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IMAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY

Armistead Clay Watches Sputnik. Digital image. 1957. Web. 1 Jan. 2013. <http://datafreeway.com/plesetsk/images/Baikonur/Astronom.jpg>. This is a photograph of Memphis astronomer Armistead Clay watching Sputnik as it passes above him. The image is used in 'An Indifferent America'. At the Soviet Announcement to Build an IGY Satellite. Digital image. Sputnik: The Fiftieth Anniversary. NASA. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/rsa.jpg>. This is a photograph of Soviet officials in Denmark announcing their intention to build a satellite for the International Geophysical Year. I included it in my page about the Soviet Union and United States' early space programs because it marks a milestone in the Soviet program and provides an interesting perspective.

Bonestell, Chesley. The Conquest of Space. Digital image. Cosmic Cafe and Outer Space Art Gallery. Web. 24 Dec. 2012. <http://www.outer-space-artgallery.com/images/bonestell3.jpg>. This is an illustration from 'The Conquest of Space', an influential book in the 1950s that increased awareness for the burgeoning space movement. I included it in a gallery of pictures from the book in the section 'Space in America' because it gives readers an idea of what was actually in the book, and may help them to understand what space was imagined to be back then.

Bonestell, Chesley. Saturn as Seen From Mimas. Digital image. Cosmic Cafe and Outer Space Art Gallery. Web. 24 Dec. 2012. <http://www.outer-space-artgallery.com/images/bonestell1.jpg>. This is another illustration from 'The Conquest of Space', an influential book in the 1950s that increased awareness for the burgeoning space movement. I included it in a gallery of pictures from the book in the section 'Space in America' because it gives readers an idea of what was actually in the book, and may help them to understand what space was imagined to be back then.

Bonestell, Chesley. The Surface of Mercury. Digital image. Cosmic Cafe and Outer Space Art Gallery. Web. 24 Dec. 2012. <http://www.outer-space-artgallery.com/images/bonestell2.jpg>. This is an illustration from 'The Conquest of Space', an influential book in the 1950s that increased awareness for the burgeoning space movement. I included it in a gallery of pictures from the book in the section 'Space in America' because it gives readers an idea of what was actually in the book, and may help them to understand what space was imagined to be back then.

De Montaut, Henri. Illustration from 'From the Earth to the Moon' Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 23 Dec. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File: %27From_the_Earth_to_the_Moon%27_by_Henri_de_Montaut_39.jpg>. This is an illustration from the 1868 edition of 'From the Earth to the Moon' by Jules Verne. I included it within my page on science fiction and space because Jules Verne's novels were hugely influential on the minds of future scientists and engineers.

[Earth rising above lunar horizon]. 16-24 July 1969. NASA Images/Internet Archive, San Francisco. JPEG file. I used this as my slides background. It is a photograph taken from the Apollo 11 spacecraft- the historic first manned flight to the moon. From NASA Images: The lunar terrain pictured is in the area of Smyths Sea on the nearside.

Eisenhower Making a Face. Digital image. AllPosters. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. <http://imgc.allpostersimages.com/images/P-473-488-90/37/3798/CVJIF00Z/posters/uspres-dwight-d-eisenhower-holding-a-press-conference.jpg>. This is a photograph of President Dwight Eisenhower at a press conference looking quite annoyed. I used the image as the link to my page on new legislation following Sputnik.

Front Cover of 'The Conquest of Space' Digital image. Comic Book Stories. Web. 24 Dec. 2012. <http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_PBO1yT5EYg/TBA6700YfMI/AAAAAAAAHk/Y0rfqvlgV94/s160 0/01_conquest_cover.jpg>. This is a cover of the book 'The Conquest of Space'. The book was a factor in increasing awareness and interest in space, and made space exploration appear to be a goal that could be achieved in the near future.

Front Page of New York Times. Digital image. American Literature Since 1865. Stephen Railton. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. <http://people.virginia.edu/~sfr/enam312/1957nytb.jpg>. This is a photograph of the New York Times' front page on October 5, 1957, the day after Sputnik was launched. It shows how the national press/media sensationalized the event and is important to understanding how and why fear grew in America after Sputnik.

Hermann Oberth and German Rocket Societies. Digital image. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Web. 19 Dec. 2012. <http://airandspace.si.edu/webimages/640/SI%20A5347_640.jpg>. This is an excellent photograph of Hermann Oberth (in white jacket with rocket) standing with a German rocket society. I used it on my page detailing the history of rocketry because it provides a good idea of what the rockets being created during this time were like, but also because Wernher von Braun can be seen in the background and provides an interesting connection between two sections of my website.

Ice Drilling Rig on Ross Ice Shelf. Digital image. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. <http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/research/audiovisual/images/igy/75_92_33.jpg>. This is a photograph of an ice-drilling rig on an ice shelf in Antarctica. I used this image in the section about the IGY to give readers an idea of what was done during the IGY.

Ike Signs NASA into Law. Digital image. Wired. Cond Nast. Web. 5 Jan. 2013. <http://www.wired.com/images/article/full/2008/07/072908_dayintechNASAike_630px.j pg>. This photograph of President Eisenhower signing into law the National Aeronautics and Space Act on July 29, 1958 was used as button linking readers to the page 'New Legislation' on my website.

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky with Pipe. Digital image. Russian Space Web. Anatoly Zak. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. <http://www.russianspaceweb.com/images/tsiolkovsky_pipe_2.jpg>. This is a photograph of rocket engineer Konstantin Tsiolkovsky holding a pipe to his ear. It was used as a link to a section on the history of rocket flight on my 'The World Prepares Landing Page'.

Launch Night Success. Digital image. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Web. 5 Jan. 2013.<http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/explorer/captions/images/conference-516.jpg>. This iconic photograph of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Director William Pickering, scientist James Van Allen and rocket pioneer Wernher von Braun hoisting a model Explorer 1 into the air on the night of its successful launching represents the beginning of America's journey into space. I used it on the page 'Explorer'.

Launch of Explorer. Digital image. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/explorer/captions/images/launch-516.jpg>.

This photograph of Explorer 1 lifting off from its launchpad on January 31, 1958 was used as a button linking readers to the page 'Explorer 1'.

Launch of V-2 rocket. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 19 Dec. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_141-1880,_Peenem %C3%BCnde,_Start_einer_V2.jpg>. This is a photograph of a V-2 rocket taken about four seconds after it was launched from Peenemnde in 1943. The successful launching of the V-2 rocket was a turning point in missile/rocket development, and it was developed by Wernher von Braun during WWII, which is why I included it on my page about the American and Soviet Union early space programs.

Mars and Beyond. Digital image. The Space Age Turns 50 - Ideas of Space Flight from the Early 20th Century. Bob Gardner. Web. 24 Dec. 2012. <http://faculty.etsu.edu/gardnerr/sputnik/Mars-and-beyond-city.jpg>. This is a still image taken from an episode of Walt Disney's 'Tomorrowland' series. The series greatly increased interest in space, and provided a medium through which Wernher von Braun was able to broadcast his ideas about space. I included it in my page 'Space in America' because 'Tomorrowland' was an extremely popular show that was about space and the future of space exploration.

NASA 'Meatball' Insignia. Digital image. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 5 Jan. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Nasa-logo.gif>. This is the official insignia of the the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The image was used within the page 'New Legislation'.

NASA. Wernher von Braun in his Office, 1960. Digital image. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Wernher_von_Braun_cro p.jpg/220px-Wernher_von_Braun_crop.jpg>. This is a photograph of Wernher von Braun, famed engineer and spokesman for the movement for space exploration in America. I used this image as part of a button on 'The World Prepares' that linked to a section on America's and the U.S.S.R's space programs.

Newspaper Headlines Regarding Sputnik. Digital image. The Writing Life. Web. 30 Dec. 2012. <http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-

XUCcTTrq7XY/Tht0QS_VmDI/AAAAAAAAEJY/POYeoLrssgI/s1600/sputnik.jpg>. This image shows several sensationalist newspaper headlines reacting to the launch of Sputnik. It was used as a button to direct readers to the page 'A Fearful America' because it signifies the fear and anxiety that took hold of the nation.

Nuclear Powered Station in Antarctica. Digital image. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 23 Dec. 2012. <http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/research/audiovisual/images/igy/75_92_30.jpg>. This is a photograph of a nuclear powered station in Antarctica that was built as part of the International Geophysical Year. I used this image in the section about the IGY to give readers an idea of what the IGY did.

Onlookers Watching Sputnik II. Digital image. Digital Forsyth. Institute of Museum and Library Services. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://www.digitalforsyth.org/jpg/uzz/dae/uzz_dae_05609.jpg>. In this photograph, people gaze and point in wonder at the sky as Sputnik II presumably flies overhead. I used this image as a link to 'An Indifferent America' because it shows Americans without the Sputnik Crisis-era fear that became common.

Political Cartoon with Sputnik. Digital image. Sputnik: The Fiftieth Anniversary. NASA. Web. 26 Dec. 2012. <http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4202/p11-188.jpg>. This cartoon shows Americans in a jet plane being completely shocked by Sputnik whizzing by. The jet plane represents the luxury and complacency into which America had settled. I used it to give an idea of how people were reacting to Sputnik on the 'A Fearful Nation' page.

Portrait of Hermann Oberth. Digital image. Technical University of Munich. Web. 22 Dec. 2012. <http://web.lrt.mw.tum.de/index.php?id=46&L=1&type=98>. This is a photograph of Hermann Oberth, a pioneer in the field of early rocket technology. I used this on my page about the history of rocketry and included it to give readers an image of the man about whom I was writing.

Portrait of Robert Goddard. Digital image. Civil Air Patrol. Civil Air Patrol National Headquarters. Web. 22 Dec. 2012. <http://capmembers.com/media/cms/Goddard_05F8F75E2CA97.jpg>. This is a photo of Robert Goddard, a pioneer in rocket engineering and use. I used this

on my page about the history of rocketry and included it to give readers an image of the man about whom I was writing.

Portrait of Sergey Korolev. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 26 Dec. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sergey_Korolyov_140-190_for_collage.jpg>. This is a portrait of Soviet Chief Designer Sergey Korolev which I used in my page about the American and Soviet rocket programs in order to visually identify the man about whom I was writing.

Portrait of Tsiolkovsky. Digital image. Web. 21 Dec. 2012. <http://www.tinmoi.vn/nhung-tiendoan-ve-cong-nghe-tuong-lai-cua-cac-nha-khoa-hoc-trong-lich-su-101077086.html>. This photograph is of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the man who introduced the idea of rocket flight to the Soviet Union. I used this on my page about the history of rocketry and included it to give readers an image of the man about whom I was writing. Portrait of Wernher von Braun. Digital image. Euroscientist. Euroscience. Web. 27 Dec. 2012. <http://euroscientist.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/vonbraun.jpg>. This is a portrait of Wernher von Braun, the influential German engineer, which I used in my page 'The Space Programs of the Two Superpowers' in order to visually identify the man about whom I was writing.

R-7 Rocket Carrying Sputnik Lifts Off. Digital image. The Times Looks Back: Sputnik. The New York Times. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/specials/sputnik/launch.1.jpg.html>. This is a still taken from a 1967 Soviet documentary depicting the rocket, carrying Sputnik, lifting off from its launching pad. I used this image as the header of 'The Race Begins' page because it's depicting exactly what that page is about the launch.

Robert Goddard with Rocket. Digital image. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Web. 22 Dec. 2012. <http://airandspace.si.edu/webimages/640/84-8949_640.jpg>. This is a photograph of Robert Goddard standing in front of an A-series rocket by his Roswell, New Mexico workshop in the mid-1930s. I used it on my page detailing the history of rocketry because it provides a good idea of what the rockets being created during this time were like. Sergei Korolev with Dog. Digital image. About. IAC/InterActiveCorp. Web. 21 Dec. 2012. <http://0.tqn.com/d/space/1/0/J/4/1/GPN-2002-000163.jpg>.

This is a photograph of Sergei Korolev with a dog. I used it as part of a button on 'The World Prepares' page to link to a section on the United States' and Soviet Union's space programs.

Sputnik: Traveling Companion. NASA Images/Internet Archive, San Francisco. JPEG file. This is a photograph of Sputnik 1. Launched by the Soviet Union on October 4th, 1957, it was a 187-pound artificial moon that acted only as a beeping transmitter. I used this image in the banner of my home page.

Sputnik 1, Exploded View. Digital image. Sputnik: The Fiftieth Anniversary. NASA. Web. 25 Dec. 2012. <http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/sputnik1-explodedview.jpg>. This is an informational photograph of Sputnik, taken apart to show its various bits and pieces. I included it in 'The Race Begins' because it provides an interesting and informative view of the satellite.

Technician Handling Sputnik. Digital image. MediaPort. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://www.mediaport.ua/images/138263_700.jpg>. This photograph shows a technician or engineer's image being clearly reflected back to him. When Sputnik was being built, Chief Designer Sergey Korelev had clearly stated that he wanted the finished satellite to be highly polished, in order to increase its visibility from the ground.

Technician with Sputnik. Digital image. Russia and India Report. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Web. 23 Dec. 2012. <http://indrus.in/assets/images/2011-04/TASS_Sputnik.jpg>. This photograph is of a Russian technician working on Sputnik. It was used on the 'The Race Begins' page, as it provides a very good view of Sputnik itself, and also gives some indication as to its size.

Trikosko, Marion S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower Standing at a Table at the White House, during a News Conference at the White House, Washington, D.C. 1957. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Library of Congress Digital Collection. Library of Congress. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2012646646/>. This is a photograph of President Eisenhower standing at the October 9, 1957, news conference. At the conference, he was asked various questions about the launching of SPutnik and his reaction to it. Eisenhower's answers gave the impression that he was very out of touch with the rest of the nation's mood and led to criticism of his administration. The photograph was used in my 'Political Responses' page.

Trip to the Moon. Digital image. Circle Cinema. The Circle Cinema Foundation. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://www.circlecinema.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/trip-to-themoon.jpg>. This is the iconic image from George Melis's film 'A Trip to the Moon'. I used this image as a button linking to a section on science fiction and space, as it is a classic representation of science fiction in popular culture an important factor in introducing the public to space exploration.

Vanguard Explodes. Digital image. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/Vanguard_rocket_exlodes.jpg>. This is a photograph of Vanguard exploding on the launching, to the shame and embarrassment of the United States. It was used in the page 'Vanguard Fails'.

Vanguard Pre-Launch. Digital image. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Vanguard_rocket_vanguard1_sa tellite.jpg>. This is a photograph of the rocket Vanguard with satellite Vanguard 1 before its launch on December 6, 1957. I used the image on the 'Vanguard Fails' page because I wanted the reader to see both the pre- and post-failure images.

Von Braun's Space Station. Digital image. The Space Age Turns 50 - Ideas of Space Flight from the Early 20th Century. Bob Gardner. Web. 24 Dec. 2012. <http://faculty.etsu.edu/gardnerr/sputnik/von-braun-station.jpg>. This is a still image of Wernher von Braun's idea for a wheel-shaped space station, taken from an episode of Walt Disney's 'Tomorrowland' series. The series greatly increased interest in space, and provided a medium through which Wernher von Braun was able to broadcast his ideas about space. I included it in my page 'Space in America' because 'Tomorrowland' was an extremely popular show about space and the future of space exploration.

VIDEO BIBLIOGRAPHY
Satellite A Bust. Rocket Blows Up In First U.S Try. Perf. Ed Herlihy. Universal Newsreels, 1957. Internet Archive. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.org/details/1957-12-

09_Satellite_A_Bust>. This excellent primary source is a newsreel distributed following Vanguard's failure in 1957. Viewed in full, the film contains footage of the launch that was valuable for me, as it helped me to understand what happened and went wrong. The 45-second clip on the website contains Ed Herlihy's informative narration.

Videocassette. YouTube. 26 June 2011. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=ZvnKfgDANKY>. I used a still image from this video as a banner for the page 'Vanguard Fails'. The still image is of Vanguard bursting into flames and provides an eye-catching banner for the page.