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# 1

Array
Two-element array, N-element linear array, phased
array, uniform spacing and amplitude, non-uniform
amplitude, planar array.
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Introduction
Sometimes a single radiator does not achieve
the desired radiation properties gain,
directivity, radiation pattern.
A combination of the same radiator arranged
and excited in an orderly manner may
achieve the radiation properties.
The individual radiator in an array is usually
the same, but not necessarily so.
The spacing between the radiator is also
uniform, but again not necessarily so.
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Two element dipole array
Lets start by looking at two half-wave
dipole placed together
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From Antenna Basics slides:
Dipole pattern slide no 68
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Two element (dipole) array
Consider two half-wave dipole
the power are the same but there
is a phase shift of o between
elements
We may write the electric field as
( )
( )
1
1
0
0
1
0
,
,
R
e e
F E E
R
e
F E E
R j j
m
R j
m
| o
|
| u
| u

=
=
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The electric field of the two element array is the sum of both the
individual electric field, hence,
( )
(

+ = + =

1 0
1 0
1 0
,
R
e e
R
e
F E E E E
R j j R j
m
| o |
| u
| cos
0 1
d R R ~
We may
approximate the
magnitudes as
the same
we replace the
phase changes with
this approximation
( )
| |
( )
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ =

2
cos 2
,
1
,
2
0
cos
0
0
0
| u
| u

|
| | o |
j
R j
m
d j j R j
m
e e
R
F
E E
e e e
R
F
E E
o | | + = cos d
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( )
| |
( )
| |
( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
=
(

+ =
+ =
+ =

2
cos 2
,
,
1
,
1
,
2
0
2 2 2
0
0
cos
0
0
0
0
0
| u
| u
| u
| u

|

|
|
| | o |
j
R j
m
j j j
R j
m
j R j
m
d j j R j
m
e e
R
F
E E
e e e e
R
F
E E
e e
R
F
E E
e e e
R
F
E E
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( )
2
cos ,
2
0

| u F
R
E
E
m
=
This is the magnitude of the electric field of the array
Called as the
array factor
Called as the
element factor
The pattern function of an array of identical elements is
described by the product of the element factor and the
array factor. This is called the principle of pattern
multiplication
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Array Theory
Now lets look deeper into the properties
of array
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What is an array?
A collection of radiating elements (say half wave
dipole) arranged in a linear or planar fashion where
the feeds to all the elements are combined into one.
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Increased directivity
Single element usually have very broad radiation
pattern energy radiated into a very large solid
angle in other words its directivity will be low.
P
a
r
a
b
o
l
i
c

d
i
s
h

H
o
r
n

M
i
c
r
o
s
t
r
i
p

H
a
l
f

w
a
v
e

d
i
p
o
l
e

S
l
o
t

Generally more directive
Parabolic dish is a different class of
antenna, where the idea is to use the
parabolic reflector to focus radiation.
Horn antenna can have very high
directivity if the size is large
The larger the electrical dimension, the
larger the directivity
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Radiation pattern control
Some application requires
specialised radiation pattern
very narrow beam low
sidelobes nulls at certain
locations shaped main
beam
The normal radiation
pattern is called pencil
beam
These specialised pattern
can only be generated with
an array

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Characteristics of an array
There are 5 independent controls that can be used to set up an array
2
d
4 4
o Z a
2 2
o Z a
3 3
o Z a
1 1
o Z a
1
d
3
d
3. Spacing between the
array elements
1. Number of elements
2. Radiation characteristic of each element
4. Excitation amplitude
(or magnitude)
5. Excitation phase
Phase shifter
Attenuator/amplifier
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1. Number of elements, N
An illustrative example of an array
N = 1 N = 2
N = 4 N = 5 N = 20
N = 3
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Effect of elements number, N
With all other parameter constant, the larger
the number of elements
a. the narrower the beamwidth
b. higher the directivity
c. in a shaped beam, the easier the pattern
control
d. increased difficulty in construction of array
signal distribution network (feed line)
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2. Radiation characteristic of each element
An array is a group of individual radiating elements.
Each element will have its own radiation pattern (dipole, horn,
slot ).
For each type of element, different orientation will give different
element radiation pattern.
Typical array is constructed by using the same radiating element
in the same orientation throughout the array.
There is not a single array antenna with 2 (or more) types of
element in commercial use [to the best knowledge of this author].
For an array of identical radiating elements, aligned in the same
orientation, the radiation pattern of the element and the pattern of
the array can be separated.
The relationship between the element pattern and array pattern
is governed by the pattern multiplication theorem
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Element radiation pattern
Pattern multiplication theorem for any array
Array Radiation
Pattern
Array pattern Element pattern
The complete
radiation pattern of
the array antenna
The radiation
pattern of the
array if the
elements are
isotropic radiator
Radiation pattern
due to a single
element
It is possible to sketch, almost by inspection, the pattern of an array
by pattern multiplication theorem, given that the orientation of each
element is the same.
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3. Spacing between array elements, d
Typically, spacing between elements is uniform, with a
nominal value of between /2 to .
Lesser spacing (< /2), results in overcrowded array.
Larger spacing (> ), results in grating lobes.
Generally, the larger the spacing, the more the
sidelobes, and the narrower the main beam.
d = /4 d = 3/2 d = /2 d =
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Optimum spacing
Is there any optimum spacing?
When each element occupies an area equal to the
effective aperture, the total directivity of the pattern is
maximum.

Larger area results in multiple lobes
Lower area results in lower directivity
t

4
2
D
A
e
=
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4. Excitation amplitude
Amplitude or power radiated by each element in an array can
be varied.
Generally amplitude variation affects the shape of the main
lobe, and the shape and level of the sidelobes.
Typical amplitude distribution follows certain known
distribution, such as uniform, binomial, Chebyshev, Taylor
and cosine.
Uniform Chebyshev Taylor
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5. Excitation phase
Each element in an array can be fed at different phase.
Generally phase variation affects the direction of the main
beam.
It also affects to a lesser degree the shape of the main lobe,
and the shape and level of the sidelobes.
Equal phase 20
0
progressive shift 60
0
progressive shift
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General Array
Lets derive the array factor for a N
number of element general case
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To derive the expression for the array pattern (also known as array
factor) we neglect the effect of element pattern first.
Assume that the spacing is uniform

d d d d d
N
= = = = =
1 3 2 1
....
For all array
Assume that the type of radiating element and its orientation is
identical throughout the array
d
d
z
u
u cos d
2 2
o Z a
3 3
o Z a
1 1
o Z a
N N
a o Z
..
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( )
( ) ( ) ( )
N
d N j
N
d j
d j j
e a e a
e a e a AF
o u | o u |
o u | o
+ +
+
+ + +
+ =
cos 1 cos 2
3
cos
2 1
...
3
2 1
This is the general array factor for any number of element (N), with any
amplitude and phase distribution, any uniform spacing (d), but with the
same element and identical orientation.
( ) ( ) ( )( ) o u | o u | o u | + + +
+ + + + =
cos 1 cos 2 cos
... 1
d N j d j d j
e e e AF
Lets simplify the expression with the following assumptions:
1. All elements have equal excitation amplitude or power

2. The phase difference between elements is progressive (not random)
with the first element 0
0
and subsequent element shift by o
0
.
1 ...
3 2 1
= = = = =
N
a a a a
( )o o o o o o o 1 ; 2 ; ; 0
3 2
0
1
= = = = N
N
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( ) 1 2
... 1

+ + + + =
N j j j
e e e AF
o u | + = cos d
More conveniently,
with
Which can be written as,

j
jN
e
e
AF

=
1
1
( )
( )
| |
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) | |
( )

j
jN N j j j j j j
j
j
N j j j
N j j j
e
e e e e e e e AF
e
e
e e e AF
e e e AF

+ + + + =

+ + + + =
+ + + + =

1
1
... 1
1
1
... 1
... 1
1 3 2 2
1 2
1 2
Finally, simplified to:
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Further simplification yields,
( )
( )
( ) 2 / sin
2 / sin
2 / 1
2 / 2 /
2 / 2 /
2 /
2 /

N
e
e e
e e
e
e
AF
N j
j j
jN jN
j
jN

=
This phase
factor would not
be present if the
array is centered
about origin.
Thus, Array Factor is given by,
( )
( )
o u |

+ = = cos ,
2 / sin
2 / sin
d
N
AF
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Examples
Time to look at the examples
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Example: Two element array
Short
dipoles
2 / = d
Element
pattern
( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
= =
(

= u
t
u t
u t
u |
u |
cos
2
cos 2
2
cos
sin
cos sin
4
cos
sin
2
cos
sin
AF
u sin
z
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Pattern multiplication theorem
YZ and ZX
plane patterns
Also E-planes
How is the
XY plane
pattern? Or
H-plane
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Example: Two element array
Short
dipoles
2 / = d
Element
pattern
|
.
|

\
|
== u
t
cos
2
cos 2 AF
u sin cos or
z
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ZX plane pattern
or E-plane
ZY plane pattern
or H-plane
How is the XY
plane pattern?
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Uniform array
When the elements are fed with equal
powers, the resulting array is called
uniform array.
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Characteristic of uniform array
Amplitude is constant, phase can have progressive
changes but the same.
Has highest efficiency.
Peak sidelobe level is 13.2dB and decreases
towards end fire.
For a fixed number of elements has narrowest
beamwidth and highest directivity.
Feed distribution network is relatively easy to
design.
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0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
Example of uniform array
An example of 10 element array is shown below:
The array amplitude and phase are equal
Centre of beam is at 90
o
.

Spacing set at half wavelength
First sidelobe is as expected ~ 13.3dB
The rest of sidelobes gradually reduces
Higher spacing results in grating lobes
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Half power beamwidth
Half power beamwidth of a uniform array can be
estimated as:

This estimation is correct for a broadside array. For
array with scan angle, the expression do not hold.
Generally, increased scan angle will result in wider
beamwidth.
Nd
HPBW

0
76 . 50 =
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Grating lobes
|
.
|

\
|
=

1 cos
1
d
gr

u
Arrays vary the progressive phase to scan the
beam. When the array spacing is greater than /2,
the appearance of secondary beam peaks (grating
lobes) limit the scan angle.
The grating lobe attains full amplitude when:

The lobe does not appear suddenly, but it grows
as the progressive phase shift or spacing
increases
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Broadside array
For a broadside array; maximum radiation
directed towards normal of axis of array, or u=90
o
( )
0
0 90 cos
=
= + = +
o
o |d
Thus to have broadside radiation, all elements
must have the same phase excitation.
d d
z
u
2 2
o Z a
3 3
o Z a
1 1
o Z a
N N
a o Z

..
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End-fire array
For a end-fire array; maximum radiation directed
towards tangent of axis of array, or u=0
o
or
u=180
o
( )
d
d
| o
o |
=
= + = + 0 0 cos
Thus to have end-fire radiation, all elements must
have the progressive phase excitation.
( )
d
d
| o
o t |
=
= + = + 0 cos
d d
z
u
2 2
o Z a
3 3
o Z a
1 1
o Z a
N N
a o Z

..
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Uniform array summary
1. AF has maximum value of N; Thus, the normalised AF is obtained
by dividing AF by N.
2. AF maximum occurs when

3. AF has nulls (or zeros) when AF = 0, or

4. A broadside array has its maximum radiation directed normal to
the axis of the array, that is

5. An end-fire array has its maximum radiation directed along the
axis of the array that is

d
or
|
o
u = = cos 0
,... 3 , 2 , 1 ,
2
= = k k
N
t

0 90 , 0
0
= = = o u so
d so | o t u = = = , 0 , 0
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Non-uniform array
advanced concepts*

When the power is non-uniform, many
types of pattern may be designed. A few
methods systematically helps us to
design these array.
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N-element linear array

Uniform spacing, non-uniform amplitude
( )( )

=
+
=
N
n
d n j
n
e a AF
1
cos 1 o u |
a
n
is the excitation coefficient of the n
th
element
Using different
values of a
n
,
including complex
values, we can
form any desired
radiation pattern.
When a
n
is real, we can form;
i. Binomial array
ii. Dolph-Chebyshev array
iii. Taylor array
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Binomial array
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Excitation coefficient
( )
( ) 1
1

+
m
x
To determine the excitation coefficients of binomial array, use
this following function, and write in series.
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )( )
...
! 3
3 2 1
! 2
2 1
1 1 1
3
2
1
+

+

+ + = +

x
m m m
x
m m
x m x
m
The series expansion will be:
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Pascals triangle

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

3

3

1

1

4

6

4

1

1

5

10

10

5

1

Otherwise the a
n

can assume the
coefficient of
expansion of the
Pascals triangle.
Its the same as
the series
expansion.
Note that the
phase of a
n
is the
same.
Pascals triangle
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Characteristics of binomial array
Binomial array do not exhibit any minor lobe
provided the spacing between the elements is <
one-half wavelength.
For a given number of elements, the beamwidth is
largest.
The ratio between the highest and lowest amplitude
of excitation is very large for 6 elements it is 10.
It would be difficult to obtain such high ratio of
amplitude variation in feed network.
This lead to very inefficient antennas.
Mutual coupling between elements is also high.
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0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
-300
-250
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
-300
-250
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
Example of Binomial array
Based on the PASCAL triangle the binomial coefficient for 10
element array are given as:
1, 9, 36, 84, 126, 126, 84, 36, 9, 1
Set the array coefficient or amplitude to the values above.
Set the phase to zero
Set spacing half wavelength
Plot the array factor.
d>0.5
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Dolph Chebyshev array
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Example of Chebyshev array
Chebyshev array excitation for sidelobe suppression of 20dB is given
as follows:

a1=0.6416;
a2=0.5944;
a3=0.7780;
a4=0.9214;
a5=1;
a6=1;
a7=0.9214;
a8=0.7780;
a9=0.5944;
a10=0.6416;

Plot of the array factor for the above case is shown.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
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Characteristics of Dolph-Chebyshev
array
Sidelobe can be designed to any value.
On either extreme reduces to uniform or binomial
array.
Sidelobes are constant throughout the array, even
at end fire.
End fire radiation can be reduced by choosing a
element pattern with null at end fire.
For all side lobe to be less than a given value, the
following spacing requirement must be met.
|
|
.
|

\
|
s

o
z
d
1
cos
1
max
t

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Taylor array
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Characteristics
Taylor design yields a pattern that is optimum
compromise between beamwidth and side
lobe level.
The sidelobes decay as the distance from
centre increases
The beamwidth is slightly larger than Dolph
Chebyshev, for a given sidelobe

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Example of Taylor array
Taylor array excitation for sidelobe suppression of 20dB is given as
follows:

a1=0.5296;
a2=0.6195;
a3=0.7648;
a4=0.9102;
a5=1;
a6=1;
a7=0.9102;
a8=0.7648;
a9=0.6195;
a10=0.6296;

Plot of the array factor shown above.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
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Other distributions
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Triangular

L
HPBW
o
4 . 73
=

L
FNBW
o
2 . 229
=
Amplitude distribution
First sidelobe level is -26.4dB
(

|
.
|

\
|

L
2 75 . 0
Directivity (if L large)
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Cosine

L
HPBW
o
8 . 68
=

L
FNBW
o
9 . 171
=
Amplitude distribution
First sidelobe level is -23.2dB
(

|
.
|

\
|

L
2 810 . 0
Directivity (if L large)
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Cosine-Squared

L
HPBW
o
2 . 83
=

L
FNBW
o
2 . 229
=
Amplitude distribution
First sidelobe level is -31.5dB
(

|
.
|

\
|

L
2 667 . 0
Directivity (if L large)
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Shaped beam array
More advanced concepts on array
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Shaped beam synthesis
When a
n
of array factor is a real value, the resultant
radiation pattern is a narrow beam with low
sidelobe named as pencil beam.
However, some cases require the beam to be wide,
and even shaped as certain function.
Such beam are possible when a
n
is in complex
form.
Two methods of shaped beam synthesis are:
i. Woodward-Lawson synthesis
ii. Elliott synthesis using Shelkunof unit circle
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Woodward Lawson array
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Woodward-Lawson method
An assemblage of virtual array
that produces orthogonal sinc
beams.
Each constituent beam is formed from a virtual
linear array with constant amplitude and linear
phase.
( )
| | u N
u N
t
t
sin
sin
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Individual
beam spaced
apart by
nt/Nd
Resultant
beam
Desired
beam
Assemblage of sinc beams to form a
square beam
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Example of Woodward Lawson array
The amplitude for the 10 element is as given below (for a flat top
pattern). Plot of the array factor is shown.
0.07961
0.02090
0.1
0.17618
0.32433
0.32433
0.17618
0.1
0.02090
0.07961
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
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The END
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