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# Mathematics KFP00205 Topic 3: Trigonometric Functions

TOPIC

3.0 3.7

## c) express sin , cos and tan in terms of t where t = tan 2

d) express a cos b sin as R cos ( ) or R sin ( ) and solve a cos + b sin = c e) determine the maximum and minimum values of trigonometric expressions

2 tan 1 tan 2

tan =

2 2 1 tan 2

2 tan

## by using t = tan 2 tan =

2t

1+ t2 2t

1 t2 2t sin = 1+ t2

1 - t2

cos =

1 t2 1+ t2

Note

Equations in the form a cos + b sin = k can be solved by using the expressions above.

Example 1 Solve the equations 3 cos x 8 sin x = -2, 0 0 360 0 by using the t-substitution

x 2

tan x =

## 3 cos x 8 sin x = -2 2t 1 t2 3( )8( ) = -2 2 1+ t 2 1+ t 3 3t2 16 t = -2- 2t2 t2 + 16t 5 = 0

1+ t2 2t x 1 - t2

16 16 2 + 20 t= 2 = 8 69
tan x = 8 + 69 2 x = 17.05 0 2 x = 34.10 tan

t = tan 2 Solution

x = 8 69 2 x = 93.510 Example 2 2 Solve the equations 5 x = 187.0 0 tan + sec + 5 = 0 0 0 for values of in 0 360 by using

## Let t = tan 2 tan =

2t 1 t2 1 1+ t2 2 = ,t 1 , sin = , cos = , sec = 1+ t 2 1 t2 cos 1 t 2 1+ t2 2t

5 tan + sec + 5 = 0 2t 1+ t2 5( )+( )+5=0 1 t2 1 t2 10t + 1 + t2 + 5(1-t2) = 0 -4t2 + 10t + 6 = 0 2t2 5t 3 = 0 (t -3) (2t + 1) = 0
t = 3

or

t =

1 2

tan

=3 2

tan

1 = 2 2

## 0 Given that 0 0 360 0 , hence 0

180 0 2
tan

For

tan

=3 2 = 71.565o 2 = 143.130

1 = 2 2 = 153.4350 2 = 306.870

Express a cos b sin as R cos ( ) or R sin ( ) and solve a cos + b sin =c The equation 3 cos + sin =1 can also be solved if the expression 3 cos + sin is 0 expressed in the form R cos ( - ), where R > 0 and (0 < <900) are values to be determined. Let R cos ( - ) = a cos + b sin R (cos cos + sin sin ) = a cos + b sin (R cos ) cos + (R sin ) sin = a cos + b sin Equating the coefficient of cos : Equating the coefficient of sin : Squaring each of [1] and [2] and adding give [1]2 + [2]2 : R2 cos2 + R2 sin2 = a2+ b2 R2 (cos2 + sin2 ) = a2+ b2 R2 = a2+ b2 R cos = a [1] R sin = b [2]

R = a2 + b2
R sin b = R cos a b tan = a

[1] [2]

## Mathematics KFP00205 Topic 3: Trigonometric Functions

Hence, the expression a cos + b sin can be expressed in the form R cos ( ), b where R = a 2 + b 2 and tan = a We conclude that : a cos b sin = R cos ( ) a sin b cos = R sin ( ) where R = a 2 + b 2 and tan = where R = a 2 + b 2 b a a and tan = b

Example 1 Express 3 cos - 4 sin in the form R cos ( + ) Solution Let 3 cos - 4 sin = R cos ( + ) = R (cos cos sin sin ) = R cos cos - R sin sin Equating the corresponding coefficients gives 3 = R cos [1] 4 = R sin [2] Squaring each of [1] and [2] and adding give [1] 2 + [2]2 :R2 cos2 + R2 sin2 = 32 + 42 R2 (cos2 + sin2 ) = 32 + 42 R2 = 25 R = 5 (since R > 0) R sin 4 = R cos 3 4 tan = 3 = 53.10 3 cos - 4 sin = 5 cos ( + 53.10)

[2] [1]

Therefore, we have

## Mathematics KFP00205 Topic 3: Trigonometric Functions

Example 2 Solve the following equations for 0 360 4 sin 2 - 3 cos 2 = 3 Solution Let 4 sin 2 - 3 cos 2 = R sin (2 - ) = R sin 2 cos - R cos 2 sin

Equating the corresponding coefficients gives R cos = a = 4 [1] R sin = b = 3 ... [2]

Squaring each of [1] and [2] and adding give [1]2 + [2]2 [ 2] [1] : R2 cos2 + R2 sin2 = 9 + 16 R2 = 25 R =5, (R > 0) R sin 3 = R cos 4 3 tan = 4 = 36.87o
3 5 = 36.87o

0 360

## 36.87 2 36.87 683.13

2 - 36.87o = 36.87o , 143.13o, 396.87o, 503.13o = 36.87o , 90o, 216.87o, 270o

Example 3 Solve the following equations for 0 360 2 cos + 3 sin =1 Solution: Let 2 cos + 3 sin = R cos ( - ) = R cos cos + R sin sin

## Mathematics KFP00205 Topic 3: Trigonometric Functions

Equating corresponding coefficients R cos = a = 2 [1] R sin = b = 3 [2] Squaring each of [1] and [2] and adding give [1]2 + [2]2 : R2 (cos2 + sin2 ) = 4 + 9 R2 = 13 R = 13 , (R > 0)
R sin 3 = R cos 2 3 tan = 2 = 56.3o

[ 2] [1]

## 13 cos (- 56.3o) = 1 1 cos ( - 56.3o) = 13 o ( - 56.3 ) = 73.90o

0 360
56.3 56.3 303.7
- 56.3o = 73.90o , 286.10o = 130.2o, 342.4o e. Maximum and Minimum Values of Trigonometric Expression a sin x + b cos x can be rewritten using an expression of the form R sin (x ) or R cos (x ) where is the phase angle and R is the amplitude & depends on the values a and b. sine wave 1

-1

3 2

## -1 sin x 1 cosine wave 1

-1

0
Maximum value: sin 900 = 1 cos 0 and 2 = 1

-1 cos x 1

sin

2 Minimum value:
3 = -1 2

3 2

cos = -1

Example 1 Find the maximum & minimum values for the expression 3 sin x 4 cos x and find the values of x , where 0o < x < 360o , for which the expression has the extreme values. Solution: Let 3 sin x 4 cos x = R sin ( x - ) = R sin x cos - R cos x sin

Equating corresponding coefficients R cos = 3 [1] R sin = 4 [2] Squaring each of [1] and [2] and adding give [1]2 + [2]2 : [ 2] [1] R2 = 9 + 16 = 25 R= 5 ( R > 0)
R sin 4 = R cos 3 4 tan = 3 = 53.13o

## Mathematics KFP00205 Topic 3: Trigonometric Functions

3 sin x 4 cos x = 5 sin ( x - 53.13o) Maximum value for 3 sin x 4 cos x = 5 It occurs when sin ( x - 53.13o) = 1 x - 53.13o = 90o x = 143.13o Minimum value for 3 sin x 4 cos x = -5. It occurs when sin ( x - 53.13o) = -1 x - 53.13o = 270o x = 323.13o Example 2 Find the maximum & minimum values for the expression f ( ) = Solution: We expressing the denominator of f ( ) in the form 3 + R sin ( - ) sin - 2 cos = R sin ( - ) = R ( sin cos - cos sin )
1 . 3 + sin - 2 cos

( for 0 360 )

( for 0 360 )

= R sin cos - R cos sin Equating corresponding coefficients R cos = 1 [1] R sin = 2 [2] Squaring each of [1] and [2] and adding give [1] 2 + [2] 2 : R 2 cos 2 + R 2 sin 2 = 12 + 2 2 R cos 2 + sin 2 = 5 R = 5 [ 2] [1] :
R sin 2 = R cos 1 tan = 2 = 63.4o

( R > 0)

Therefore,

f ( ) =

3 + 5 sin ( - 63.4 o )

## Mathematics KFP00205 Topic 3: Trigonometric Functions

The graph of f ( ) attains a minimum value when sin - 63.4 o sin - 63.4 o has a maximum value of 1 which occurs when;

is a maximum. Now

- 63.4 o = 90 o

= 153.4 o

1 o . A minimum turning point on the graph of f ( ) is 153.4 , 3+ 5 Similarly the graph of f ( ) attains a maximum value when sin - 63.4 o is a minimum. Now sin - 63.4 o has a minimum value of -1 which occurs when;

- 63.4 o = 270 o

= 333.4 o