are
more often than not surrounded by some kind of wall or fence, with a gate that can be locked.
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 21


If not, there is always an invisible line that separates it from public space and of which
neighbors are fully aware. The interior space, whether of a house or an apartment flat, is the
heart of the domestic space, which extends to some degree to the outskirts of the building.
Houses customarily derive pattern and style from many factors, such as physical setting,
topological climate, social, culture, symbolic meaning and lifestyles. Around the world, most of
houses reflect the basic needs in a particular locality. Both physical and socio-cultural factors
that shape houses have been changed and modified over time. In recent years, a global
phenomenon has overwhelmingly influenced the transition of local contexts from traditional to
modern housing by introducing new processes of communication technology. Factors that
determine cultural change in houses become more complex since there are various ways to
explore the relationship between cultural content and the design of built spaces, as in
technology, economics, and symbolism and sociopolitical aspects, and they are based on
different value systems.
The design of houses is a direct expression of changing values, images, perceptions and ways
of life. This study focuses on the physical transformation of living spaces as a way to define the
connection and the understanding of the relations between built spaces and culture. The
investigation of evolution of domestic space by tracing the development of spatial pattern over
time indicates culturally linked phenomena among the housing patterns and helps to identify
the problems of consistency and transformation of pattern.
THE IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION PROCESS
The design of space is created basically to accommodate peoples needs; it changes from time
to time in order to correspond with a new lifestyle and contextual settings. Indigenous design
judged as being the best and the most efficient response to topographic, climatic and economic
constraints have been influenced by a global phenomenon. Because the urbanization process
affects traditional culture, the impact of these changes becomes physically evident, particularly
in most rural settlements and vernacular houses. As in many Third World countries, the
transition of living spaces in Dhaka from traditional patterns to what is considered as
essentially different from existing local patterns is a significant turning point in the
development of living pattern. Such transitions have been mentioned by many scholars as
unsuccessful and responsible for shortcomings (Brolin, 1976.) (Lang, 1987.). It is argued that
the transition is not smooth and successful because both house patterns do not support the
same lifestyle and cultural content. As indicated in many housing studies, Le Corbusiers
design of Chandigarh in India (Kalia, 1987), the resettlement of Cappadocia cave dwellers in
Turkey to subsidized housing provided by the government (Emge, 1992.) And the urban
housing projects in African countries (Potash, 1985. ) are a few among a large number of
examples that point out the problems of transitional process resulting from the differences in
spatial design.
There are many external factors driving regional development, such as modern culture,
political systems, social and family structure corresponding with global phenomena.
Architectural evolution has also reflected these trends. The transition has been causing a
discrepancy between the traditional lifestyle and modern housing design. The transition from
the traditional house form and space is a sudden shift, including the adoption of new style and
materials that appear to transform spatial and cultural aspects of houses. Newly acquired
house styles, associated with patterns unfamiliar in local contexts, reveal a profound
adaptation of the interior arrangement and users domestic routines.
In general, house styles and arrangements have developed across time in order to
accommodate new requirements based on the change of lifestyle and attitudes. The new house
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 22


style design and spatial arrangement influence physical alterations, which consequently affect
the interactions among occupants and their daily routines. The way domestic space organizes
in built form is the way in which people manipulate spaces, select their choices and adapt an
existing design to support personal preference and their behavior. This study intends to
examine how the change of living spaces accounts for the way it is used, particularly in the
place where both traditional and popular patterns are merging.
HOUSES AS SETS OF SECTORS
House organization has changed through time, constantly adapting to respond to
requirements imposed by social relations, codes of behavior and family structure, as well as to
express advances in building technology and to absorb new home appliances. Houses are
organized in distinctive sets of spaces, arranged in form of domestic sectors (Amorim, 1997.).
Traditional dwellings were arranged to reassure the unity of the family by setting spaces for
interaction (the back room) and isolation (the alcoves) and turning them into a precise realm.
This realm was set apart from the spaces solely dedicated to the formal entertainment of guests
and the ones for the preparation of food, storage of goods, general services and
accommodation of servants. These realms constitute the three main sectors of the pre-modern
houses: the visitors, the family, and the service sectors. The visitors sector groups foyer,
entrance hall, waiting room, visitors room, reception room, library, music room, and formal
dining. The service sector groups spaces primarily occupied by servants, like kitchen, laundry,
garage, and backyard and servants quarters. The family sector groups the daily living spaces -
dining room, veranda, family room, bathroom, bedrooms, and peripheral spaces, as closet, and
toilet. Modern houses, on the other hand, are organized differently, as social and family
structure has changed. Modern sectors are the following: the social sector grouped the spaces
that generated the interface among the inhabitants and visitors - living, receiving and dining
areas; the private sector: provided isolation for the members of the family - bedrooms and
study room; the service sector housed the activities that maintained the dwellings life kitchen
and servants accommodation.
In traditional rural houses of Bangladesh houses are organized around multiple courtyards.
Open courts are used for most of the daytime activities of the home, segregated for use by
female members of the family. The kitchen and toilets are well segregated from the living
areas. This form of rural houses has seen very little change through time. In the first instances
of globalization when influences from the west in the form of Islam entered, a change came
about in the religious beliefs. But social customs and general culture of the area blended with
new customs and merged with the new religion, modifying rather than totally displacing old
values. Socio-political changes with the advent of colonial British rule brought about changes
in the region, which spurred on a spate of urbanization. Dhaka, the city which had first been
established by the Mughals, began to grow. People who migrated to the city from rural areas in
search of work in general were adventurous young people in search of new experiences and
wealth. The increase in the importance of the status of Dhaka, first as a provincial capital after
the partition of India, and then as a national capital in 1971 with the formation of Bangladesh,
brought about increasing urban migration, increasing the mix of cultures, modernization and
potential globalization. The jump of percent of urbanized population of Dhaka according to
statistics is from 14.79% in the 1961 census to 53.94% in the 1991 census, when the city had
enormously grown in stature as the capital of independent Bangladesh (BBS, 2001).
Introduction of TV to the region in 1965 brought about instant exposure to culture beyond the
immediate horizon.
The result has been felt through history in three separate breaks with tradition the emergence
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 23


of the nuclear family from the joint family of the past, spatial and temporal
compartmentalization of areas into residential, commercial, recreational etc and this has
infiltrated into the plan of residences, manifesting into spaces for different activities like
sleeping, dining, studying etc, instead of the single space accommodating most activities
(Imamauddin, 1982). Moreover with increased education came yet more exposure, as affluence
and the possibility of travel grew. With affluence, international trade allowed the global market
to enter even the most remote locality. The telephone increased the sense of closeness and
simultaneity. Architecture reflects this slow influx of globalization. Replacing older values s
slow transformation of new ideas and customs is seen in the residences due to necessity in
some cases, and to choice in others. It is with globalization and the new incursion of ideas that
choices entered the lives of these urbanites.
EVOLUTION OF DOMESTIC SPACES
In this section the evolution of the domestic space of the middle to high income group is traced
in terms of globalization influences. Discussed below is how the house form seems to evolve as
a shift in local customs, influenced directly from extraneous influences an effect of
globalization, rather than pure modernization.
Phase 01 dwellings during the urban beginnings
In early days of 17th and 18th century, the urban house form was no different from its rural
counterpart, except when forced upon by densification (Khan, 1982). From the idyllic
sprawling low density settlement of rural habitats, the urban house at the beginning had of
necessity to be accommodated in more cramped surroundings. Initially houses tended to retain
the court, which became increasingly closed as space constraints became acute.

Fig 01: Three court house. Source: F.A. Haque, 1997

In early houses the kitchen and toilets were kept as far away as possible from the main living
quarters, in a way similar to rural dwellings. A separate service court in three-court houses can still
be found in these early residences (Fig 01). The first court served as a semi public court, mainly the
entry court to the ander mahal (inner sanctum). Ander mahal occupied by female members of the
household. On the outer side of first court was the male zone. The second court was the most
private area of the household, segregated from public access. Only family males were allowed there.
Female guests were also entertained through this area. The third court which is the service court
In early houses the kitchen and toilets were kept as far away as possible from the main living
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 24


quarters, in a way similar to rural dwellings. A separate service court in three-court houses can
still be found in these early residences (Fig 01). The first court served as a semi public court,
mainly the entry court to the ander mahal (inner sanctum). Ander mahal occupied by female
members of the household. On the outer side of first court was the male zone. The second court
was the most private area of the household, segregated from public access. Only family males
were allowed there. Female guests were also entertained through this area. The third court
which is the service court where privacy was less restricted as non family males needed to
enter this area for servicing toilets and for other general household activities. The servants
quarters, kitchens and toilets were housed around this court (Fig 2).
The introduction of new technology like flushing systems allowed toilets to be attached to
living quarters. The introduction of cooking gas instead of fire wood allowed the kitchens to be
brought closer also, as fumes/smoke diminished. In general the concept of privacy of the
individual members of the family from each other was not very prevalent in either rural or
early urban living. Bedrooms were often entered through other bedrooms, and windows to
bedrooms opened freely onto the courts. The court disappeared generally as soon as land
became expensive and density of residential areas began to increase.



Fig 2. A) Ground floor plan. B) Second floor plan. C) View of main internal family court. D) Articulation of zones
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 25




Phase 02 mid twentieth century phase
The emergence of the urban middle class in Dhaka is judged to be a 20th century phenomenon, a
direct consequence of colonial rule (Imamuddin, 1982) and spurred on by a growth of
Government jobs in the Civil, Military, Police, Railway and allied services. Studies shows that in
the 1950s a new group of buildings emerged to accommodate this group colonies for the
Government employees (Khan, 1982) in addition cities also experienced the growth of
professionals like doctors, engineers and advocates (Imamuddin, 1982). To cope with increasing
demand for housing, the Government also started allotting land at relatively low prices in
planned residential areas e.g. Dhanmondi R/A (Nilufar, 1997). The plots to start off were large
(approximately 1/3 acre each), and the economic and social background of the allottees had a
semblance of homogeneity. During the late 50s and early 60s these areas grew populated, with a
family to each plot. Houses were relatively large, normally two storied with a number of
bedrooms, each with an attached toilet. The living room (or drawing room as it was popularly
termed) was normally segregated from the rest of the more private areas of the house, having its
separate entry. The entry to the rest of the house was separate and corridors were extensively
used to connect the different spaces. Gardens all around the house served to provide outdoor
space for aesthetics/recreation in the front, with vegetable patches at the back and sides. High
boundary walls around the plots served to protect the plot holders. Servants quarters were
normally provided at the back and the kitchen could be entered through backdoors.
Phase 03 post independent phase
A big change came by the end of the 70s, when the next generation needed expanded.
Discussed here is the case of
Dhanmondi, as representing the
pattern of urban land ownership,
these plots were sub divided
among the inheritors into separate
plots served by internal private
access roads (Akbar, 2006). This
trend saw the end of the joint
family of the past, though the
separate families tended to live in
the same plot but under different
buildings. During this period
many rentable walk-up apartments
(usually restricted to four storeys)
were constructed.
As soon as the single unit house
was sacrificed for economic reason,
life style saw a new shift. With the
grounds no longer under the sole
control of one householder, people
needed a different space for family
gatherings, thus the family living
space entrenched in these urban
homes. As in previous eras, no
longer were corridors used as main
connecting paths to individual rooms. This family living space provided the counterpart to the
open court of the rural which also opened to the individual rooms and provided a space where
Fig 03: No segregation at entry, Prioprangon,
U.K.Saha. Source: Sthapattya o nirman
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 26


the family could spend much of the free time in the evenings, gossiping or watching TV.
Privacy was gaining importance in family living as each family separated from the parent one.
During this period, it was still common for the childrens bedroom to be located adjacent to the
master bedroom, allowing the mother to monitor growing children.
Phase 04 developer built housing phase
But with the ever increasing population making more demands for housing, and the prices of
land rising abruptly. Much of the early housing stock was demolished in favor of apartment
complexes. Commonly referred to as high rise apartments, these are normally developer
designed and built and in many of the restricted to six storeys. They are equipped with lifts
and controlled by a management society, particularly to do with the use of common facilities
and spaces. Community living has brought another change in the lifestyle of the urban
dweller. Open spaces are meager due to dearth of land, and any that can be provided in such
complexes are no longer private areas. The urbanite now shares these spaces with people they
have only recently seen and may not yet have been acquainted with.























Fig 04: Evolution of the dwelling: schematic phases. Source: (Ahmed, 2009)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 27


THE CHANGING FACTORS
In this section discussed the major factors of the changing trend like living cost, change in
living style, family size, influence of housing society and most importantly influence of
technological changes.

Cost of Living:
The cities of the developing countries have always been faced with the growing gap between
the earning and the expense of the middle class urban working level families. The growing
land price and the affordability of space are dividing the land into much smaller parts and the
choice of living space is very limited to the high value. A major share of the average family
expenses is to afford the cost of living space, be it in terms of rental or mortgage. With the
growing inflation rate almost close 7.93 % for August 2012 as per Bangladesh Bureau of
Statistics, family earning growth is very limited. The pie chart of the household expense is
limited to the same earning number with a major shift in the expense share of the pie to cost of
living every year. The high expense is forcing families to accommodate in less space, thus
adding to the demand for smaller size urban residential units.

Changing Life Style:
Present day urban family size is becoming very limited to the its size and life style, with an
average single family counting to husband, wife and two children, the traditional join family
concept is fading its way of the urban scenario. With more working parents and opportunity of
urban activities, one might term this as a western influence or modern culture, but the facts
remain for the growing cities culture and life style changes with the changing factors of
globalization. The influence of international work place practices infill within the living spaces
and is a combination of private and public life that redefines the urban life style. Daily living
practices starts to define the need of space and the functional aspects of the living spaces. Play
fields of urban communities are redefined in individual apartments with play station and
game room. Public libraries have turned to windows of information resources with a laptop
demanding now additional space. The interior space have adapted to multiple functions and
changing spatial space with the change of activities, a screen in the house is at one time an
entertainment center, a study resource and a games hub of fun as and when the activity defines
the function of the space. This changes of life style has taken away the need of individual
spaces and infused a more open space adaption to the growing demand of urban living spaces.

Small Family Size:
With the growth of urbanization and cost of living, the share of expense has forced families to
step out of the tradition and culture of combine family spaces. Responding to the changes in
more open society, the concept of joint family house of multiple generation and siblings is
taken on new form of multiple urban units with occasional coming together of families to
celebrate major events. With smaller families and less private space need, the smaller urban
apartment units are making its ways into the housing market. This demand is higher within
the families with working professional parents wanted to be part of urban apartment society
with shared communal spaces and having a sense of security.
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 28






Fig 05: Plan with separate entries, Niraloy.
Source: Z.N. Ahmed

Fig 06: Plan with double entries, Source:
Developer Housing Brochure

Neighborhood Community to housing Society:
The high demand of land and smaller family size has given way to the urban residential areas
to go from neighborhood community to the concept of small housing society. These housing
societies are a concept outfall to share the limited land parcel to build multiple dwelling units
building under the corporative cooperation system. This in turn forms a society to jointly take
the ownership of the land and the building facility. The transition from family house to
apartment society has made its way to the adaption of urban land value and adding smaller
units to one building jointly owned by a number of families. Traditional family courtyard
houses have been replaced by the condominium buildings with spared amenity spaces.


Fig 05: Plan with separate entries, Niraloy.
Source: Z.N. Ahmed

Fig 06: Plan with double entries, Source:
Developer Housing Brochure

Fig 07: Plan with one entry, Dhanshiri, B. Haque. Source: Sthapattya o nirman
Developer Housing Brochure

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 29


Technological Space Changes:
Modern day technology has again and again tried to define the space it demands, within the
homes and in public spaces. The introduction of TV once changed the functional aspects of
family living area of a house and with the coming of personal computer demanded space for
its functional needs. As the technology changes its form and shape, so does the need of the
space that caters to its function. With the present day Wi-Fi connectivity and easy hand help
touch screen devises the need of defined spaces is no more applicable and the devices around
the living space can easily flow within the open planning interior space of small urban units as
and need of the activity. With TV on the wall, cell phone in hands and washing machines the
interior spaces and be one in all and all in one.
CONCLUSION
Social and spatial structures, one abstract and the other material, are closely interrelated;
however, in everyday life the experience of spatial formation is largely intrinsic. While
environment modulates space, it is in turn shaped by society. Thus, society retains its basis
in forming space, while space, apparently a physical entity, conserves the social structure
that occupies it. Even in the urban context, these powerful social influences have guided
the development of physical patterns. One direct consequence of colonial rule in Bengal
during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century was the creation of urban social
elite. Today urbanization in Dhaka has continued and has put tremendous pressure on
limited residential land. As a result, house form has become even more consolidated, and
buildings have increased in height. Nevertheless, the traditional image of living around a
court continues to guide design decisions in urban areas, despite limitations caused by a
lack of land, rigid road layouts and the expense of modern materials, building techniques,
and services. Urban development patterns so far point more toward the transformation of
the courtyard form rather than its disappearance. Even in the latest emerging morphology
of multistoried flats, the court is being replaced by an internal family lounge. Every day
practices are always changing, the need of space is changing, the activity relative to the
central space is changing, yet the very basic idea of space hierarchy continues to redefine
its space arrangements to reflect the climatic need of the building and the cultural respect
to the architecture that is very much home grown.
Transformation of living spaces and its changing factors from traditional houses to present
developer housing have been identified through the different sections of this paper.
Globalization and its impact on the society and culture, and ultimately on living spaces
have been identified here. Societies are formed through cultural continuity, and are
through the ages exposed to different influencing factors. The paper has focused on the
transformations of urban dwellings for the middle class urban population of Dhaka
representative of urban working majority. The factors discussed are influencing the space
needs and it is off responsive to this need that the coming of new form of buildings are
emerging to cater to the changing urban fabric. The shift in the division of the space
distribution of a building is emerging to its new identity, one that is not just imported and
dropped into the city but rather a careful response to the society need, economic
feasibility, and environment sensitive and culturally welcomed.

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 30


REFERENCES
Ahmed, D. Z. (2009, January). Tracing Globalization: reflection of changes in lifestyle in
domestic architecture. Protibesh , 17-28.
Akbar, M. T. (2006). Aspects of Social Interaction in the Neighborhoods of Dhaka city. Bangladesh University
of Engineering and Technology(Buet). Dhaka: Unpublished M.U.R.P Thesis.
Amorim, L. (1997., April, 16-18 ). The sectors paradigm: Understanding modern functionalism
and its effects in configurating domestic space. London: Space Syntax: Proceedings of
the first international symposium.
Bangladesh, G. o. (2001). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS).
BBS, B. B. (2001). Statistical yearbook of Bangladesh. Govt of Bangladesh.
Brolin, B. (1976.). The failure of modern architecture. New York: Van Nostrand.
Emge, A. (1992.). Old order in new space: Change of troglodytes life in Cappadocia. In
Traditional dwellings and settlements working paper series,. Center for environment
design research: University of California.
Imamauddin, A. H. (1982). A study on Urban Housing in the context of Dacca, Bangladesh. Katholic
University of Leuven, Belgium: Unpublished ME in Arch Thesis.
Imamuddin, A. (1982). A study on Urban housing in the context of Dacca, Bangladesh. Katholic
University of Leuven, Belgium: Unpublished ME in Arch Thesis.
Kalia, R. (1987). Chandigarh: In search of an identity. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Khan, I. M. (1982). Alternative approach to the redevelopment of Old Dacca. Katholic University.
Leuven: Unpublished doctorate disertation.
Lang, J. (1987.). Creating architectural theory: The role of the behavioral sciences in environmental
design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
Nilufar, F. (1997). The Spatial & Social Structuring of Local Areas in Dhaka City - A Morphological Study of
the Urban Grid with Reference to Neighborhood Character within Naturally grown Areas.
University of London: Unpublished Doctoral Disertation, UCL.
Potash, B. (1985. ). Western architecture and African urban environments. Environment change-
Social change:. The proceedings of the sixteenth annual conference. New York City.








Why publish on AJASE?



High quality editorial board


Rigorous and rapid peer review


Open Access & high citation rate
Will apply for ISI track in the near future

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 31


Transformation of Dhanmondi Residential Area-
Causes, Effects and Proposal to Rejuvenate
Sonya Afrin
1
, Ishrat Zerin
2
, Subarna Sharmin
3
, & Kazi Murshida Morshed
4


1
Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Stamford University Bangladesh
2
Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Stamford University Bangladesh
3
Design Engineer, RIIP II, LGED
4
Architect


ABSTRACT
Dhanmondi is one of the high-class residential areas of Dhaka City. The
area was planned and developed in the early fifties with large plots, wide
roads and good environment. The main objective of the study is to make
an investigation into the transformation of the this area with respect to
land use, building height, intensity of land utilization (building coverage
and FAR values), land-sub division and also the causes of the changes.
From the study it is found that the non-residential uses are about 50% of
the total; more than one fifth (21%) of the original one or two storey
building in Dhanmondi had been rebuilt to six storey apartment structures;
the intensity of land utilization, in terms of building coverage increased
from 28.3% in 1962 to 50% in the year 2000; and the intensity of land
utilization, in terms of FAR value increased from 0.39 in 1962 to 1.68 in the
year 2000. Present expansion of Dhaka City, more than six times bigger
than the Dhaka of the fifties, created demand for new spaces for new urban
activities, and Dhanmondi gained location to the central part of the city.
Transformation of the area is towards more intensive use of land; multi-
storied apartments and non-residential uses. The non-residential uses have
taken place uncontrolled, unregulated and haphazard manner to the
detriment of the residential environment. Hence a revised plan of
Dhanmondi has been urgent in order to control and regulate undesirable
development in Dhanmondi for which a brief proposal is included in the
study.

Key words: Transformation, Residential area, Non residential area,
Apartment buildings, Land use.

1. INTRODUCTION
Dhanmondi settlement had its origin in a periodic paddy (Dhan) market (Mondi) in the
locality in the early 17th century. The presence of numerous ponds, an Eidgah (place for
biannual religious congregation), and a number of Mosques dating from the early 17th
century are indicators of a flourishing settlement here. The settlement declined with the fall
of the Mughal Empire. To meet the housing demand of the rapidly expanding city, after
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 32


Dhaka was made headquarters for the provincial government of east Bengal in 1947, a new
area of better housing was developed at Dhanmondi in early fifties, on a land measuring
472.64 acres.

1.1 Backdrop of study
Dhanmondi residential area, designated as Ward no. 49, is located at 23.7389 N 90.3847 E
in the Dhaka District of Bangladesh. It has 33451 houses and a total area of 9.74 km (BBS,
2006).





















Fig 1.1: Dhaka Guide Map Fig 1.2: Blow Up of Dhanmondi Residential Area
(Northern part) [Source: DMDP]

The Construction and Building Department of the government of East Pakistan acquired
about 500 acres of agricultural and horticultural lands in 1950, leveled it and divided the
land into plots and finally allocated the plots to ministers, government officials, public
leaders, professionals, and businessmen. DIT later undertook the task of creating public
facilities and roads and other facilities. The area was divided into blocks, which were in turn
sub-divided into 1083 individual rectangular plots, measuring approximately a bigha (0.33
acres) each. The plots were laid in a grid iron pattern having roads 150, 45, or 30 wide,
organized around an existing water channel, dug out and latter extended to form an
irregular shaped lake having 2 storey buildings with front green lawn. The plots were leased
out to allottees for 99 years at a payment of Tk 5,000 per bigha.
Initially, DIT (Rajuk from 1987) kept Dhanmondi plots exclusively residential and did not
allow use of any plot or house for commercial purposes. But in response to tremendous
pressure on city land after 1972, the rule was relaxed to the point of virtual non-application.
In 1995 DMDP approved Dhanmondi as a mixed use zone but placed certain strict limits in
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 33


the types and account of commerce that would be permitted, that is, only commercial
services that were immediately related to meet the residents daily and weekly needs.
Consequently, now almost 50% or more plots are used for commercial purpose, which
include shops and stores, government and semi-government offices, show rooms and
warehouses of business firms, NGO offices and clinics, educational institutions and even
manufacturing units and maximum of the rest plots already having 6 storey buildings, and
accommodating 20 families per bigha rather than recommended 1 family. This increasing
number of commercial establishments, coupled with the lack of adequate parking facilities,
has given rise to a tremendous amount of traffic congestion, especially during the mornings
and afternoons when children are dropped off and picked up from school, and during the
evenings when shoppers from all over Dhaka throng the various shopping centers. Socially
and economically, Dhanmondi has now become a multi-purpose area (Shafi, 2005).

1.2 Objectives of the study
It has become necessary to understand the existing movement of transformation pattern of
Dhanmondi residential area, so that effective measures can be taken to control and protect
the area from invasion of further unplanned development. Hence, the paper has been
prepared with the following objectives:
a) To study the spatial variation of the existing transformation of the area.
b) To identify the changes in the development pattern of the area.
c) To study the perception of the user regarding the changes.
d) To formulate policy guidelines and a brief proposal for future development of the area.

1.3 Methodology of the study
The Methodology followed for the study is comprehensive and intensive. The steps followed
are stated below:
1.3.1 Literature survey
An elaborate literature survey on the topic was carried out for better understanding and
representation of the problem.
1.3.2 Collection of data from primary sources
Preliminary Survey:
A preliminary survey was conducted to gain a general impression of the area so that the
subsequent operations of land use surveys could be successfully carried out.
Detail Survey on Development Pattern:
A detail survey on existing development pattern was carried out over the whole area of
Dhanmondi. 100% of the plots of the area were surveyed. The survey contained the
following aspects:
- Types of land uses
- Plot subdivision / land fragmentation
- Height of buildings
- Vehicular load on the existing road
About 5% of the plots were surveyed to study the intensity of land uses in terms of building
coverage and total floor spaces within the plot areas.
1.3.3 Collection of data from secondary source
Due to the nature of the topic, part of the study was based on published references, studies
and office works of both Government and semiGovernment offices for availability of
materials. Detail Land Use surveys of three organizations was collected:
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 34


- Land Use Survey of housing and Building Research Institute in 1984
- Survey of non-residential uses by Public Works Department in 1999
- Detailed Area Plan by RAJUK in 2008
- Dhaka Metropolitan Development Policy [DMDP]
1.3.4 Analysis of the collected data
The collected data was edited and tabulated manually using simple statistical process. The
descriptive and unstructured materials, observation, surveys, documents and other records
were summarized and arranged in a sequential order. The layout map of Dhanmondi
Residential Area was used as the base map to show the spatial variation of land uses, height
of buildings, and intensity of land use and land sub-divisions. After fact-finding policy
guidelines were formulated for effective spatial pattern of development in Dhanmondi
Residential Area.















Fig 02: Map of Dhanmondi Residential Area (Morshed, 2008)

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 35


1.4 Meaning of transformations
Over the years, transformations in urban areas have taken place in varied forms, including
those pertaining to size of form, land use, encroachments, structure heights, floor area
coverage in other words illegal constructions etc. This has also occurred in the formal
developments of the city very much outside the legal framework. However, the growth may
not be in accordance with the planning norms of the city, but its very existence highlights its
magnitude. Some of the key transformations occurring in urban areas in general and
Dhanmondi in particular are summarize in subsequent paragraphs.
1.4.1 Use affiliation
This is a type of transformation that pertains to extent and enhances non-residential use in
residential areas and of other uses in areas meant for open spaces. This phenomenon is very
evident along the main transport routes and in the developments with smaller plot sizes/
dwelling units. In other words, it can be stated as invasion of stronger land use over weaker
in terms of prevailing demand, which is acting as an impetus for growth of a particular land
use. For example at several places in Dhanmondi, the residential buildings along the road or
streets near a planned market or business areas are converted to commercial spaces, open
areas are being encroached upon for houses, shops etc. The prime reason of this type of
transformation is pressure exerted by economic forces, where in the importance of
economics prevails over that of habitation.
1.4.2 Built form
The transformation is in terms of extent of consolidation, horizontal coverage,
encroachments, condition of structures, streetscapes. To fulfill their need of habitable space
people tend to increase the covered area of the plot. There are encroachments on the
common open spaces or the road to accommodate their needs. The dwelling units are
converted to commercial uses for retail shops etc. and the residential activities are
accommodated on the additional floor which contributed to the height transformation
occurring in the planned developments. This type of informality is seen in formal
settlements having very small areas of dwelling units which with passing time becomes
difficult to manage with. Social pressure is the main reasons for this type of transformation
where an increasing population, needs to be accommodated in the limited planned space.
1.4.3 Time affiliation
This type of transformation pertains to the changes that happen over a period of time. In
terms of time relationship, the informal growth may be of temporary nature (which have
become permanent over time), permanent nature or appearing before its envisaged time. For
example, increasing area use by periodic markets, roadside petty sales, gets converted into
permanent markets etc. The permanent nature of informality refers to the developments
fully or partly, those covered under land use or ownership related informality. Social and
economic issues both are involved in pushing such type of transformations.
2. STUDY AREA APPRAISAL
2.1 Planning aspects of the project: Dhanmondi residential area
Dhanmondi Residential Area was planned as sites and services scheme with a regular system of
roads to provide residential accommodation. Dhanmondi Thana (dhaka district) with an area of
7.74 sq km, is bounded by Tejgaon and Mohammadpur Thanas on the north, Lalbagh thana on
the south, Ramna Thana on the east, Hazaribagh and Mohammadpur Thanas on the west.
Administrative Dhanmondi Thana was established in 1976. It consists of three wards, 20 mouzas.
2.1.1 Land acquisition and plotting
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 36


By the order Dhaka No.11413 rcqu.-9th December 1952 whereas by order, dated the 25th
February 1949/16th September under section 3 of the East Bengal (Emergency) Requisition
of property Act. 1948 (E.13.Act XIII of 1948), seven mauza (some fully and some partially)
were acquired, which are given in the following table:
Table 2.1: Land Acquisition








[Source: Alam, et al, 1986]
Total area of the project was divided into 1,000 nos. of plots originally ranging from 15
decimal to 33 decimal (Alam, et al, 1986). But in the layout plan, found in the present Public
Works Department the total number of plot is 1083 (PWD, 1958). Allotment price was Tk.
15,000/- per 33 decimal (locally called Bigha) and there was provision of paying the price in
four installments with low rate of interest. The annual rent of the land was fixed to tk. 36/-
per Bigha per annum and payable from the 5th year of the allotment. (Alam, et al, 1986)

2.1.2 Road pattern
Dhanmondi has a grid pattern of roads and almost all the plots are rectangular and of the same
size (14,400 sft). Three types of roads were designed for the area i.e. Major thoroughfare (Mirpur
Road and Satmasjid Road) of more than 30 meter width, Secondary roads of 15 meter width and
Access roads of 10-15 meter width. In case of secondary and access roads one third of their total
width were medaled and have provision of footpath on both the sides.












Fig 3.1: Road Network of Dhanmondi Fig 3.2: CAD Drawing of Dhanmondi Road Network
[Source: Dhaka City Corporation] [Zerin and Rahman, 2007]
Mauza J.L.No.
Acquired C.S.Plot Nos.
Fully Partially
Dhanmondi 251 166 29
Taleperbag 253 22 x
ldgah 252 84 x
Shukrabad 260 180 30
Shibpur 254 81 25
Sarai Jafrabad 257 43 14
Sarai Begumpur 258 X 2
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 37


2.1.3 Land use
Of the total area, more than 61.4 % land was proposed for housing purpose, 9.2% for open
space, 9.2% for water bodies and more than 18% for internal road circulation. Open space
included the water bodies, play ground childrens parks; etc totaled to about 18.4%.
Dhanmondi has an edificial lake. Besides these areas, there is 4.7 acres of private land
(Sobahan Bagh), which is situated within the Dhanmondi Residential Area. An existing khal
(water channel) has been dug and extended to form an irregular shaped lake. This is the only
break in the monotonous layout of the Dhanmondi Area. (Islam, 1996, p.24.)

Table 2.1.3.1: Land Use of Dhanmondi Residential Area
Land Use Area (in acre) Area (in %)
Total residential area (plot) 298.3 61.4
Roads 89.6 18.4
Water body 44.6 9.2
Park and play ground 44.7 9.2
Mosque 4.7 0.9
School (public and provided in the original plan) 4.4 0.9
Total area 485.9 100
[Source: Public Works Department, 1958.]

Dhanmondi Residential Area did not have any neighborhood shopping centre, corner store,
park, community centre, club, etc. The whole area was divided into plots without keeping in
mind the facilities that a community requires (Islam, 1996).







Fig: 4: Bar Chart of Existing Land Use of Dhanmondi [Zerin and Rahman, 2007]

If we take a closer look at changes along the road side development of four major road fronts
of Dhanmondi we find the following growth of commercial and institutional buildings in the
past three years shown in the table below:

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
NUMBER
RESIDENCE
COMMERCE
MIXED USE
HEALTH FACILITIES
COMMUNITY
FACILITIES
EDUCATIONAL
INSTITUTE
RECREATIONAL
SPACES
CULTURAL
ACTIVITIES
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 38


Table 2.1.3.2: Built Structures of Dhanmondi:

[Source: SCPL Field Survey: July 2004, Shafi, 2005]
Note: The number of uses is listed in plots.

The buildings listed above stand alongside the major roads on equal frontage and height and
look alike despite different functions. The shopping mall/ plazas are comparatively more
glamorous in their finish and are relatively more beautiful buildings designed to
accommodate shops selling expensive products.
3 Transformation of Dhanmondi residential area-causes and effects
A study of the 1974 situation shows that a traditional mahalla, chawk or Neighborhood
Square (Mowla, 1997: 251) pattern has began to emerge within this grid layout and
subdivision of plots also began to take shape of informal developments. In due course sub-
division of plots to a minimum of 8 decimal and construction up to six storied buildings
with much reduced setbacks were allowed with in a maximum of ten family units per 33
decimal plot. Relaxation of use has also taken up over time, allowing educational
institutions on any plot and non residential use along Satmasjid Road, Road no. 2, Road no.
16 and Mirpur Road (a major artery road) up to a depth of 6m. Spontaneous civic spaces also
became apparent with the change of this use in the area, attracting a number of unplanned
uses (Mowla, 2003).

3.1 Development control measures for Dhanmondi residential area
The invasion of non-residential uses within Dhanmondi Residential Area in an unplanned,
uncontrolled and haphazard manner had affected adversely on the residential sanctity of the
area and the area has already lost its status as a high- class residential area of Dhaka City.
Sl no. Establishment Category Nos.
1.
Educational
Institutions
Schools 44
2. Colleges 06
3. University 12
4. Other Institutions (Coaching, Computer Learning Center, etc.) 12
5.


Commercial
Establishments
Banks 15
6. Community Center 08
7. Departmental Store & Confectionary 24
8. Fast Food & Restaurants 16
9. NGO Offices 20
10. Miscellaneous Offices 66
11. Other (Business Enterprise not including in listed categories) 43
12. Shops
13. Tailor & Boutique & Beauty Parlor 19
14.
Health Care
Clinic 31
15. Hospital 16
16. Pathological Lab 14
17. Diagnostic Center 12
18.
Games &
Sports
Abahani Club Ltd.
19. Kalabagan Sporting Club
20. Womens Sporting Complex
21. Dhanmondi Club
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 39


The gradual degradation of residential sanctities had created a concern for the public
authorities. As such some actions were taken by the Ministry of Housing and Public Works
to control and regulate the developments within Dhanmondi Residential Area. The Ministry
of Housing and Public Works formed some committees from time to time to investigate into
various types of developments within Dhanmondi Residential Area and served circulars on
the decisions of the authorities regarding development controls in this area.
Circular of May, 1995, Ministry of Housing and Public Works
The authority imposed the following development control measures for Dhanmondi Residential
Area in May 1995:
Plots, adjacent to Mirpur Road may be used for commercial purpose up to 20 feet depth, with 15%
Conversion Fee. This rule also will be applicable for Road no. 16 (Old Road no. 27), Road no. 2
and Satmasjid Road. No uses except those mentioned below, will be permitted:
a. Books, Papers, Stationary and Medicine shops
b. Goldsmith, Watch and Spectacles shops
c. Antiques and Curio
d. Travel Agencies
e. Bank and Insurance
f. Show Room of Car and Filling Station
g. Office of Commercial Institution (with the permission of the Authority.)
h. Snacks Bar (not Hotel and Restaurant and Posh Restaurant)
i. Photo Studio
j. Show Room: Ceramic (with the permission of the Authority)
k. Electronics equipment.
1. Clinic: up to 10 beds (but not of Infectious disease)
m. Commercial uses for the requirements of the local community and that are socially acceptable
may be considered to get permission.
n. Small shops for daily necessities may be considered to get permission with the condition that:
Shops will have parking arrangement.
The shops will face the road.
The shops will maintain distance from footpath according to the rules.
The plots allotted for residential use will apply to the authority and the buildings can be made
usable for commercial purpose.
Circular of January, 1996, Ministry of Housing and Public Works
The authority legalized all the plots, on both sides of Mirpur road, Satmasjid road, Road-2 and
Road-16(old 27) for commercial use with 15% Conversion Fee. By the circular the total plot (not
partial) was permitted to be used for commercial purpose.
This permission was considered to be effective from December 1995. It is interesting to
note that as per original plan no one was supposed to built structures more than three
storied (Alam, et al, 1986).
But then the authority withdrew the ceiling of dwelling density of: 10 flats per bigha (33
decimal). According to this circular:
- The maximum permissible number of storey in the buildings will be six but the number of flats
may be as much as is possible to be served by the service organizations.
- The building shall have lift facilities and parking arrangement within the plot area.
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 40


- The size of a subdivided plot shall not be less than 5 katha.
This circular was considered to be effective from December 1995.
In order to a specify guideline for use of land, plot subdivision, construction of apartment,
transfer of title, height of building for Dhanmondi Residential Area a committee of 16
members was formed in June 1995, known as The Zahir Uddin Committee (June, 1995,
Ministry of Housing and Public Works).
- The committee decided that:
a. Present rule of building height of maximum 6 storeys in Dhanmondi Residential Area would
continue.
b. The service giving organizations would assess the problems providing services to increased
height of building and will recommend to the ministry whether the heights of the buildings could be
increased further. These organizations will assess the problems and their solutions at interval of 2.5
and 10 years. After receiving the opinions, of the service giving organizations the Ministry would
call another meeting to take decision in this regard as soon as possible.
But up till year 2000 there was no new decision to increase building height.
From the above discussions it is evident that the public authorities are keenly interested to
retain the residential character and to regulate and control nonresidential development
within Dhanmondi Residential Area. The public authorities are also interested to increase
the intensity of land utilization by increasing the height of the buildings without bringing
any adverse effect on the environmental conditions, especially on the utilities and service
facilities.

3.2 Detailed area plan by Rajuk
Following strong regulatory framework should be prepared for DRA. It is desired not to
have any more residential development as density has already crossed 300ppa. It is
assumed from a reliable source that the area has now more than 1.50 lakh people.
- Removal of offices, hospitals, clinics and schools through formation of legal
frameworks from authority is required except the designated commercial Avenues or
roads.
- Some roads should be converted into one way road. Using of Dhanmondi roads
vehicular traffic from other neighboring areas is discouraged through constructing
gates in appropriate places of entry and exit.
- More extensive use of Satmasjid Road has been proposed through opening of BDR
Road for public use and linking the Satmasjid Road up to New Market through the
road inside BDR.
- New construction as well as re-development of buildings within this area must follow
the existing building construct ion rules. More over, height limitation seems essential
to apply up to 6 storeys to keep the density with in a reasonable range.
- Through guided land development, Kalabagan triangle may be developed.
- Messages of Environmental Upkeep campaign should be disseminated to the DRA
residents explaining the need for maintaining residential serenity and therefore their
share of responsibility into this preferably by Dhanmondi Poribesh Unnayan Jote and
other civil bodies.
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 41


- Convert some roads which are mostly in use into one way for traffic. Stop using
Dhanmondi Road as for vehicular traffic for other neighboring area. As for rest of the
Roads, the entry points from Mirpur Road and from Satmasjid Road should be
regulated with gates.
- Huge rickshaw traffic from neighboring Lalmatia and Mohammadpur are regular
user of DRA roads in order to go to New Market, Nilkhet, Azimpur and University
area. Alternative steps should be taken for this traffic, i.e. open up the road within the
BDR for public use with separate rickshaw lane along Satmasjid Road. Also
recommended widening 80 feet road along Shrai Zafrabad Road, Sher-e-bangla Road
through Hazaribagh Road connecting New Market.
- DRA seriously lacks civic amenities like clubs for women and elderly people, library
for the children and women, cultural museum /Hall, modern Art gallery, drawing and
painting school, car and rickshaws parking lot, small parks, post off ice either in
Mirpur Road or at Road no.-27. All the abandoned properties within DRA should be
used to provide these facilities. Private land owners may be encouraged but in that
case land need to identified. The park at road no. 4 should clearly be earmarked for
women, children and elderly people; the present use of road no. 4 Park as cricket
ground should immediately be stopped.
- The entire DRA should be divided into small neighborhood and neighborhood
association should be created and made mandatory to preserve their areas
environment security and other interest.
- Presently. DRA lake is a center for drug abusers/peddlers, hooligans, hijackers and for
anti social activities. So, for DRA lake development, all the lake centered business and
commercial activities, loitering of teenagers, selling cooked foods, should be stopped
and only garden should be created with enough plantation and bird nests be created
and accumulated in the Dhanmondi R. A. There should be a fixed time w hen general
people w ill use lake premises. For further expansion and development of lake for
future will require a careful study and planning, for example, redevelopment of
Begunbari khal and its renovation into a park of amusement/ recreational centre is
highly recommended, so pressure on Dhanmondi lake get reduced.
- The entire Lake area should be filled with gardens, plants, shrubs.
- All the pavements and roadside plantation should be encouraged to bring back the
greenery effects of the area (Ministry of Housing and Public Works, 2008).

3.3 Causes of non-residential use at Dhanmondi
Dhaka city has a current growth rate of 6.5 percent and contains almost 30 percent of the
total urban population of the country. By 2015, it is predicted that Dhakas population will
be 23 million and it will be the worlds fourth largest city. This rapid change in land use
and the use of buildings etc. without reference to any planning or assigned function are
destroying the characteristics of planned areas in the city. The reason for this is not only
lack of planning and control but also investments of accrued wealth in the construction of
new buildings for all types of uses i.e. residential, commercial, institutional etc. A recent
study on tall buildings on Dhaka city reveals that there are more than 550 tall buildings in
Dhaka city, which have been constructed in the last 20 years bringing about changes in the
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 42


land use and general environment of the city. Also an invasion by commercial type of
building seems to be taken over most of the planned residential areas. Initially, in
Dhanmondi, the need for community facilities was totally ignored. There was only one
school and one mosque within Dhanmondi. Gradual invasion of non-residential uses has
drastically affected the quality and changed the character of Dhanmondi. At present there
are about 89 schools, colleges and universities, 88 medical centers and hospitals and about
108 offices within Dhanmondi. There are also a large number of community centers,
beauty parlors, food outlets, clubs, museums, etc. All these facilities serve not only
Dhanmondi but also the whole city of Dhaka. One can hardly find a lane in the city where
there is no office, said urban planners. They said that the Master Plan of the city of 1959
had provisions for exclusive commercial zones of Motijheel and Dilkhusa and the Tejgaon
industrial area. They also mentioned though the plan was to be completed by the late 70s,
no new Master Plan could be formulated until 1995. In absence of a Master Plan the
commercial zones expanded in all sides due to increased demand for commercial space.
Karwan Bazaar also has become a commercial zone hosting important offices and bank
branches. Recently, Agargaon is turning into another commercial zone. Some of the
residential areas are hosting private sector educational institutions and the offices of
telecommunication as well as multinational companies. Kindergarten schools, colleges and
universities proliferate Dhanmondi Residential Area ( Shafi, 2005).

3.4 Effects
The evolutionary trend of DRA from 1952 to 1996 suggests that this once exclusive area for
better residence is gradually being transformed to a traditional mixed use zone or in
panning terms an out lying business district (Mowla, 2003).
3.4.1 Plot sub-division
Most of the present plot owners of Dhanmondi area the second or third generation of
original owners. In most cases number of successors arc more than one. About one-fifth of
the total plots are now physically subdivided. The present law of plot subdivision does not
allow physically subdivided plots to be smaller than five kathas. In this situation the
successors having title of land smaller than five kathas have common ownership over the
plot. They cannot sell or mortgage individually, every action have to be made through
group approach. This creates sonic operational problems while selling or redeveloping the
plot. On the other hand, owners of the flat housing (apartments) are free to have their title
on the plot individually. Ownership of their subdivision would he undivided and not
demarcated over the land. But they may sell or mortgage their title over the land
individually. They would not have to take group initiative. This law of land subdivisions
induces apartment housing to be a solution to get rid from the complicated situation of
tenancy in common. Moreover the present owners (successors of the original owner), who
are economically obsolete finds agreement with the developers to be an easy solution for
redevelopment.
All the above mentioned situations result and would result one common type of
developments in Dhanmondi, i.e. Multi-storied apartment. About one fifth of the original
plots are now physically subdivided. These subdivisions are due to transfer by selling of
land or due to multiple numbers of successors. Increase in the number of subdivisions
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 43


increases the intensity of built structure. In the original layout collected from the Public
Works Department, there were 1083 residential plots. Some of the plots were subdivided
by the owners themselves later on in 1984 it was 1131 (Alam et al, 1986). The present study
found the existing number of plots to he 1382 (Field survey, 2000).
3.4.2 Intensity of vehicular movements
Three types of streets (30meter, 15 meter and 10-15 meter), having sidewalks, are provided
in Dhanmondi. Traffic system of Dhanmondi, though a planned area, collapsed due to the
presence of too many educational institutions, medical clinics and hospitals. A number of
roads in Dhanmondi are also being made one-way from 7:00am to 8:00am to reduce traffic.

3.5 Impacts of transformation
Good access and favorable size of plots in Dhanmondi proposed the conversion of plots
and even individual apartments to commercial services for all of Dhaka citys population.
The result is that residents of Dhanmondi area have to suffer from huge influx of from
outside resulting in severe traffic congestion, air and noise pollution and solid waste
management problem (Shafi, 2005).
The over-concentration of schools, medical facilities and business establishments has
extremely negative social consequences. Every work day of the week, these commercial
operations draw in thousands of parents, drivers, and rickshaw pullers and inevitably, the
vendors that caters to them. The result is further loss of environmental quality and
deepening social chaos.

3.6 Proposal
Dhanmondi residential area must be protected from invasion of unplanned development.
This ward can be planned as a small self dependent township. Local area planning and
improvement of governance will prevent a lot of irregular land use and building
construction, reduce traffic congestion and allow for planned development. It is expected
that if and when involved in planning of the area, people of all neighborhoods will not
allow access of shopping plazas, hospitals and clinics within their locality. On the
contrary, they are likely to insist on meeting mainly on population requirements of that
area. Control of residential density is also a factor that needs to be carefully considered
when planning for a residential area like Dhanmondi. Whenever residential densification
in any area is allowed it should be done in a manner so that there is adequate open space
on the ground in ratio to the increase of families per plot. This can be achieved by allowing
apartment buildings in residential areas to build as a complex of buildings and not single
buildings. To fulfill the need for land for civic amenities/ institutional/ commercial
purposes in any area of increased a local/ detail area plan will find such spaces through
application of land development techniques such as land sharing, land readjustments, etc.
For example if Dhanmondi area requires further land for ancillary uses such as school,
colleges, health, markets and definitely open space, investors and developers can be
provided land through land sharing techniques and also urban redevelopment processes.
These are complex procedures and need professional input as well as peoples
participation.

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 44


3.6.1 Existing map of Dhanmondi
Fig.4.1: Dhaka Guide Map (Northern Part) Fig 4.2: Google Image of Existing Situation of
[Source: DMDP] Dhanmondi Residential Area [Source: Google Earth]

3.6.2 Considerations taken into account for preparation of the proposal
- A green square and sometimes a memorable street for a transition stop would be
located in the area.
- There should be a variety of dwelling types so that younger and older people, families
and singles, the poor and the wealthy besides other cross section of people may find
places to live.
- There should be shops and offices at the edge of the neighborhoods, of sufficiently
varied types to supply the weekly needs of a household and make the area lively
around the clock.
- Elementary school should be close so that most children can walk from their home.
- There should be small playgrounds near every dwelling, not more than a tenth of a
mile away.
- Streets within the neighborhood should be a connected network, which disperses
traffic by providing a variety of pedestrian and vehicular routes to any destination.
- Parking lots and garage doors should rarely front the street.
- Buildings in the neighborhood centre are closed to the street creating a well defined
outdoor or urban lobby.


Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 45


3.6.3 Proposal plan of Dhanmondi





















Mosque
Education
al zone
Education
al zone
Hospital
Play field
Mixed-
use
Mixed-
use
Play field
Play field
Nursery
Mosque
School
School
Nursery
Universit
y
Mosque
School
Mixed-
use
Mosque
Mixed-
use
25 storied
bldg.
12/15 storied
bldg.
12/15 storied bldg.
12/15 storied bldg.
12/15 storied
bldg.
6 storied
bldg.
Paved area
Open green space
Lake
Lake
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 46


4 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
The study reveals two important trends of transformation in Dhanmondi -growth of non-
residential use and the construction of six-storied apartment buildings. From the study it is
also evident that the public authorities are very keenly interested to retain the residential
status of Dhanmondi, and from that end, planning authorities imposed some regulatory
measures and control on the non-residential uses in Dhanmondi. The recent trend of
construction of six storied apartment buildings from 1990 onward is the result of relaxation
on the height restrictions of the buildings. Previously the buildings in Dhanmondi were not
allowed to be constructed more than four storeys. The decision to impose height restriction
up to six storeys is the outcome from the consideration of two important utility services i.e.
the water supply and electricity. Every planning decision is required to be based on certain
facts regarding projection of population in the future, ultimate population growth,
calculation of requirements of utility services and community facilities, traffic generation
and transportation network, assessment of provision standards, etc. For imposition of height
restrictions in Dhanmondi all these facts have not been assessed properly.
For example, with the construction of six storied buildings in Dhanmondi, what will be the
intensity of development in terms of FAR value, what will be the occupancy rate and
population density, what will be the ultimate population load in the area, what will be the
standards and requirements of utility services and community facilities like schools
playgrounds markets, shopping centers.
In any event, the whole process of planning and replanting an existing area is to give it a
character of its own and to guard against possible deterioration. It is to be remembered that
planning should be done for the people, not for the planner, and is the creation of physical
pattern so designed that personal, family, social, and economic life can flourish within it. To
bring about a satisfactory solution of the problems it requires a new collective conscience
within the planning profession and a comprehensive view of urban society and its social,
spatial and environmental relationships. Community based organizations and local
community participation can play a great role in safeguarding and protecting the
environmental qualities of residential areas. Hence, there should be scope for effective
community participation and local community based organization should be encouraged to
conic forward to participate in the planning, development and management of their local
areas. Increasing community participation in collaboration with the planners will help to
evolve new concept, new techniques and new theories on the subject.

REFERENCE
Article in journal
Mowla Q. A. (2003) Contemporary planning dilemma in Dhaka. Jahangirnagar Planning
Review, Vol.1, pp.13-29.
Alam N. K. M.R & Ullah M.S (1986) Residential Scheme for High and Middle Income
Groups in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. World Congress on Land Policy, 1986.
Islam, M. S. & Nabi, A. S. M. M (1990) Population of Dhaka City: Past, Present and future.
Journal of Bangladesh Institute of Planners, Vol.1, Nos. 1&2.
News paper
Ali T. (2008) Dhanmondi Residential Area-All about a broken promise. The Daily Star.
Islam K. S. (2004) The Death of Dhaka's Posh Spots. The Daily Star.
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 47


Rahaman, J.A, (2008) Dhanmondi losing its Residential Flavor. The Daily Star.
Bhatt A. (2008) Transformations Due To Socio - Economic Pressure. The Daily Star.
Dissertation/ Thesis/ Report
Public Works Department (1958) Ministry of Housing and public Works. Government of
Bangladesh.
Public Works Department (1996) Resolution of the Committee Meeting, Section-6/1 M-
16/96/78 (22), Date 11/09/96, Ministry of Housing and public Works. Government
of Bangladesh.
Public Works Department (1999) Dhamondi Abashik Elakae Obaioho Banijjik/ Onabashik
Babahan,Otirikta Zmi Dakhal o RAJUK Onumodito Naksha Bahirvuto Nrman
Bishoe Jarip Bobarini,( in bangla) vol.iii. Government of Bangladesh.
RAJUK (1993) Strategic Growth Options-Dhaka 2016. Rajdhani Unnayan Katriphakhya,
Dhaka.
RAJUK (1993) Report and recommendation on the Non- Residential Uses in Dhanmondi
Residential Area (in Bangla), Town Planning Department. Rajdhani Unnayan
Katriphakhya, Dhaka.
RAJUK (1995) Dhaka Metropolitan- Area Development Plan (DMDP). Rajdhani Unnayan
Katriphakhya, Dhaka.
RAJUK (2008) Dhaka Metropolitan- Area Development Plan (DMDP). Rajdhani Unnayan
Katriphakhy, Dhaka.
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), 2006.
Shafi, S. A. (2005) Growth of Dhaka City and Land Use Changes in Dhanmondi residential
Area. Dhanmondi Recollections and Vision, Dhanmondi Poribesh Unnayan Jote,
June 2005, Dhaka.
Morshed, K. M. (2008) Transformation of Dhanmondi Residential Area- Causes and Effects,
unpublished Masters term paper in the Department of Architecture, BUET, 2008,
Dhaka.
Zerin, I. and Rahman M. (2007) Revitalization of Dhanmondi Residential Area, unpublished
Bachelors seminar paper in the Department of Architecture, AUST, 2007, Dhaka.
Rahman M. (2006). Development of Valuation Model for Residential Properties,
Intregratiting unpublished thesis, School of Architecture.













Submit your next manuscript at- www.abcjournals.weebly.com
ABC Journals is a unique forum to offer open access to all of its articles.
Now ABC Journals portfolio is over eight journals, which publish both online and in print.
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 48


Performance Analysis of UMTS Cellular
Network using Sectorization Based on
Capacity and Coverage in Different
Propagation Environment
M. S. Islam
1
, Jannat-E-Noor
2
, Soyoda Marufa Farhana
3


1
Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Rajshahi University of
Engineering & Technology, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
2&3
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering &
Technology, Rajshahi, Bangladesh


ABSTRACT
Performance analysis of umts network is of major interest, because of the
WCDMA technique used in umts, which leads to an interference limited
system with a dynamic cell capacity and load dependent cell coverage. The
performance of umts network depends on sectorization; also, the coverage
area depends significantly on the geografical nature and the propagatoin
environment of the covered area. In this paper, the capacity and coverage of
umts cellular network covering a densed urban area and suburban area are
simulated for incrising amount of sectorization showing the number of users
and coverage area gradually increased. For modelling the propagatoin, the
cost-231 hata model has been used.

Key Words: UMTS, Coverage, Propagation Model, WCDMA, Sectorization.

1. INTRODUCTION
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the standards in 3rd
generation partnership project (3GPP). This thesis presents the performance of UMTS
cellular network using sectorization for capacity and coverage. The major contribution is to
see the impact of sectorization on capacity and cell coverage with independent dynamic
parameters as energy per bit to noise spectral density ratio, soft handover factor, voice
activity factor, intercell or outercell interference factor, data rates.
Bo Hagerman, Davide Imbeni and Jozsef Barta considered WCDMA 6-sector deployment
case study of a real installed UMTS-FDD network [1]. Romeo Giuliano, Franco Mazzenga,
Francesco Vatalaro described Adaptive Cell Sectorization for UMTS Third Generation
CDMA Systems [2]. Achim Wacker, Jaana Laiho-Steffens, Kari Sipila, and Kari Heiska
considered the impact of the base station sectorization on WCDMA radio network
performance [3]. S. Sharma, A.G. Spilling and A.R. Nix considered Adaptive Coverage for
UMTS Macro cells based on Situation Awareness [4]. A.K.M Fazlul Haque, Mir Mohammad
Abu Kyum, Md. Baitul Al Sadi, Mrinal Kar and Md. Fokhray Hossain considered UMTS
coverage and capacity based on sectorization[5]. Most of the works analyzed the
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 49


performance considering sectors with static parameters but it is needed to analyze the
performance along with all dynamic parameters and propagation environment.
This paper focuses on main factors that affect the coverage and capacity in a CDMA cell
based on sectorization and on propagation prediction models COST-231 Hata model.
2. CAPACITY AND COVERAGE CALCULATIONS
The capacity of a CDMA cell depends on many different factors, such as power control
accuracy, interference power. In this present study we are considering perfect power control.
We begin by calculating the signal-to-noise (interference) power [7, 8].
2.1 Initial Model for Capacity Calculation: In order to calculate the maximum number of
users in a particular cell the following assumptions are made: No inter-cell and intra-cell
interference is present within the cell. All signals arrive at the base station with equal
power Un-limited number of spreading codes are available.
If there are Ns users in a cell and the signal is denoted by S then the interference can
be calculated as I = (Ns 1)S + , where is the thermal noise. Hence the SIR is given by
q +
=
s N
s
SNR
s
) 1 (
=
S N
s
/ ) 1 (
1
q +
(1)
Suppose the digital demodulator for each user can operate against the noise at energy per
bit-to noise power density level is given by Eb/No , where Here Eb = S / R and No = I / W
Eb/No=
W I
R S
/
/
........................................................ (2)
Where, W is the chip rate, R is rate of data communication and I is interference power of
the cell.
Hence using equations (1) and (2) gives
Ns - 1=
o b
/N E
R W /
-
S
q
.. (3)
For a uniform population, this reduces the average signal power of all users and
consequently the interference received by each user. This results in an increase in the Eb/No
by a voice activity gain factor, . Similarly, the cell sectoring factor D also increases the
Eb/No. Finally, we must evaluate the interference mathematically,
=
cell given from ce interferen
cell other from ce interferen

Due to the interference, the actual numbers of user will decreases. It is also necessary to
consider the affects of soft handover factor (H), Array antenna gain (Ag).Thus the
capacity for WCDMA in UMTS yields:
NS= 1+ (
o b
/N E
R W /
-
S
q
)
( ) | o +

1
g
A H D
... (4)
2.2 Coverage versus Capacity: The analysis in the above the capacity calculation can be
isolated from coverage. We can understand the performance of a WCDMA network by
developing a simple expression for the ratio S as follows.
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 50


S=
( )( )
g
S o b
o b
A H D
N R N E
W
R N E

+


| o
q
1 1 ) (
) (
... (5)
We focus on the coverage by user 1 when the number of users in the cell is Ns. Let r be the
distance of user 1 from the base station. The received power at the base station from
mobile user l, S, is given by
S = S1 P (d) Z ... (6)
Where, S1 the transmission power of the user, P (d) is the propagation loss at distance d
from the MS to BS, Z the shadow fading.
2.3 Coverage Area in different Propagation Environment: The propagation losses in
densed urban and suburban areas are usually calculated by using propagation models. In
the present study we utilized COST 231-Hata model for urban and dense urban
environment. Where higher data rates need higher processing gain resulting in smaller
coverage area. But increasing sectors with same parameters makes extensive coverage for
higher data rates. The COST-Hata-Model is formulated as,
For densed urban environments the path loss:
L = 46.3 + 33.9 log (f) - 13.82 log hb - 3.2
[log (11.75h UE )]
2
+ 4.97 + (44.9 - 6.55 log hb)
log d + 3 ...(7)
For suburban or rural environments the path loss:
L = 46.3 + 33.9 log (f) - 13.82 log hb {(1.1 log f
0.7) hUE - (1.6 log f -0.8)} + (44.9 - 6.55 log hb)
log d .... (8)
Where d is the coverage radius and R is the data rates. After calculating the cell range d,
the coverage area can be calculated. The coverage area for one cell in hexagonal
configuration can be estimated with [6]
Coverage area, A =K.d
2
.... (9)
Where A is the coverage area, d is the maximum cell range, and K is a constant. K values
for the site area calculation [6]: K=2.6, 1.3, 1.95, 2.6 for sector one, two, three, four
respectively.
3. SIMULATION & RESULT
The analysis has been done for capacity and coverage with sectoring cell for dense urban
and suburban area using MATLAB R2008a. From this figure 1 it is observed the Number
of simultaneous 384 Kbps users vs. Eb/No in sectors cell.
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 51



Figure 1: Number of simultaneous 384 Kbps users Vs. Eb/No in sectors cell
Table 1: simulated values for Figure 1
Eb/No User With
Out sector
User with
2 sectors
User with
4 Sectors
User with
6 Sectors
User with
8 Sec-tors
1 58 115 229 343 457
5 12.22 23.44 45.88 68.32 90.76
10 6.5 12 23 34 45
15 4.59 8.179 15.30 22.54 29.72
20 3.636 6.271 11.54 16.81 22.09

The interference from other cell is known as inter-cell interference (). Figure 2 represents,

Figure 2: Number of simultaneous 384 Kbps users vs. inter-cell interference in sectors cell
Table 2: simulated values for Figure 2
User With
Out sector
User With
2 sector
User with
4 sector
User with
6 sector
User with
8 Sector
0.1 1195.4 2390 4778.5 7167.3 9556
0.5 876.9 1753 3504.5 5256.3 700.8
1 657.9 1315 2628.6 3942.4 525.6
1.5 526.5 1052 2103.1 3154.2 420.5
2 438.9 876.9 1752.8 2628.6 350.5

0 5 10 15 20
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
Number of simultaneous 384 Kbps users vs. Eb/No in UMTS cell
Eb/No
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

s
i
m
u
l
t
a
n
e
o
u
s

3
8
4

k
b
p
s

u
s
e
r
s


without sector
2 sectors
3 sectors
4 sectors
5 sectors
6 sectors
7 sectors
8 sectors
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
10
2
10
3
10
4
Number of simultaneous 384 Kbps users vs.inter-cell interference in sectors cell
Intercell interference factor
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

s
i
m
u
l
t
a
n
e
o
u
s

3
8
4

k
b
p
s

u
s
e
r
s


without sector
2 sectors
3 sectors
4 sectors
5 sectors
6 sectors
7 sectors
8 sectors
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 52


Figure 3 shows that for increasing H and changing value of sectorization the number of
simultaneous 384 Kbps data users increases.

Figure 3: Number of simultaneous 384 Kbps users vs. soft handover factor in sectors cell
Table 3: simulated values Figure 3
H User With
Out Sector
User with
2 sectors
User with
4 Sectors
User with
6 Sectors
User with
8 Sectors
0.1 8.37 15.37 30.46 45.22 59.96
0.5 37.85 74.7 148.4 222.10 295.8
1 74.70 148.40 295.8 443.20 590.6
1.5 111.5 222.10 443.2 664.31 885.4
2 148.4 295.80 590.6 885.41 1180.2


Figure 4: Number of simultaneous voice users vs. voice activity factor in sectors cell.
Table 4: simulated values for Figure 4
User With
Out Sector
User with
2 sectors
User with
4 sectors
User with
6 sectors
User with
8 sectors
0.2 236.6 472.25 943.5 1414.8 1886
0.4 118.8 236.63 472.2 707.9 943.5
0.6 79.54 158.08 315.1 472.3 629.3
0.8 59.90 118.81 236.6 354.4 472.3
1 48.12 95.251 189.5 283.8 378.0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
10
1
10
2
10
3
Number of simultaneous 384 Kbps users vs. Handover factor in UMTS cell
Handover factor
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

s
i
m
u
l
t
a
n
e
o
u
s

3
8
4

k
b
p
s

u
s
e
r
s


without sector
2 sectors
3 sectors
4 sectors
5 sectors
6 sectors
7 sectors
8 sectors
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
Number of simultaneous voice users vs. voice activity factor in sectors cell.
Voice activity factor
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

s
i
m
u
l
t
a
n
e
o
u
s

3
8
4

k
b
p
s

u
s
e
r
s


without sector
2 sectors
3 sectors
4 sectors
5 sectors
6 sectors
7 sectors
8 sectors
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 53


Finally, consider for coverage vs. data rates in dense urban area and suburban area, where
operating frequency is considered 2000 MHz with COST 231 Model as a radio
propagation model.

Figure 5: Coverage vs. bit rates for dense urban using COST 231 model in sectors cell
Table 5: simulated values for Figure 5
Data rate
Kbps
Cell range
In (km)
Area with-out
sector (km
2
)
Area with 2
Sec-tors (km
2
)
Area with 3
Sec-tors (km
2
)
Area with 4
Sec-tors (km
2
)
100 0.6263 0.5099 0.6275 0.7648 1.0197
500 0.2261 0.0664 0.0818 0.0997 0.1329
1500 0.1128 0.0165 0.0203 0.0248 0.0331
2000 0.0940 0.0115 0.0141 0.0172 0.0230


Figure 6: Coverage vs. bit rates for sub urban using COST 231 model in sectors cell
Table 6: simulated values for Figure 6
Data rate
(Kbps)
Cell range
in (km)
Area without
sector (km
2
)
Area with 2
sectors (km
2
)
Area with 3
sectors (km
2
)
Area with 4
sectors (km
2
)
100 0.8068 0.8461 1.0414 1.2692 1.6922
500 0.2912 0.1103 0.1357 0.1654 0.2205
1500 0.1453 0.0274 0.0338 0.0411 0.0549
2000 0.1211 0.0191 0.0235 0.0286 0.0381
0 500 1000 1500 2000
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Coverage vs. bit rates for dense urban using COST 231 model in sectors cell
Data rate in kbps
C
o
v
e
r
a
g
e

a
r
e
a

i
n

s
q
u
a
r
e

k
m

&

c
e
l
l

r
a
n
g
e

i
n

k
m


Cell area without sector
Cell area using 2 sector
Cell area using 3 sector
Cell area using 4 sector
Cell range
0 500 1000 1500 2000
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
Coverage vs. bit rates for suburban using COST 231 model in sectors cell
Data rate in kbps
C
o
v
e
r
a
g
e

a
r
e
a

i
n

s
q
u
a
r
e

k
m

&

c
e
l
l

r
a
n
g
e

i
n

k
m


Cell area without sector
Cell area using 2 sector
Cell area using 3 sector
Cell area using 4 sector
Cell range
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 54



Figure7: Coverage vs. bit rates for dense urban & suburban environment for a cell using 4 sectors
Table 7: simulated values for Figure 7
Data rate
(Kbps)
Coverage in densed
Urban areas in km
2

Coverage in sub
Urban areas in km
2

100 1.0197 1.6922
500 0.1329 0.2205
1500 0.0331 0.0549
2000 0.0230 0.0381


Figure8: Coverage range vs. bit rates for dense urban & suburban environment.
Table 8: simulated values for Figure 8
Data rate
(Kbps)
Coverage in densed
Urban areas in km
Coverage in sub
Urban areas in km
100 0.6263 0.8068
500 0.2261 0.2912
1000 0.1458 0.1878
1500 0.1128 0.1453
2000 0.0940 0.1211
4. CONCLUSION
In this paper the coverage and capacity in a CDMA cell based on sectorization and
propagation prediction models COST-231 Hata model is analyzed. It has been seen that,
the performance of an UMTS network can be improved using sectorization. It is also
observed that, both the coverage area and coverage range is more in a suburban area than
a densed urban area.
0 500 1000 1500 2000
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
Coverage vs. bit rates for dense urban & suburban environment for a cell using four sectors
Data rate in kbps
C
o
v
e
r
a
g
e

a
r
e
a

i
n

s
q
u
a
r
e

k
m


Densed urban area
Suburban area
0 500 1000 1500 2000
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Coverage range vs. bit rates for dense urban & suburban environment for UMTS a cell
Data rate in kbps
C
e
l
l

c
o
v
e
r
a
g
e

r
a
n
g
e

i
n

k
m


Densed urban area
Suburban area
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 55


5. FUTURE WORK
Although this research tried to give an impression of the main factors affecting the capacity
and coverage. For future research more attention has to be drawn to quality of service
requirements in the system and more accurate model can be used for evaluating path loss.
Table 9: Parameters used in our simulations
Parameter Value
Eb/No 3 db
Frequency 2 GHz
Chip rate 3.84 Mcps
voice activity () 1
thermal noise () -173.93
signal power (S1) 21dbm
shadow fading 8db
inter-cell interference () 0.1
cell range(d) 2km
base antenna height (hb) 20m
user antenna height (hUE) 2m
antenna gain (Ag) 2db
data rate (R) 12.2,64,144,384,2000kbps
sector (D) [1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8]

REFERENCES
[1] Bo Hagerman, Davide Imbeni and Jozsef Barta WCDMA 6 - sector Deployment-
Case Study of a Real Installed UMTS-FDD Network IEEE Vehicular
Technology Conference, spring 2006.
[2] S. Sharma, A.G. Spilling and A.R. Nix Adaptive Coverage for UMTS Macro cells
based on Situation Awareness, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, spring
2001, page(s):2786 - 2790
[3] A. Wacker, J. Laiho-Steffens, K. Sipila, K. Heiska, "The impact of the base station
sectorisation on WCDMA radio network performance", IEEE Vehicular
Technology Conference ,September 1999.
[4] Romeo Giuliano, Franco Mazzenga, Francesco Vatalaro, Adaptive cell sectorization
for UMTS Third generation CDMA systems IEEE Vehicular Technology
Conference, May 2001.
[6] Jaana Laiho, Achim Wacker, Tomas Novosad, Radio Network Planning and
Optimisation for UMTS -Second Edition John Wiley & Sons.
[7] Rappaport T.S; Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, Prentice Hall, 2002.
[8] Gilhousen K.S,et al; On the Capacity of a Cellular CDMA System, IEEE Trans. on VT,
Vol. 40, No. 2, pp.303-312, May 1991.


Asian Business Consortium is an independent research house committed to
publishing and delivering superior, Peer-reviewed standard research

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 56


Effect of Injection Pressure on the Perfomance and
Emissions of Nerium Biodiesel Operated Diesel
Engine
Dr. Vinai K.Singh

Professor, Department of Applied Mathematics & Dean Academic, Raj Kumar Goel Engineering
College, Ghaziabad U.P., INDIA


ABSTRACT
Use of vegetable oil in unmodiled diesel engines leads to lower thermal
efficiency and higher smoke emission. In this project esterified Nerium oil is
used as an alternate fuel. A single cylinder stationary kirloskar engine is
used to compare the performance and emission characteristics between pure
diesel and Nerium blends. In this project selection of suitable nerium blend
and selection of optimized injection pressure for the blend is done. The
Nerium oil blends are in percentage of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of
Nerium oil to 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% & 0% of diesel.
From this project it is concluded that among all nerium and diesel blends
20% of nerium and 80% of diesel blend with injection pressure 220 bar gives
better performance nearing the diesel. When comparing the emission
characteristics HC, CO is reduced when compared to diesel, however NOx
emission is slightly increased when compared to diesel. Hence Nerium blend
can be used in existing diesel engines with minimum modification in the
engine. It also describes the usage of non-edible oil to a greater extent. At
present neither Nerium oil nor bio-diesel of Nerium oil is available in the
market. Hence for our work, well grown Nerium seeds are collected in
Salem District around 500kgs of Nerium seeds are collected. After the
processing of these seeds, oil was extracted. . Approximately 10 liters of oil is
obtained from the 20 kg of nerium seed. Then after proper filtration, esters of
Nerium oil are prepared using the bio-diesel plant available in the
department.

Keywords: Nerium, Injection pressure, Esterification.

1. INTRODUCTION
Vegetable oils are considered as good alternative to diesel fuel due to their properties which
are much closer to that of diesel. Thus, they offer the advantage of being readily used in
existing diesel engines without much modification. They have a reasonably high cetane
number. Vegetable oils have a structure similar to that of diesel fuel, but differ in the type of
linkage of the chains and have a higher molecular mass and viscosity. The heating value is
approximately 90% of diesel fuel. A limitation on the utilization of vegetable oil is its cost.
In the present market the price of vegetable oil is higher than that of diesel. However, it is
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 57


anticipated that in future the cost of vegetable oil will get reduced as a result of
developments in agricultural methods and oil extraction techniques.
In India, forests and plants based non-edible oils are considered as the main sources for bio
diesel production. Non edible oils can be obtained plant species such as Jatropha, Karanja,
Rubber, Mahua and Neem. However, it is not possible for us to get Nerium oil that much
easily as that of other oils. Hence, in the present work, Nerium oil based bio-diesel is being
considered as an alternate fuel for Diesel engines.
2. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND METHODS
2.1 TRANSESTERIFICATION OF NERIUM OIL
To reduce the viscosity of the Nerium oil, trans-esterification method is adopted for the
preparation of biodiesel. The procedure involved in this method is as follows: 1000 ml of
nerium oil is taken in a three way flask. 12 grams of Potassium hydroxide (KOH) and 200
ml of methanol (CH3OH) are taken in a beaker. The Potassium hydroxide and the alcohol
are thoroughly mixed until it is properly dissolved. The solution obtained is mixed with
Nerium oil in three way flask and it is stirred properly. The methoxide solution with
nerium oil is heated to 60C and it is continuously stirred at constant rate for 1 hour by
stirrer. The solution is poured down to the separating beaker and is allowed to settle for 4
hours. The glycerin settles at the bottom and the methyl ester floats at the top (coarse
biodiesel). Methyl ester is separated from the glycerin. This coarse biodiesel is heated above
1000C and maintained for 10-15 minutes to remove the untreated methanol. Certain
impurities like sodium hydroxide (KOH) etc are still dissolved in the obtained coarse
biodiesel. These impurities are cleaned up by washing with 350 ml of water for 1000 ml of
coarse biodiesel. This cleaned biodiesel is the methyl ester of Nerium oil. This bio-diesel of
Nerium oil is being used for the performance and emission analysis in a diesel engine. For
the present work N20, N40, N60, N80 and N100 blends of Nerium oil bio diesel are being
used.
2.2 ENGINE SPECIFICATION
Engine manufacturer -Kirloskar engines ltd
Bore& stroke -87.5 x 110 (mm)
Number of cylinders -1
Compression ratio - 17.5: 1
Speed -1800 rpm
Cubic capacity -0.661 litres
Method of cooling -water cooled
Fuel timing -27 by spill (btdc)
Clearance volume -37.8 cc
Rated power -7 and 8 hp
Nozzle opening pressure -200 bars
2.3 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
The engine used for the investigation is kirloskar SV1, single cylinder, four stroke, constant
speed, vertical, water cooled, high speed compression ignition diesel engine. The kirloskar
Engine is mounted on the ground. The test engine was directly coupled to an eddy current
dynamometer with suitable switching and control facility for loading the engine. The liquid
fuel flow rate was measured on the volumetric basis using a burette and a stopwatch. AVL
smoke meter was used to measure the CO and HC emissions from the engine. The NOX
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 58


emission from the test engine was measured by chemical luminescent detector type NOX
analyser. For the measurement of cylinder pressure, a pressure transducer was fitted on
engine cylinder head and a crank angle encoder was used for the measurement of crank
angle. The sound from the engine was measured by Rion sound level meter. The
experimental setup is shown in the Fig.1


2.4 TEST METHOD
The engine was operated initially on diesel for warm up and then with Nerium oil blends.
The experiment aims at determining appropriate proportions of biodiesel and diesel for
which higher efficiency was obtainable. Hence experiments were conducted for different
proportions of biodiesel mixed with diesel. The blends were in the ratio 20%, 40%, 60%,
80%, and 100% with diesel. First these blends were tested at normal injection pressure 200
bar at constant injection timing 27 BTDC and with a constant compression ratio 17.5.Then
for the best efficiency blend, the test were conducted at three different injection pressures
180 bar, 220 bar and 240 bar and above procedure was followed. An injector pressure
nozzle was used to change the injection pressure.

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 59


3. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
3.1 BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY


Figure 2.1 Percentage of nerium oil with diesel

At normal injection pressure of 180 bar the brake thermal efficiency for neat diesel at full
load is 26.48 %,where as it was 24.08% ,23.56% ,22.45% ,21.923% , 21.07% for
N20,N40,N60,N80 and N100 as shown in Fig 2.1.The best thermal efficiency was obtained
for N20 blend and was 2.4% less than that of diesel for full load. From the Fig 2.2 it was
observed that brake thermal efficiency for different injection pressures for best efficiency
blend(N20) at 180 bar was 20.09%,220 bar was 25.12% and 240 bar was 24.11%.For N20 at
220 bar it was found to be 1.04% higher than N20 at 200 bar.

Figure 2.2 variation of BTE with BP for different injection pressures for best efficiency blend

This may be due to better spray characteristics and effective utilization of air resulting in
complete combustion of the fuel. For 180 bar the brake thermal efficiency is 3.99% less than
normal the efficiency of injection pressure. This is because of incomplete combustion due to
retardation of injection pressure.

3.2 SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Comparison of the specific energy consumption for the four different injection pressures for
best efficiency blend (N20) is shown in Fig no.3. It can be seen that the SEC is the highest in
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 5 10
B
T
E

(
%
)
BRAKE POWER (kW)
DIESEL
N 20
N 40
N 60
N 80
N 100
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 2 4 6 8
B
T
E

(
%
)
BRAKE POWER(KW)
180 bar
200 bar
220 bar
240 bar
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 60


the case of the 240 bar and is least in the case of 220 bar. This is because at 220 bar the fuel is
optimally injected such that proper diffusion of the biodiesel takes place.

Figure 3 variation of SEC with BP for different injection pressures for best efficiency blend
4. EMISSION ANALYSIS
4.1 UNBURNT HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS & CARBON MONOXIDE

Figure 4 variation of UBHC with BP for different injection pressures for best efficiency
blend


Figure 5 variation of CO with BP for different injection pressures for best efficiency blend
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
0 5 10
S
F
C

(
K
g
/
K
w
-
h
r
)
BRAKE POWER(KW)
180 bar
200 bar
220 bar
240 bar
0
20
40
60
80
0 2 4 6 8
H
C
(
P
P
M
)
BRAKE POWER(KW)
180 bar
200 bar
220 bar
240 bar
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0 5 10
C
O
(
%
)
BRAKE POWER(KW)
180 bar
200 bar
220 bar
240 bar
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 61


Comparison of the UBHC emissions for the four different injection pressures for best efficiency
blend (N20) is shown in Fig no.4. Comparison of the carbon monoxide emissions for the four
different injection pressures for best efficiency blend (N20) is shown in Fig no5. In both cases it
can be seen that the UBHC and carbon monoxide emission is the highest in the case of the 180
bar and is least in the case of 220 bar. This is because at 220 bar proper diffusion and combustion
of the biodiesel takes place which results in lower emissions. At 180 bar and 200 bar there is very
less time for the diffusion of the fuel to takes place which leads to increase in emissions.

4.2 OXIDES OF NITROGEN & CARBON DI-OXIDE
Comparison of the oxides of nitrogen emissions for the four different injection pressures for
best efficiency blend (N20) is shown in Fig no.6. Comparison of the carbon di-oxide
emissions for the four different injection pressures for best efficiency blend (N20) is shown
in Fig no7. In both cases it can be seen that the oxides of nitrogen and carbon di-oxide
emission is the highest in the case of the 220 bar and is least in the case of 180 bar. This is
because at 220 bar the peak temperature in the combustion chamber increases due to the
proper combustion which leads to increase in emissions. At 240 bar because of the
advancement in injection pressure, the peak pressure is lowered due to poor combustion.
At 180 bar and 200 bar due to the poor combustion and spray characteristics, the oxygen
content in the fuel is not fully burnt which results in lower emissions.

Figure 6 variation of NOx with BP for different injection pressures for best efficiency blend


Figure 7 variation of CO2 with BP for different injection pressures for best efficiency blend
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 5 10
N
O
x
(
P
P
M
)
BRAKE POWER(KW)
180 bar
200 bar
220 bar
240 bar
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 2 4 6 8
C
O
2
(
%
)
BRAKE POWER(KW)
180 bar
200 bar
220 bar
240 bar
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 62


4.3 SOUND CHARACTERISTICS
Comparison of the sound characteristics for the four different injection pressures for best
efficiency blend (N20) is shown in Fig no.8. It can be seen that the sound characteristics is
the highest in the case of the 240 bar and is least in the case of 220 bar. This is because at 220
bar the proper combustion takes places and due to this the power developed helps in
smooth running which results in lower noise level. At 180 bar and 200 bar due to improper
combustion the noise level is marginally greater. At 240 bar due to higher amount of fuel
accumulation in the combustion chamber initially, the engine tends to knock and this leads
to increase in noise level.

Figure 8 Variation of noise level with BP for different injection pressures for best efficiency blend
5. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS
5.1 PEAK PRESSURE RISE
Comparison of the peak pressure rise for the four different injection pressures for best
efficiency blend (N20) is shown in Fig no.9. Peak pressure for pure diesel at 200 bar is 72
bar. Peak pressure of N20 for 220 bar is 68.4 bar, 240 bar is 66.5 bar, 200 bar is 66 bar and 180
is 60.2 bar. This is because complete usage of the fuel is observed at 220 bar which results in
increase in the pressure as a result of proper combustion. At 240 bar due to increase in
delay period, proper diffusion does not take place which results in lower pressure in the
combustion chamber.

Figure 9 variation of peak pressure with crank angle for different injection pressures for best efficiency blend.

80
82
84
86
88
90
92
0 2 4 6 8
S
O
U
N
D
(
d
e
c
i
b
l
e
)
BRAKE POWER(KW)
180 bar
200 bar
220 bar
240 bar
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
180 280 380 480
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
(
b
a
r
)
CRANK ANGLE(deg)
180 bar
200 bar
220 bar
240 bar
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 63


5.2 INSTANTANEOUS HEAT RELEASE RATE
Comparison of the instantaneous heat release rate for the four different injection pressures for
best efficiency blend (N20) is shown in Fig no.10. Instantaneous Heat release rate for pure diesel
is 76.50 J/deg CA at 200 bar. Heat release rate of N20 for 220 bar is 79.1 J/deg CA, 240 bar is
80.10 J/deg CA, 200 bar is 80.23 J/deg CA, and 180 bar is 87.12 J/deg CA. This is because at 220
bar, the increase in thermal efficiency indicates the complete burning of fuel and lower release of
the heat to the exhaust and this reduces the instantaneous heat release rate. At 240 bar because of
poor combustion the heat release rate is marginally higher. At 180 bar and 200 bar because of
poor diffusion which causes the hot exhaust gases to escape out at a higher rate.

Figure 10 Instantaneous heat release rate with crank angle for different injection pressures
for best efficiency blend

5.3 CUMULATIVE HEAT RELEASE RATE
Comparison of the cumulative heat release rate for the four different injection pressures for best
efficiency blend (N20) is shown in Fig no.11. Cumulative heat release rate for pure diesel is
329.04 J/deg CA at 200 bar. Cumulative heat release rate of N20 for 220 bar is 339.26 J/deg CA,
240 bar is 345.63 J/deg CA, 200 bar is 349.048 J/deg CA, and 180 bar is 371.2 J/deg CA.
This is because at 220 bar due to proper combustion, the amount of heat released is lower as
the heat is utilized to produce better efficiency resulting in lower cumulative heat release
rate. At 240 bar the cumulative heat release rate is higher due to improper burning at
different zones in the combustion chamber. At 180 bar and 200 bar because of poor
combustion, which causes the cumulative heat release rate to rise higher.

Figure 11 Variation of Cumulative heat release rate with crank angle for different injection pressure for best efficiency blend
-100
-50
0
50
100
180 280 380 480 580
H
R
R

(
J
/
d
e
g

C
A
)
CRANK ANGLE(deg)
180 bar
200 bar
220 bar
240 bar
-50
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
180 280 380 480 580
C
U
M

M
.


H
R
R
(

J
/
d
e
g

C
A
)
CRANK ANGLE(deg)
180 bar
200 bar
220 bar
240 bar
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 64


6. CONCLUSION
From the above results and discussions, the following important points are observed and
the effect of injection timing are listed,
- Nerium oil, being non-edible oil proves to be a very effective alternate fuel.
- After trans-esterification of Nerium oil, the kinematic viscosity and density is reduced
while the calorific value is increased.
- For Nerium oil, fuel injection pressure at 220 bar results in approximately 1.04% rise in
BTE when compared to 200 bar for N20 blend.
- The UBHC, CO is significantly reduced with biodiesels and its blends.
- Compared to diesel fuel, NOx emissions are high for nerium blends.
- Based on the engine performance and emission tests, at 220 bar, the 20% blends of
methyl esters with nerium fuel have better performance and lower emissions
characteististics compared to other injection pressures.
- From the above conclusions it can be concluded that a significant improvement in the
performance and emissions are observed if the blend and injection pressure are properly
optimized when a diesel engine is to be operated with methyl ester of nerium oil.
REFERENCES
[1] A.K Babu and G. Devaradjane,Vegitable Oil and Their Derivatives as Alternate Fuels
for CI Engines an Overview, SAE 2003-01-0767.
[2] O.J.Abayeh, E.C. Omuoha and I.A. Ugah,TransesterifiedThevitaNerifolia Oil As A
Bio-Diesel, Global Journal Of Environmental Research 1(3):124-127, 2007.
[3] T Balusamy, R Marappan,Performance Evaluation Of Direct Injection
[3] Diesel With Blends Of ThevitaPeruviana Seed Oil And Diesel. J SciInd Res, Vol.66
Dec 2007, pp. 1035-1040
[4]. Murugasen.A Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of using biodiesel in
Diesel engines Ph.D. ,Thesis. AnnaUniversity, Chennai.
[5] Peterson, C.L., Wagner, G.L. &Auld, D.L., Vegetable oil substitution for diesel fuel,
Transaction of ASAE, 26, 1983, pp 322-327.
[6] Gerhard. Vellguth (1983), "Performance of Vegetable oils and their monsters as fuels
for "Diesel Engines", SAE Paper 831358.
[7] Kyle W. Scholl and Spencer C. Sorenson, "Combustion of soybean oil methyl ester in a
direct injection diesel engine", SAE 930934 (SP - 958).
[8] Y.Ra The use of variable geometry sprays with low pressure injection for
optimization of diesel HCCI engine combustion- SAE journal (2005-01-0148)
[9] Heywood J.B., "Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals", McGraw Hill Book
Co., 1989.




AJASE? www.ajase.weebly.com

- High quality editorial board
- Rigorous and rapid peer review
- Open Access & high citation rate
- Will apply for ISI track in the near future



Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 65


Effects of Excess Bi
2
O
3
on the Properties of
La- doped Bismuth titanate (Bi
4
Ti
3
O
12
)
Ferroelectric Ceramics
Md. Aminul Islam
1
, Dr. Abdul Gafur
2
, Dr. M. Saidul Islam
1

1
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh
2
PP&PDC, BCSIR Dhaka, Bangladesh


ABSTRACT
In this paper, it was examined the effects of excess Bi2O3 on the properties
of La-doped Bi4Ti3O12 (BLT) and further explore the processing parameters
that affect the structure and ferroelectric properties of this oxide. BLT
ceramics were prepared by solid state method with varying the excess
amount of Bi2O3 content as, 0 mol%, 5 mol% and 10 mol%. IR was taken to
conform the TiO6 formation, Crystal structure was examined by XRD. A
small amount of excess Bi2O3 improves the crystalinity and dielectric
properties of BLT ceramics. The better result was obtained at 10 mol%
excess Bi2O3 with dielectric constant & dielectric loss of 236 & .0096
respectively.
Key words: Bismuth titanate, Lanthanum dope, excess Bi2O3

INTRODUCTION
Bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics are thought to be promising materials for lead-free
ferroelectric oxides for their device applications to sensors, actuators, and nonvolatile
random access memories (NvRAMs). Among them, Bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) has
attracted much attention for potential utilization due to its large spontaneous polarization
(Ps), low processing temperature, and high Curie temperature (TC 675
o
C.)[1]. The
ferroelectric properties of BIT can be improved by adding an appropriate amount of rare
earth substitutions which replace either Bi
3+
or Ti
4+
or both. Among them lanthanum doped
bismuth titanates have been demonstrated to be a good candidate materials for FRAMs [2,
3]. Park et al.[4]reported that La-substituted BIT (BLT) lm has a large Pr, low processing
temperature and fatigue-free characteristics at composition (Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12,)
The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of excess Bi2O3 on La-doped Bi4Ti3O12 (BLT)
and to further explore the processing parameters that affect the structure and ferroelectric
properties of this oxide. To vary the Bi2O3 content, ceramic targets with varying amounts
of excess bismuth (010 mol% Bi2O3) were made.

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 66


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
Staring powders
Based on the previous works results *4+ the composition of Lanthanum (La) doped
Bismuth titanate (BLT) was fixed as (Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12). Bulk ceramics was prepared using
the conventional solid-state reaction method with starting materials, bismuth oxide (Bi2O3,
99.9% pure, MERCK, Germany), Lanthanum oxide (La2O3, 99.99% pure, Wako pure
chemical industries Ltd, Japan), titanium oxide (TiO2, > 99% pure, MERCK, Mumbai Ltd,
India).

Processing
The powders weighed according to the composition and amount of excess bismuth oxide
(Bi2O3) were varied from 0 mol% to 10 mol% then milled in absolute alcohol for 24 hours
After ball milling the mixture was kept for settle down for 24 hours in a bicker to
precipitate the mixed powder at the bottom of it. The ethanol was then removed from the
upper portion of it and the precipitate powder was taken in an oven for drying. The dried
powder was then grounded in a mortar pestle to form into fine powder. Dried powders
were calcined at 800
0
C for 2 h. Calcined powder was weighted and mixed with 2.5%
PVA solution and dried powers uniaxially pressed at 60 KN to form pellet having radius
and thickness about 0.6cm and 0.15cm respectively. The compact pellets were sintered in
air at temperature 900
0
C for 1 h.

Characterizations
Infrared spectra of the samples were collected by FTIR spectrophotometer (spectrum 100,
Perkin Elmer) situated at the Central Science Laboratory, University of Rajshahi over the
range of wave number 2000 300 cm
-1
. The resolution of the instrument was 1 cm
-1
.Their
crystal structures were analyzed X-ray diffractometer from the BCSIR Lab (Dhaka,
Bangladesh) using Cu K radiation(=1.54A
0
). The dielectric properties were measured by
precision impedance analyzer, Model 4294A, Agilent Technologies, Japan. Before
measurement of dielectric properties, silver past was coated on the both surface of pellets.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
IR analysis
The FTIR spectrum of the Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12,(BLT) ceramic powder was recorded at the room
temperature and is shown in Fig. 1. Three sharp bands at 817cm
-1
, 602 cm
-1
and 404 cm
-1
are
observed. The former two bands are ascribed to the TiO stretching vibrations, while the
latter one to the TiO bending vibrations [5, 6]. While band at 1627 cm
-1
, 1384 cm
-1
and
band at 938cm
-1
indicate Bi-O bond. The former two bands are due to bending vibrations
and later is due to stretching vibration of Bi-O bond [7].
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 67


400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
T
r
a
n
s
m
i
t
t
a
n
c
e

(
a
r
b
.

u
n
i
t
)
Wave number (cm
-1
)
10 mol% excess Bi
2
O
3
5 mol% excess Bi
2
O
3
0 mol% excess Bi
2
O
3
1627 817
602
938
404
1465
1384

Fig.1 FTIR spectra of BLT having different amount of excess Bi2O3.

Crystal structure
Figure 2 shows XRD spectra for BLT ceramics derived from the different Bi2O3 excesses.
The layered perovskite (117) peak and other perovskite (00l) peaks were found in XRD
patterns, which agreed with peaks of BIT ceramics. This indicates that BLT single phases
having BLSF crystal structure were confirmed for the different Bi2O3 excesses contents,
with no apparent impurity phase.
20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
a
r
b
.

u
n
i
t
)
10 mol % Bi
2
O
3
excess
0 mol % Bi
2
O
3
excess
5 mol % Bi
2
O
3
excess
(
1
1
7
)
(
0
0
8
)
(
1
1
1
)
(
1
1
5
)
(
0
0
1
0
)
(
2
0
0
)
&
(
0
2
0
)
(
0
0
1
4
)
(
0
2
8
)
&
(
2
0
8
)
(
1
1
1
5
)
(
2
0
1
4
)
(
3
1
7
)
2u (degree)

Fig. 2 XRD patterns of the BLT ceramics with different amount of excess Bi2O3.
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 68


Dielectric properties
Dielectric properties of the three BLT ceramics are plotted in Fig. 3. Dielectric properties were
measured at room temperature as a function of frequency in the range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. It
is observed that the dielectric constant of the samples are high at lower frequency region,
decreases with increase of frequency by approaching approximately a constant value after10
KHz. It is possible that this decrease in the dielectric constant in this frequency range is due to
cheese of space charge, ionic and orientation polarization at higher frequencies.[8] Increasing
the excess Bi2O3 content greatly enhances the dielectric constant, and highest result obtained at
10 mol%. At high temperature Bi
3+
ions evaporated which is minimized by the excess Bi2O3 and
at 10 mol% excess Bi2O3 grain growth and crystallinity enhanced. Dielectric constant of 10
mol% excess Bi2O3 BLT was 236 and a dielectric loss was 0.0096 which are comparable to those
previously reported, for the bismuth-layered perovskite structures.
0
100
200
300
400
500
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 mol% excess Bi
2
O
3
BLT
5 mol % excess Bi
2
O
3
BLT
10 mol % excess Bi
2
O
3
BLT
D
i
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c

c
o
n
o
s
t
a
n
t
Frequency x 10
5
(Hz)

Fig 3 Frequency dependent dielectric constant for the BLT ceramics with different amount of excess Bi2O3.

-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2 4 6 8 10 12
0 mol% excess Bi
2
O
3
BLT
5 mol % excess Bi
2
O
3
BLT
10 mol % excess Bi
2
O
3
BLT
D
i
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c


L
o
s
s
Frequency x 10
5
(Hz)

Fig. 4 Frequency dependent dielectric loss for the BLT ceramics with different amount of excess Bi2O3.
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 69


0
10
20
30
40
50
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
10 mol% excess
5 mol% excess
0 mol% excess
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
a
n
c
e

x

1
0
-
6
(
S
)
Frequency x 10
5
(Hz)

Fig. 5 Frequency dependent A-C conductance for the BLT ceramics with different amount of excess Bi2O3.

Conductivity
A-C conductivity has been measured by impedance analyzer, where conductance was
taken from 1k Hz frequency to 1M Hz frequency with applying oscillating voltage of
300mVolt. Fig. 4 shows that a-c conductance increases with frequency according to the
equation = , where is conductivity, = 2f (f=frequency) and is dielectric loss
factor. Conductivity has been decreased due to increasing the amount of excess Bi2O3
content and lowest conductivity is obtained at 10 mol% excess Bi2O3.
CONCLUSION
BLT ceramics of single phase layered structure were synthesized with varying amount of
excess Bi2O3 by solid state reaction method. An appropriate amount of excess Bi2O3
enhances the dielectric properties of BLT ceramics. Better result obtained for 10 mol%
excess Bi2O3 BLT exhibiting dielectric constant of 236 and a dielectric loss of 0.0096.

REFERENCES
1. S.E. Cummings, L.E. Cross, J. Appl. Phys. 39 (5) (1968) 22682274.
2. A. Kingon, Nature, 401 6589 (1999).
3. B. H. Park, B. S. Kang, S. D. Bu, T.W. Noh, J. Lee, andW. Jo, Nature, 401 6824 (2002).
4. Park P. H, Kang B. B, Bu S. D, Noh T. W, Lee J. and Jo W. (1999) Nature 401 682
5. N. Pavlovic, D. Kancko, K.M. Szecsenyi, V.V. Srdic, 3, 88-95, (2009).
6. Y.Kan, P. Li, Y. Cheng, D. Yan, Mater. Lett., 56 910-914, (2002).
7. S. Supriya, S. Kalainathan and S. Swaroop, International Journal of Chem. Tech
Research, 3, 488-494, (2011).
8. W.D. Kingery, Introduction to Ceramic, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, (1967)

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 70


Relativistic Rule of Multiplication of Velocities
Consistent with Lorentz Einstein Law of
Addition and Derivation of the Missing
Equations of Special Relativity
Dr. M.O.G. Talukder
1
, & Dr. Mushfiq Ahmad
2


1
Barendra University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
2
Department of Physics, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh


ABSTRACT
In this paper, we present the rule for relativistic multiplication of a velocity
by a number. We have reasoned on the basis of a thought experiment and
we have taken into consideration the L-E law of addition of velocities. The
formalism gives the result of repeated L-E addition just as ordinary
multiplication gives the effect of repeated Galilean addition. In the classical
limit, it complies with the Galilean law of multiplication. The formalism
presented here can extend the horizon of relativity. The thought experiment
also reveals the values of both the relative length and time in the
longitudinal direction. Further, it has been demonstrated, as implications,
that each relative quantity has two values - one in the longitudinal and the
other in the transverse directions. As a consequence, we have found out the
missing equations which are necessary to make Einsteins theory of special
relativity self-consistent and complete. Moreover, we use the geometric
mean to get the mean value of the relative quantities. The justification of
doing so is also demonstrated in this paper. Finally, in the appendix, we
present the relativistic multiplication rules for the relative quantities like
velocity, mass, time and length by a number. We also present the general
rules for the product of two relative quantities of the same entity.

Keywords: Relativistic addition and multiplication, velocity, mass, time,
length, special relativity, missing equations, geometric mean.

1. INTRODUCTION
The relativistic addition of velocities using Lorentz-Einstein transformation
1,2
is given by the
well known formula

2
v
1
v
v
c
u
u
u V
r
+
+
= = (1)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 71


where, Vr is the relative velocity, observed from an inertial reference frame S, of a body
moving with a speed u in another frame S'; when S' moves uniformly with speed v relative
to S and c is the speed of light. We have introduced the symbol to mean L-E addition.
This means that velocity v should be added to the velocity u by L-E addition ) ( and not
by Galilean addition (+). Now, if there is N number of equal velocity u to be added
relativistically, then
u N u u u u V
r
= = ... .......... (2)
where, for the L-E sum of N terms we have used the expression u N . In other words,
the symbol has been used for L-E multiplication.
The relativistic addition of velocities have also been derived without using the L-E
transformations but using thought experiments and the formulas that account for time
dilation and length contraction
3,4
, from the invariance
5
of c and using the time dilation
formula
6
. We have used the formalism, presented in this paper, to find the relativistic
expression of momentum conservation law
7
. Further, in a recent paper
8
, we have shown
the wave representation of particle kinematics and the equivalence between continuous
and discrete time using the same. On the other hand, Mr. Ahmad
9,10
has studied the
discrete and continuous representations of the same motion employing this formalism.
The main objectives of this work are (a) to widen the scope of special relativity (to
accommodate quantum mechanics) by including some missing equations into Einsteins
theory of SR and (b) to understand the role of the speed of light.
2. DERIVATION OF THE FORMALISM
Let us consider that the frame of reference S' moves along the X-axis with a uniform
velocity v relative to a stationary frame of reference S as shown in Fig. 1. There is a light
beam clock, with its two parallel mirrors placed horizontally along X-axis, in the frame of
reference S'. The clock traps a light pulse between two parallel mirrors that bounces off the
mirrors at perfectly regular intervals of time. The light pulse takes time t0/2 to travel from
one mirror to another. Suppose, initially the origins of S and S' are coincident.


Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 72


Fig. 1: S (X, Y, Z) is a Stationary and S' (X', Y', Z') is moving frame of reference. M1', M2' are
the horizontally placed mirror positions, of a light beam clock, after time t0/2, with M1 and
M2 being their positions after time t0. The separation between the mirrors is l0. The solid
line with arrows represents the path of light beam as seen from S.
Then an observer in S will see that in time t0, the frame S' will move a distance (d) given in
terms of the path of light by
0
0 0 0 0
v
2
v
2 2
v
2
t
t ct t ct
d =
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+ = (3)
During the same time interval, the light pulse traverses a path (d') given by
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = '
2
vt
2 2
vt
2
0 0 0 0
ct ct
d (4)
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) c c c
c c
d
d v
v v
v v
=
+ +
+
=
'
(5)
Multiplying both sides by c and rearranging the terms,
1
v 1
v 1
1
v 1
v 1
v
v
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
= =
c
c
c
c
c
c
c (6)
Hence, we can conclude that a velocity can be represented as a fraction of c by the above
relation. Thus, the L E law (Eq. 1) can be written as
( )( ) c c u
c c u
c
c c
u
c V
v 1
v v
r
+
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
= (7)
Hence, following Eq. (6), we can write
1
v 1
v 1
1
1
1
v - 1
v 1
1
1
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
| +
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
c
c
c u
c u
c
c
c u
c u
c V
r
(8)
Therefore, for v = c
1
/ 1
/ 1
1
/ 1
/ 1
2
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
= = =
c u
c u
c u
c u
c u u u V
r
(9)
where, the symbol indicates L-E multiplication. Similarly, we can show that
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 73


1
1
1
1
1
1
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
N
N
c u
c u
c u
c u
c u N (10)
Where, N is a number. The above equation represents the L-E multiplication of the
velocity u by the number N. It is equivalent to the L-E sum of N number of equal velocity
u. It has some advantages over the conventional form as follows. Suppose there is N
number of equal velocities to be added relativistically. If the conventional L-E law is used
for this purpose, N 1 number of steps is needed to get the final result. But the operation
becomes cumbersome after 3 or 4 steps. Whereas, using the present form, the final result
can be obtained in just a single step even for large values of N. The conventional form can
be found suitable for certain cases, whereas, the present form can be used to uncover
different aspects of physical phenomena. As a result, the domain of relativity is expected
to be expanded beyond its horizon.
The above equation can also be written as
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
N N
N N
c u c u
c u c u
c u N
/ 1 / 1
/ 1 / 1
+ +
+
= (11)
Hence, in the classical limit (u << c)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
Nu
c Nu c Nu
c Nu c Nu
c u N =
+ +
+
=
/ 1 / 1
/ 1 / 1
(12)
which is the Galilean multiplication of the velocity u by the number N.
3. PROPERTIES OF u N
We would like to verify if the expression for u N , as given by Eq. (10), correctly
represents the L-E sum given by Eq. (2). The correct representation has to have the
following properties.
0 0 = u (13)
u u = 1 (14)
u n m u n u m + = ) ( ) ( ) ( (15)
) v ( ) v ( ) ( = u m m u m (16)
( ) u mn u n m = (17)
Where, m and n are any numbers and u and v are velocities. For example, Eq. (16) can be
written, following Eq. (10), as
1
/ v 1
/ v 1
1
/ v 1
/ v 1
1
/ 1
/ 1
1
/ 1
/ 1
) v ( ) (
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
m
m
m
m
c
c
c
c
c
c u
c u
c u
c u
c m u m (18)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 74


) v (
1
/ v 1
/ v 1
/ 1
/ 1
1
/ v 1
/ v 1
/ 1
/ 1
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
= u m
c
c
c u
c u
c
c
c u
c u
c
m m
m m
(19)
Thus, it can be shown that all conditions of Eqs. (13) (17) are fulfilled. Hence, we can
conclude that the formalism given in Eq. (10) correctly represents u N .
4. RELATIVE LENGTH
As shown in Fig. 1, the length between the two mirrors is l0. Now in time t0, the light travels
twice between the mirrors,
0 0
2l ct = (20)
or
c
l
t
0
0
2
= (21)
As observed by an observer in S, the distance (d
+
) traveled by light beam from mirror M1 to
M2 in the forward direction is
( ) c
ct
d / v 1
2
0
+ =
+
(22)
Again the distance (d
-
) traveled by the same beam from M2 back to M1 (i.e. in the backward
direction) is
( ) c
ct
d / v 1
2
0
=

(23)
Hence, the relative length (l) between the mirrors will be equal to the geometric mean
(justification is given in Section 6) of d
+
and d
-
expressed as follows:
2
2
0
2
2
0
v
1
v
1
2 c
l
c
ct
d d l = = =
+
(24)
Thus, the length is contracted in the longitudinal direction by the factor
2
2
v
1
c
.
5. RELATIVE TIME
Further, as observed by an observer in S, the time taken by the light beam (t
+
) to travel
from M1 to M2 (i.e. in the forward direction) is from Eq. (22),
( ) c
t
c
d
t / v 1
2
0
+ = =
+
+
(25)
Again, the time taken by the same light beam (t
-
) in traveling from M2 back to M1 (i.e. in the
backward direction) is from Eq. (23),
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 75


( ) c
t
c
d
t / v 1
2
0
= =

(26)
Hence, the relative time (t/2) taken by the light beam to travel from one mirror to other is the
geometric mean of t
+
and t
-
.
2
2
0
v
1
2 2 c
t
t t
t
= =
+
(27)
2
2
0
v
1
c
t t = (28)
where, t is the total relative time for the light beam to travel from M1 to M2 and back to M1.
The same relation can also be obtained from Eqs. (21) and (24) as
2
2
0
v
1
2
c
t
c
l
t = = (29)
Thus, time is contracted in the longitudinal direction.
6. JUSTIFICATION OF USING GEOMETRIC MEAN FOR RELATIVE QUANTITIES:
Let us consider a different velocity u instead of v in Eq. (23), that is
( ) c u
ct
d =

1
2
0
(30)
Then, from Eqs. (22) and (30), the arithmetic average of d
+
and d
-
is
( ) c u c
ct
d
av
+ = v 2
2 2
1
0
(31)
( )
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
2
v
1
2
0
c u ct
(32)
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
c
w ct
G
2
1
1
2
0
(33)
Where,
( ) u w
G
= v (34)
is the Galilean addition of velocities. However, we need relativistic addition which can be
achieved as follows. Let us take the geometric mean of d
+
and d
-
:
( )( ) | |2
1
0
1 v 1
2
c u c
ct
d d d
gm
+ = =
+
(35)
2
1
2
0
v v
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
c
u
c c
u ct
(36)
( )
2
1
2
2
1
2 0
v 1
v 1
1 v 1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|


+ =
c u
u
c
c u
ct
(37)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 76


( )
2
1
2
1
2 0
1 v 1
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
c
w
c u
ct
r
(38)
where,
( )
2
v 1
v
v
c u
u
u w
r


= = (39)
is the relativistic addition of v and u according to the Lorentz Einstein law. When v = u,
wG = wr = 0 and
2
0
ct
d
av
= (40)
( )
2
1
2 2 0
v 1
2
c
ct
d
gm
= (41)
Hence, we can conclude that geometric mean is relativistic and arithmetic average is
Galilean in nature.
7. IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS
(i) Relative Time
However, according to Einsteins theory of relativity
2
, time is dilated in the transverse
direction which can be derived by considering the light beam clock placed perpendicular to
the direction of motion. Let us denote it by tET (in the suffix, E stands for Einstinian relativity
and T for transverse), then it can be expressed as follows:
2
2
0
v
1
c
t
t
ET

= (42)
where, t0 is the time interval during a complete round trip of a pulse in a stationary light beam
clock (proper time). Now, since Eq. (28) represents contraction of time in the longitudinal
direction, we will denote the relative time by tEL (L stands for longitudinal). Henceforth, all
relative quantities will be denoted with suffixes EL for longitudinal and ET for transverse
values. Then, Eq. (28) can be written as
2
2
0
v
1
c
t t
EL
= (43)
From the above two equations, we get
2
0
t t t
ET EL
= (44)
That is the product of the longitudinal and transverse relative times is equal to the square of
the proper time. The above equation also indicates that the proper time is an invariant
quantity and is equal to the geometric mean of the relative times.
(ii) Relative Length
Using Eq. (21) in the above equation, we can write
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 77


2
2
0
4
c
l
t t
ET EL
= (45)
Hence, using Eqs. (42) and (43), we obtain
( )
2
2
0
2 2
0 2 2
0
4
v 1
v 1
c
l
c
t
c t =
|
|
.
|

\
|

(46)
or
2
0
2 2
0 2 2 0
c v 1
2
v 1
2
l
ct
c
ct
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
(47)
or
( )
2
0
2 2
0 2 2
0
v 1
v 1 l
c
l
c l =
|
|
.
|

\
|

(48)
or
2
0
l l l
ET EL
= (49)
where,

2 2
0
v 1 c l l
EL
= (50)
and
2 2
0
v 1 c
l
l
ET

= (51)
where, lEL and lET are longitudinal and transverse lengths respectively. Equation (50) indicates
that the length is contracted in the longitudinal direction as in Eq. (24). On the contrary, Eq.
(51) indicates that the length is dilated in the transverse direction. However, Eq. (49) shows
that the product of the longitudinal and transverse lengths is equal to the square of the length
at rest. It means that the length at rest is an invariant quantity and is equal to the geometric
mean of the relative lengths.
(iii) Relative velocity
Rearranging the terms, Eq. (46) can also be written as
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2 2
0
0
2 2
0
0 2
v 1
2
v 1
2
c
t
l
c t
l
c (52)
Hence, using Eq. (20), we get
( )
2 2 2
2 2
v 1
v 1
c c c
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

(53)
2
EL ET
v v c = (54)
where,
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 78


2 2
ET
v 1
v
c
c

= (55)
and
2 2
EL
v 1 v c c = (56)
vET and vEL are the transverse and longitudinal velocities, respectively. It is clear from the
above equations, both of them become equal to the speed of light when v0. However, for 0
< v < c, c > vEL > 0 and c < vET < . That is, for increasing v, vEL decreases but vET increases
from c. That is vEL and vET change in opposite directions with increasing velocity. So that
for v c, vEL 0 and vET . Moreover, the product of these two velocities is equal to the
square of the speed of light. That is the speed of light is an invariant quantity, in conformity
with the postulate of special relativity, and is equal to the geometric mean of the relative
velocities.
(iv) Relative momentum and mass
Multiplying both sides of Eq. (53) by m0
2
, we get
( ) ( )
2
0
2 2
0
2 2
0
v 1
v 1
c m c c m
c
c m
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

(57)
or
2
0
p p p
EL ET
= (58)
where,
c m p
0 0
= (59)
2 2
0
v 1 c
c m
p
ET

= (60)
and
( )
2 2
0
v 1 c c m p
EL
= (61)
In the above equations, p0 is the momentum when v0. pEL and pET are the momentums in the
longitudinal and transverse directions, respectively. It is clear from Eq. (58) that the product of
the transverse and longitudinal momentums is equal to the square of the momentum when
v0. It means the momentum p0 is an invariant quantity and is equal to the geometric mean
of the relative momentums.
Moreover, from Eq. (57), we can write
( )
2
0
2 2
0
2 2
0
v 1
v 1
m c m
c
m
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

(62)
or
2
0
m m m
EL ET
= (63)
where,
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 79


2 2
0
v 1 c
m
m
ET

= (64)
and
2 2
0
v 1 c m m
EL
= (65)
In the above equations, m0 is the rest mass; mET and mEL are relative masses in the transverse
and longitudinal directions, respectively. It should be pointed out here that mET is the relative
mass presented by Einstein in his theory of special relativity. Moreover, Eq. (63) shows that
the product of the relative masses is equal to the square of the rest mass. It means the rest
mass is an invariant quantity and is equal to the geometric mean of the relative masses.
The expressions for longitudinal time given by Eq. (43), transverse length given by Eq. (51),
Transverse velocity given by Eq. (55), longitudinal velocity given by Eq. (56) and longitudinal
mass given by Eq. (65), respectively, are the missing equations in Einsteins theory of special
relativity. Further, the expressions for the invariance of time given by Eq. (44), the invariance
of length given by Eq. (49), the invariance of the speed of light given by Eq. (54) and the
invariance of mass given by Eq. (63) are also necessary to make the total set of equations self-
consistent. Thus, we conclude that these equations along with the existing ones make
Einsteins theory of special relativity self consistent and complete.
The complete set of self consistent equations for the relative mass, time, length and
velocity in the case of Einsteins theory of Special Relativity (SR) has been given in the
following Table 1. The table includes both the existing and missing equations of SR. For
each of the relative quantities, both the longitudinal and transverse values and the value of
their product are given. The relative values in the transverse and longitudinal directions
are denoted by the suffixes ET and EL, respectively.
Table 1: Equations of relative quantities in Einsteins theory of special relativity.
Relative
Quantity
Transverse Longitudinal Product
Mass
2 2
0
v 1 c
m
m
ET

=

2 2
0
v 1 c m m
EL
=


2
0
m m m
ET EL
=

Time
2 2
0
v 1 c
t
t
ET

=


2 2
0
v 1 c t t
EL
=


2
0
t t t
ET EL
=

Length
2 2
0
v 1 c
l
l
ET

=


2 2
0
v 1 c l l
EL
=


2
0
l l l
ET EL
=

Velocity
2 2
v 1
v
c
c
ET

=

2 2
EL
v 1 v c c =

2
ET El
v v c =

Where, the symbols have their usual meanings. The equations in yellow color are the
missing equations.
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 80


8. CONCLUSIONS
Through a thought experiment based on L-E law for the addition of velocities, we have
found:
(a) A relativistic rule for multiplication of a velocity by a number.
(b) That both the length and time contract in the longitudinal direction.
(c) Geometric mean is relativistic and arithmetic average is Galilean in nature.
Further, as implications of the results obtained, we have found:
(a) The relative time contracts in the longitudinal direction but dilates in the
transverse direction. Their product is equal to the square of the proper time.
(b) The relative length contracts in the longitudinal direction but dilates in the
transverse direction. Their product is equal to the square of the proper length.
(d) The relative mass increases in the transverse direction but decreases in the
longitudinal direction. Their product is equal to the square of the rest mass.
(e) The relative velocity decreases in the longitudinal direction but increases in the
transverse direction. Their product is equal to the square of the speed of light c.

REFERENCES
1
H.A Lorentz, KNAW, Proceedings, Amsterdam, 6, 809 (1904).
2
A. Einstein, Annalen der Physik, 17, 891 (1905).
3
M. S. Greenwood, Am. J. Phys., 50, 1156 (1982).
4
W. N. Mathews Jr., Am. J. Phys., 73, 45 (2005).
5
N.D. Mermin, Am. J. Phys., 52, 1119 (1984).
6
L. Sartori, Am. J. Phys., 63, 81 (1995).
7
M. Ahmad and M.O.G. Talukder, Sent for publication in Phys. Essays (2011).
8
M. Ahmad and M.O.G. Talukder, Phys. Essays, 24, 593 (2011).
9
M. Ahmad, Phys. Essays. 22, 44 (2009)
10
M. Ahmad, J. of Sc. Research 1, 270 (2009). DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v1i2.1875


Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 81


APPENDIX

Multiplication Rules for the Relative Quantities:
A. Product Rule
Equations (44), (49), (54) and (63) can be expressed as the following general rule:
2
0
X X X
ET EL
= (A1)
or
1
0 0
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
X
X
X
X
ET EL
(A2)
where, X is any relative quantity with X0 being its value at rest; XEL and XET are its values in
the longitudinal and transverse directions, respectively.

B. Multiplication by a Number
(i) Relative Velocity
Putting u = vEL in Eq. (10), we get
1
v 1
v 1
1
v 1
v 1
v
EL
EL
EL
EL
EL
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
|
.
|

\
|

N
N
c
c
c
c
c
N (B1)
Now, from Eq. (54), we can write

ET
EL
v
v c
c
= (B2)
Using the above value of vEL/c in Eq. (B1), we get
1
v 1
v 1
1
v 1
v 1
v
ET
ET
ET
ET
ET
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

N
N
c
c
c
c
c
N (B3)
(ii) Relative length
From Eq. (20), we can write
0
0
2
t
l
c= (B4)
Putting this value of c in Eq. (59), we get
0
2 2
0
0
EL
2
v 1
2
v
t
l
c
t
l
EL
= = (B5)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 82


( )
0 0
0
EL
v
l ct
l
l
c
EL
= = (B6)
Hence, from Eqs. (B1) and (B6), we can write
1
1
1
1
1
1
0 EL
0 EL
0 EL
0 EL
0
EL
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

N
N
l l
l l
l l
l l
l
l
N (B7)
Similarly, it can be shown that c/vET = l0/lET. Putting this value in Eq. (B3), we can write
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

N
ET
ET
N
ET
ET
ET
l l
l l
l l
l l
l
l
N (B8)
(c) Relative time
Equation (B5) can also be expressed as follows:
ET
t
l
c
t
l
0 2 2
0
0
EL
2
v 1
2
v = = (B9)
ET
t
t
c
0 EL
v
= (B10)
Hence, from Eqs. (B1) and (B10), we can write
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

N
ET
ET
N
ET
ET
ET
t t
t t
t t
t t
t
t
N (B11)
Similarly, it can be shown that c/vET = tEL/t0 and hence Eq. (B3) can be written as
1
1
1
1
1
1
0 EL
0 EL
0 EL
0 EL
0
EL
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

N
N
t t
t t
t t
t t
t
t
N (B12)
(iv) Relative mass
Now, multiplying both sides of Eq. (56) by m0, we get
c m c c m m
EL
= =
2 2
0 EL 0
v 1 v (B13)
0
EL
v
m
m
c
EL
= (B14)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 83


Hence, using Eq. (B14) in Eq. (B1), we can write
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

N
EL
EL
N
EL
EL
EL
m m
m m
m m
m m
m
m
N (B15)
Similarly, it can be shown that c/vET = m0/mET and hence Eq. (B3) can be written as
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

N
Et
Et
N
Et
Et
ET
m m
m m
m m
m m
m
m
N (B16)
Hence, the general expressions for the multiplications of relative quantities by any number N
can be written as:
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

N
EL
EL
N
EL
EL
EL
X X
X X
X X
X X
X
X
N (B17)
and
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

N
ET
ET
N
ET
ET
ET
X X
X X
X X
X X
X
X
N (B18)
where, X is any relative quantity with X0 being its value at rest; XEL, XET are its relative values
in the longitudinal and transverse directions, respectively.












AJASE!!!

Speedy publication service, Online archives, Paperless,
web-based peer review system, Open access policy,
Indexing in world known citation databases, Global
circulation, Broad international readership and authorship,
Online submission system, Minimum publication charge
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 84


Spatial Environmental Impact on Land
Degradation in Bangladesh
Md. Mahmudur Rahman
1
, Md. Mostafizur Rahman
2
, Tamanna Akter Tanu
3
, &
Md. Masuder Rahman
4


1
Cartographer, Department of Geography, Environment and Urban Planning, Pabna University of
Science and Technology, Pabna, Bangladesh
2
Lecturer, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, Begum Rokeya University, Rangpur,
Bangladesh
3&4
M. Phil Research fellow, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of
Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh


ABSTRACT
Land is the terrestrial bio-productive system consisting of soil, vegetation
and different ecological and hydrological processes that operate within the
system. Land is very important for the human survival to obtain but it is
being to degraded all over the world due to huge population pressure and
human interventions. In Bangladesh enormous pressure on limited but vital
land and soil resources are exerted, which strictly limits resilience of these
resource. About 6.0 million ha or 40.43% of the total geographical area of
Bangladesh is affected by land degradation. The physical signs of this
degradation are observed as loss of soil fertility, loss of organic matter,
accumulation of pollutants, physical, chemical, biological characteristics,
drought, soil erosion due to surface runoff, soil acidification, river bank
erosion, salinity of the soil, deforestation and removal of vegetation covers.

Key words: Land Degradation, Environmental Impact, Bangladesh

INTRODUCTION
Land is the most prime element for the people in an agriculture based country like
Bangladesh, a predominantly flat delta stretching from the Himalayan piedmont plan in the
north to the coast of Bay of Bengal in the south. The landform of Bangladesh is grouped into
three classes, viz, Floodplains (80%), Hills (12%) and Terrace (8%) and variations in land use
are spectacular in these landforms (DoE, 2001). The annual cropping is the major land use
pattern in floodplains, whereas mixed evergreen and deciduous forests are dominant in the
hill. Land use is a dynamic process and changes in usage patterns are driven by agricultural
and water demands, development of rural infrastructure, migration, urbanization and
industrialization, to name a few. In terms of usages of lands, 17% of the total lands are
forests land, 52% are cropped lands, 24% are rivers, wetlands and urban areas, 3% are fallow
lands and remaining 4% are waste lands. A number of national estimates also show that
2.5% of the total land area in Bangladesh is used for industrial purposes (www.fao.org/ag).
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 85


Another the socio-economic factors, land use is determined by the environmental factors of
climate in terms of seasonal variations of temperature, rainfall and humidity, hydrology in
terms of depth and duration of seasonal inundation, soil drainage, dry-season soil moisture
and availability of surface water for irrigation and other use. Additional hurdles to land
development and crop cultivation comprise the risks of loss of land by bank erosion or burial
by fresh alluvial deposition, sudden risks and onrush of flood water and the young nature of
the alluvium/soil in the active and young floodplain areas and soil and water salinity,
localized extreme acidity and toxicity of acid sulphate soils, scarcity of fresh water and
occasional cyclones and storm surges in the coastal land (DoE, 2007). In Bangladesh land
degradation has become a cause for serious concern to the people. About 6.0 million ha or
40.43% of the total geographical area of Bangladesh is affected by land degradation in
varying degrees (Shoaib, 2007).
This study describes the physical sings of this degradation are observed as loss of soil
fertility, loss of organic matter, accumulation of pollutants, physical chemical, biological
characteristics, droughts, soil erosion, due to the surface runoff, soil acidification, river bank
erosion, soil salinity. This paper, therefore, emphasizes the spatial environmental impact on
land degradation and vulnerabilities of all hazards in Bangladesh.
2. METHODOLOGY
In order to study the spatial environmental impact on land degradation in Bangladesh has
been taken as a literature of the study. The study is extensively uses published and
unpublished data of various books, journals and newspapers. Study related literatures
provided a primary idea and information on this related terms. Where primary information
survey was carried out through studying different study reports, journals, research papers,
books, newspaper etc. Another the study is based on relevant secondary data collected from
the sources census report as well as various governments, non governments organizations.
3. PHYSIOGRAPHY OF BANGLADESH
The geologic processes delineate above provide the basis for an understanding of the relief
and topographic characteristics of Bangladesh. Apart from the hilly regions in the far
northeast and southeast, most of the land is flat and covered by fertile alluvium spread over
the land. The land is crisscrossed by a network of rivers with their numerous tributaries and
distributaries. Owing to the flat nature of the terrain, the rivers generally have very low
gradients 4-5 cm/km for the Ganges, 6-10 cm/km for the Brahmaputra and 3 cm/km for the
Meghna ( Rasid and Pramanik, 1990).
4. ANALYSIS THE TREND OF LAND DEGRADATION IN BANGLADESH
The Net cropped area in Bangladesh was 8.08 million ha in 2000-2001 (BBS, 2001), the Net
Cultivable area (NCA + Current fallow) in 1982-83 was 9.14 ha and in 1996-97 it was 8.14
million ha only. On average, the country is losing about 38.235 ha of cultivable land to non
agriculture use. 2000-01, the per capita NCA was about 0.066 ha and an estimated population
of 170 million in 2020, the NCA may be reduced to 7.5 million ha 7.5 million ha with per capita
NCA of 0.044 ha only. However, due to high population growth, this allocation of land per
capita is shrinking rapidly every year, making the resource base for agriculture, forest and
wetlands more marginalized and vulnerable. This is mainly due to conversion of forest and
agricultural land into urban and industrial uses and construction of roads and embankments.

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 86


Fig. 4 Trend of land degradation in Bangladesh if the graphical presentation

Source: BBS, 1981,95 , 01.
5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The following section focuses on the land degradation of Bangladesh in the study, it is tried to
decide the causes of this degradation and second the spatial environmental impact was shown.
5.1. Population pressure on land use change
Bangladesh is one the highest populated countries with growth rate of 1.8% (Shoaib, 2007). It
is the mentioned that by the year 2020, population of Bangladesh will reach 170 million and
density of 1118 per sq km and per capita land allocation as low as 0.6 ha, with possible loss
of cultivable land to alternative uses like housing and urbanization. The pressure on the land
use changed by rising population and effects of rising salinity, water, loss of soil fertility and
high levels of erosion. SRDI (2004) estimated 0.1% of arable land per year converted to other
use like settlements, roads, industries, brickfields and borrow pits based on interpretation of
aerial photo of different years. Dispersed industrial growth and uncontrolled discharges of
their untreated effluents into the nearby rivers deteriorate the quality of land, soil and water.
Bangladesh has the highest density of road network 7.6 km/100 sq km, as the compared to
India (1 km), China (2.7 km), and Pakistan (4.8 km) (Shoaib, 2007). Land fragmentation due
to the crumbling of farm families is another issues which resulted from population boom
and it is estimated that the land stood fragmented into about 12 million plots in 1990s
(Shoaib, 2007) and this figure is expected to be skyrocketing in future. Pressures on limited
land resources stem from multifaceted issues relevant to land degradation.
5.2. Soil Salinity
Saline soils due to strip of land of a few kilometers to 180 km width along the sea coast.
However, reduction of fresh water flow from upper riparian areas and silting up to the
Feeder Rivers enhance soil salinity in the coastal zone. During 1983 extension of saline area
was 0.83 million ha which at present is estimated to be 1.02 million ha (SRDI, 2000).
Bangladesh Water Development Board and SRDI are collecting and maintaining soil and
Trand of land degradaton in
Bangladesh
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
1981-82 1995-96 2000-01
year
M
i
l
l
i
o
n

i
n

h
a
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 87


water saline that FAO has provided support to CEGIS for compiling, updating and
interpretation of the salinity information. Water salinity level increased very rapidly in the
year 2008 compared to reference salinity information of 1980s developed by MPO. Water
salinity level has increase at most of the points in alarming rate over last 30 years, on average
172% Maximum increase of 1988 micromoles/cm is in Khulna region followed by 1442
micromoles/cm at Nalianla (Hadda). Salinity interruption has created a major problem in
Khulna and Satkhira region in the south of Bangladesh. In a study done in 2000 it was
revealed that 1.1 million ha of land are losing fertility because of salinity intrusion every year
(DoE, 2007). A Comparative status of total saline area and area under different degrees of
salinity in 1973 and 2000 if depicted in Figure 5.2 During the last three decades, about 0.17
million hectares of land was newly affected by various degrees of salinity, where substantial
increase was fond in strongly (8.1-16.0 dS/m) and very strongly saline (>16 dS/m) classes
(Shoaib, 2007).

Source: BBS, 1973, 2000 and SDRI, 2009.
SRDI produced soil salinity data using the reference information of 1973. Large area has
become salt affected over the last 35 years. More than 170,000 hectare has been affected in the
11 district, the situation has further aggravated in the year 2009. This is a very severe threat
which largely affects productivity and livelihoods of the area (Karim at al., 1990). Salt- beds
and shrimp cultivation have bearing on coastal soil degradation and change in landscape.
Production of salt becomes more profitable and that enhance transformation of agricultural
lands to salt-beds, which degrades the soil and makes future use of the land for crop
production very difficult. Bangladesh experienced one of the worst cyclone-cum-tidal surges
on 15 November 2007 during finalization of this paper, which has further falling downward
the land resources in the south-western regions of Bangladesh.
5.3. Riverbank Erosion
Bangladesh has more than 700 rivers with their tributaries and distributaries of deltaic that are
crisscrossed in the predominantly riverine country. However, 283 locations, 85 towns and
growth centers along with 2400 km of riverbank line in Bangladesh are vulnerable to erosion.
The total length of 22,155km (DoE, 2001) have become moribund because of siltation of river
Fig. 5.2 Soil Salinity status in 1973 and 2000
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
S

1
9
7
3
S

2
0
0
0
S
1

1
9
7
3
S
1

2
0
0
0
S
2

1
9
7
3
S
2

2
0
0
0
S
3

1
9
7
3
S
3

2
0
0
0
S
4

1
9
7
3
S
4

2
0
0
0
Years
M
i
l
l
i
o
n

h
a
Series1
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 88


beds, enhanced flood and river bank erosion, restricted navigation and water flows. Among
these, riverbank erosion is a major issue. It is estimated that more than 100,000 people are
displaced annually due to river bank erosion (Shoaib, 2007). River bank erosion is very serious
hazard in Bangladesh with disastrous socioeconomic consequences. Hydraulic action in the
form the sheer physical impact of flood waters in river channels is a major cause of erosion of
the banks (Miah, 2004). Most of the rivers of Bangladesh flow through unconsolidated
sediments of the GBM floodplain and delta, and the riverbanks are extremely susceptible to
slumping or erosion by river current action. Riverbank erosion causes channel shifting creation
of new channels during floods, bank slumping due to undercutting, and local scour from
turbulence due to obstruction (Ahmad et al., 2001). Satellite image to the GBM rivers
demonstrate varying properties of bank erosion and accretion in different years with an annual
erosion rate of nearly 9,000 hectares of land ((Ahmad et al., 2001). Riverbank erosion /accretion
along the different rivers for the period 1984-94 have been increased.

Table 5.3 River bank erosion/accretion along the different rivers for the period 1984-93.
Name of the title Jamuna Ganges Padma Upper
Meghan
Lower
Meghna
Bank erosion
rate
Left 100 -20 38 7 66
Right 84 56 121 -9 182
Maximum bank
erosion rate(m/yr)
784 665 620 NA 1172
Bank erosion
( ha/year)
5020 2240 1800 48 1172
Bank accretion
(ha/year)
890 1010 233 49 402
Source: ISPAN, 1995.

5.4. Land slide
Hill areas or upper riparian areas are sensitive, as any anthropogenic disturbances there will
create erosion, flooding and sedimentation in the lower regions. Large scale topsoil loss and
landslides occur in the hilly region of south eastern Bangladesh. It is estimated that about 8,700
ha of area are being eroded annually (Shoaib, 1999). This region occupies about 12%
geographical area of the country. This is concentrated in Chittagong occupying 76% very steep
to steep sloping areas. Sloping areas of this region are not used with adequate conservation
measures. Improper cultivation of Hill Slopes, Terrace Land and Piedmont Plains enhances
topsoil loss. Shifting cultivation on the hills, locally known as Jhum is a common practices
the tribal communities in the greater CHT. Therefore, the soil quality has been degrading
rapidly. SRDI measured soil loss from different slope classes in CHT under jhum cultivation,
which ranges from 36 to 45 t/ha/y (Shoaib, 1999). In recent years, urbanization in these hilly
areas also prompted hill-cutting, thus subjecting the surrounding areas to risks from
landslides. Such landslides not only causes environmental havoc, but also cost human lives.
The landslide that occurred in Chittagong in mid 2007 was a serious disaster for the poor
residents settled at the foot of the hills and accounted for the loss of huge lives.
5.5. Agro-chemicals
Agricultural activity in Bangladesh is primary focused on the task of producing food crops
for the growing population. Agricultural output can be increased through either one or both
of the two approaches: (a) expansion of cropped area into new lands; and (b) intensification
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 89


of farming through increasing the yield per unit area (Rasheed S, 2008). Almost all cultivable
lands in the country have already been brought under the plow, and newly emerging char
lands (sandbars) and fast-shrinking dry season grazing grounds offer little scope for any
significant expansion of cropped area (Brammer, 2002). The farmers of Bangladesh are
intensification of cultivation in order to production. As a result, these pathways of
intensification are multiple cropping, use high yielding diversity seeds, fertilizers along with
pesticides and irrigation. Large amounts of pesticides, fungicides and herbicides are
imported to keep crop production sustainable table 5.5. The scenario indicates that there is
remarkable use of agrichemicals in agricultural production system and that poses as hazards
to human health, fisheries, soil health and livestock.

Table 5.5 Import of pesticides during the season
Year Tons Value (million taka)
1980-81 2274.04 202.29
1990-91 5122.00 642.67
2000-01 5655.00 1207.76
Source: Handbook of Agricultural statistics, 2004
5.6. DROUGHTS
Another climate change is Droughts, this hazard are natural occurrence their impacts are
mitigated and their effects may be minimized provided. The consequence of drought can be
as far reaching and disasters are the effect of a major flood. Bangladesh has a major drought
when about 47% of the total area and 53% of the total population. Bangladesh has experience
droughts a major magnitude in 1973, 1975, 1978, 1979, 1982, 1989, 1992, 1994 and 1995.
Therefore, droughts of various intensities occur in all most parts of Bangladesh during the
eight months from October to May.
6. CONCLUSION
Bangladesh is a small country in size inhabited by a large number of populations. High
population remains the single most important determinate of resource and environmental
degradation. Land is the most basic natural resource in the country, and despite the fact that
the current land-person ratio in extremely unfavorable. Population increase through slowed
in recent year, is still unacceptably high. It has increased on goods and services, and the turn,
increased stresses on environmental resource. However, land and water are two of the most
important natural resources of Bangladesh but over population due to land degradation.
Among Bangladesh has responded to the issues of reversing the trend of land degradation
by incorporating many activities.


Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 90


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Ahmad, Q. K., et al., (2008). Ganges- Brahmaputra- Meghna Region: A framework for
Sustainable Development. The University Press Ltd., Dhaka.
Brammer, H. (2002). Land Use and Land Use Planning in Bangladesh, The University
Press Ltd., Dhaka.
BBS, (1981). Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Bureau of
Statistics, Ministry of Planning, Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka.
BBS, (1995). Agricultural Statistics of Bangladesh: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics,
Ministry of Planning, Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka.
BBS, (2001). Agricultural Statistics of Bangladesh: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics,
Ministry of Planning, Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka.
DoE, (2001). State of the Environment Bangladesh: Ministry of Environment and Forests,
GOVT of the People Republic of Bangladesh.
Miah, M. M. (2004). Water Management in Bangladesh: From Vision to Action. Bangladesh
Water Partnership, Dhaka.
Shoaib, J. U. M. (2007). Land degradation including Resource Mobilization. Thematic
Report prepared under National Capacity Self-Assessment for Global
Environmental Management. IUCN Bangladesh (unpublished).
Shoaib, J. U. M. (1999). Restoration of Abandoned Jhum Annual Report. Soil Conservation
ans Watershed Management, Soil Research Development Institute, Bndarbon.
SRDI, (2000). Upazila Nirdeshika Database 1985-2000: Soil and Land Resource Information
System. Soil Research Institute.










Important!!!

If the responses and the revised manuscript
are not submitted by the deadline,
submission is deemed to have been
abandoned. The rejection of the manuscript
will be conveyed to the Authors. AJASE
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 91








Why Open Access ???













In the traditional publishing model, readers have limited access to
scientific papers; authors do not have copyright for their own
papers, and cannot post their papers on their own websites, which
presents a significant barrier to the sharing of knowledge, as well as
being unfair to authors. Open access can overcome the drawbacks
of the traditional publishing model and help scholars build on the
findings of their colleagues without restriction



Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 92


Asian Journal of
Applied Science and Technology
(Peer reviewed international journal)
ISSN 2305-915X

Open Access Philosophy
Under Open Access Philosophy, AJASE will not charge for the access
of its journals. This will ensure that a large percentage of students,
scholars, researchers and practitioners will be able to benefit from the
research published through ABC journals. Moreover, this process will
also enable authors papers to receive a higher ranking. A greater
number of people being able to access and consequently refer to
papers will mean a higher citations and Impact Factor for ABC
journals. Following are advantages of Open Access Philosophy:
1. The full text of all issues of AJASE is freely available to anyone, online.
2. Your research work will be indexed and abstracted in the
internationally reputed databases and search engines immediately
after publication.
3. Open Access increases the number of downloads, page views,
citations etc. increasing the rate of
dissemination of your research
work manifold.
4. It is inferred from past
researches that the papers published under "Open Access Philosophy" are four
times more likely to be cited than the papers published under "Non-Open
Access Philosophy"
Peer Review Policy
Paperless, web-based peer review system, professional and helpful suggestions from reviewers. Articles in this
journal have undergone a rigorous blind peer review system, based on initial editor screening and involving in-
country and international refereeing, ensures that articles meet the highest standards of quality. Most ABC
journals have ISSN with IMPACT FACTORS. It facilitates our scholars, researchers, scientists, professors,
corporates, governmental research agencies, librarians etc., in a more positive way in their research proceedings.
Faster Turnaround Time
Many journals take many months, even years to publish research. By the time papers are published, often they become
outdated. AJASE publishes papers in the shortest possible time, without compromising on quality. This will ensure that
the latest research is published, allowing readers to gain maximum benefit. We provide feedback instantaneously and
furnish details of the outcome within about 5 - 6 working days of submission of your research paper. This enables
research scholars to use their time effectively on the actual research rather than on the follow ups.
Strong International network & Collaboration
We have exposure to wide range of industries across geographies and worldwide connect through international
colleagues and thereby the recognition. We work in collaboration with extremely creditable companies, academic
institutions, reputed publication units, government bodies and research firms. By publishing with us, you join ABC
Global Research Community of 50,000 scientists / researchers.

For Details- go through the link: www.ajase.weebly.com

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 93


Global Disclosure of Economics and Business
(Peer reviewed international journal)
ISSN 2305-9168


Why Publish on GDEB

1. Open Access
Have you ever been frustrated to find
that it costs $30 to download the full
text file of an article you wish to read?
The full text version of all papers
published at GDEB is freely available
online to anybody.
2. Affordable
Most open-access journals charge more
than a thousand dollars per accepted
manuscript. From ABCs perspective,
that means, access to publication for
authors is not truly open. ABCs
publication fee is affordable, at $60 per accepted paper. ABC aims to encourage all scientists to work together to
share knowledge.
3. High-quality editorial board
ABC is very careful in its selection of editorial board members. All ABC Journals board members are experts in
their respective fields.
4. Rigorous peer review
Acceptance of a submission is solely based on recommendations by editors and peer reviewers.
5. Rapid review process
Paper less & web based review system. Typically, the review period is complete within 4 weeks.
6. High citation rate
Our open-access policy guarantees that anyone can read an authors papers online. ABC plans to have ABC
journals included in all major databases, and indexed by Thomson Reuters (ISI).
7. Authors retain copyright
All papers published on GDEB are openaccess. Under this system, authors retain ownership of the copyright for
their content, but they allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute, and/or copy the content, as
long as the original authors and source are cited properly.


Faster Turnaround Time
Many journals take many months, even years to publish
research. By the time papers are published, often they become
outdated. GDEB publishes papers in the shortest possible
time, without compromising on quality. This will ensure that
the latest research is published, allowing readers to gain
maximum benefit. We provide feedback instantaneously and
furnish details of the outcome within about 5 - 6 working days
of submission of your research paper. This enables research scholars to use their time effectively on the
actual research rather than on the follow ups.

Strong International network
By publishing with us, you join ABC Global Research Community of 50,000 scientists / researchers.

For Details- go through the link: www.gdeb.weebly.com
GDEB Publish
Online and Print
Version Both

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 94




It gives us immense pleasure to forward the link of the current issue of our Journal Asian Accounting and Auditing
Advancement (4A Journal) circulated all over the world 141 countries/territories (Japan; United Kingdom; United
States; Russia; Australia; China; Canada; France; Germany; Hong Kong; Italy; Mexico; New Zealand; Singapore; Spain;
Swaziland; Switzerland; Taiwan; Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Argentina; Armenia; Austria; Bahrain; Bangladesh;
Barbados; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei; Bulgaria; Cameroon; Chile;
Colombia; Congo [DRC]; Costa Rica; Cte dIvoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea;
Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; Gambia; Georgia; Ghana; Greece; Guatemala; Guyana; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran;
Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Jamaica; Jersey; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho;
Liberia; Libya; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macau; Macedonia [FYROM]; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Malta; Mauritius; Moldova;
Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar [Burma]; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan;
Palestinian Territories; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania;
Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; South Korea; Sri Lanka; Sudan;
Suriname; Sweden; Syria; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab
Emirates; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Vietnam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe), for your kind reference and record.


Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 95



Asian Business Review
ISSN: 2304-2613 (Print)
ISSN: 2305-8730 (Online)
Email: abr@post.com



Call for Papers

Asian Business Review
www.abrjournal.weebly.com
Peer Review Policy
Open Access Policy
Well Indexed
Online Submission
Online Archives
Global Circulation
Free ABC Membership
Call for Board Member

Respected Author
Asian Business Consortium believes that a standard, well indexed and worldwide circulated
Journal can be an effective agent of sharing beliefs, values and research deeds. We are
pleased to inform you that Asian Business Consortium is going to publish Vol. 2, No.1
(2013) Issue of its International Peer Reviewed Journal Asian Business Review
{International Standard Serial Number: 2304-2613(p); 2305-8730(e)}.
Through this letter we are inviting articles from interested faculty members, scholars, and
writers of the universities and other educational institutions for this 2
nd
Issue, which is
expected to be in the press by the 1
st
week of March, 2013 or in any of the forthcoming
issue of the journal. We also invite articles from foreign authors. We hope you will find
ABR to be of international standard.
ABR will contain research-based articles on Business, Technology and Social Sciences and
such other subjects which are significantly related to the religion of Asia. We will
appreciate your cooperation in this regard and request you to kindly circulate this
invitation letter to your faculty/department members so that they can avail this
opportunity.

Submission of Papers: Full papers written in English and not submitted elsewhere,
should be submitted in MS WORD format through the website (online submission)
http://abrjournal.weebly.com/submission.html.

Important Deadlines for the Inaugural Issue
a) Submission of Full Paper 10th February 2013
b) Reviewers Feedback and Notification of Full Acceptance 15th February 2013
c) Registration Deadline 20th February 2013
d) Expected to be in the press by the 1st week of March, 2013

Processing Fee for Regular Issue
US$ 80 (Outside Bangladesh Author, except shipping)
BDT 6000 (Bangladeshi Resident Author)

The journal is patronized by Asian Business Consortium (ABC). All authors of the ABR will
be considered as ABC member.
With regards,
Editor, Asian Business Review



Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 96



UPCOMING
ABC JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Aim and Scope
ABC Journal of Scientific Research is a blind peer-reviewed international
research journal which deals with applied as well as theoretical issues. The
authors welcome papers in all the major issues including:
- Research Article
- Review Article
- Scientific Commentaries
- Computer Science
- Technological Science
- Engineering
- Biology
- Chemistry
- Physics
- Mathematics
- Statistics
- Applied Business Studies
- Medical Studies
- Social Sciences
- Natural Sciences
- Agricultural Science
- Zoology
- Geology
- Short Communication
- All other Applied and Theoretical Scientific Research

Contact Information
Paper submissions should be electronically in MS-Word form on the
following email address abcjournals@gmail.com.

Www.Abcjournals.Weebly.Com


Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 1, No 2 (2012) ISSN 2305-915X
Copyright 2012, Asian Business Consortium | AJASE Page 97
























Why Work with ABC

1. Voluntary reviewers have complete authority to set the standards for the
acceptance of manuscripts;

2. Voluntary reviewers have complete authority to determine whether a
manuscript is accepted or not;

3. Voluntary reviewers have the right to revise the scope and policies of
their journals;

4. Voluntary reviewers pay a reduced fee for ABC publication;

5. ABC has its own marketing team. Editorial board/Voluntary review board
members are not required to solicit papers.