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Anthropology study of all things human Physical human biology within framework of evolution Cultural human behavior and

and culture Linguistic human speech and language Archaeology study of human materials remains Culture All aspects of human adaptation Species organisms that can reproduce with each other Biocultural evolution interactive evolution of human biology and culture Evolution change in genetic structure from one generation to the next Scientific method hypothesis then collection of data to prove or disprove Society a group of people who share common culture Enculturation process in which culture is instilled in people Adaptation response of organism to environment Enlightenment 18th century philosophical movement Ethnographies detailed studies of human society Paleoanthropology study of early hominins through fossil remains Hominin group that includes modern humans and extinct bipedal relatives Anthropometry measurement of human body parts Genetics study of gene structure Primates monkeys and shit Primatology study of primates Osteology study of skeletal material Paleopathology studies disease and injury of skeletal remains Forensic anthropology applied Anth dealing with legal matters Artifacts objects made by hominins Material culture physical representation of human culture Paleontologists study of plant and animal fossils Archeological record materials remains of human past and context of said remains Sites locations of past human activity Prehistory before written records Historical archeologists study past societies of which there are also written records Ethnoarchaeologists ethnographic methods to study modern people to understand the past Antiquarian relating to an interest in objects and texts of the past Stratigraphic soil and rock deposit levels, strata Archaeometry measuring archeological materials Public archeology archeology for the public good Science knowledge explained through observations and experimentation Empirical relying on experinment Data facts from which conclusions can be drawn Quantitatively measurements pertaining to quantity Hypothesis provisional explanation Scientific testing precise repetition of experiment Theories well supported explanation of natural phenomena ***Enthocentric culture bias resulting from having your own culture Natural selection genetic change that occurs due to reproductive success Fixity of species species dont change or evolve with time

Binomial nomenclature 2 name system for classifying life forms Taxonomy classification of life forms Catastrophism (diluvial theory) earths landscape is a result of violent cataclysmic events Uniformitarianism earth was shape by slow constant process still around today. Transmutation change of one species to another Reproductive success number of offspring individual produces and rears to reproductive age Selective pressures factors in the environment that influence reproductive success Fitness a measure of relative reproductive success (among species) DNA contains genetic code Genome entire genetic makeup of organism Biological continuity idea that organisms are related through common ancestry ***Biological determination inaccurate association of traits such as intelligence and skin color Eugenics philosophy of race improvement, controlling race relations Polytypic species composed of population that differ in the expression of one or more traits ***Polymorphisms loci with more than 1 allele (creates polytypic) Slash and burn agriculture cutting down large swathes of forest to farm Lactase persistence ability to drink milk beyond childhood Population genetics study in frequency of alleles, genotypes, etc. of one population Gene pool total complement of genes shared by the reproductive members of population Breeding Isolates geographic isolation of a population Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium math expressing predicted distribution of alleles in population Homeostasis balance within biological system Stress any factor that disrupts homeostasis Acclimatization physiological response to changes in environment Neural tube anatomical structure that develops to form the brain and spinal chord Spina Bifida arch of vertebrae fails to fuse and form protective barrier around spinal chord Vasodilatation expansion of blood vessels near surface of skin Vasoconstriction constriction of blood vessels near surface of skin Hypoxia lack of oxygen Vectors Agents that transmit disease Endemic continuously present in a population (disease) Zoonotic disease thats transmitted from animal to human Pathogens any agents that infect a host and cause disease Pandemic infectious disease epidemic that spreads rapidly through a large region Virulence measure of severity of infectious disease Creation Myths myths that explained how we got here Age of Exploration 1400s to late 1600s. Europe began exploring the world. "Thunderbolts" or "Elf Arrows" stone arrowheads left in the ground from earlier humans 1453 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Empire. Flee west with lost knowledge 1537-Papal Bull forbid enslavement of native Americans, 10th lost tribe of Israel 1593 - Archbishop Ussher deduces beginning of the world to be 4004 BC 4004 BC supposed begin of the world (Archbishop Ussher) Static earth In situ artifact that has not been moved from original position Context where and how something was found at a site Voyage of the HMS Beagle 1831

Origin of Species 1859 Dynamic world Human Paleontology studying human fossil remains Boucher de Perthes first real archeologist. Keep detailed diaries. John Ray created genus and species classifications Carlos Linnaeaus standardized john rays work and added class and order to basic taxonomy Jean-Baptist Lamarck Use-disuse theory. Similar to natural selection but genetically incorrect. ***Georges Cuvier championed catastrophism and fixity of species. Thomas Malthus wrote paper and population growth and inherent competition. Directly inspired Darwin and Wallace. ***Charles Lyell theory of uniformitarianism Charles Darwin wrote origin of species, popularized natural selection Alfred Wallace independently also developed natural selection