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Quality Tools

Statistics is the body of scientific methods and practices for collection summarization analysis interpretation and presentation of data Control can be exercised effectively if statistical methods are used skillfully in all stages .

Quality tool : Any procedure or Indicator which helps to improve quality of any activity related to any process / product / services performance is considered as a quality tool . Example : Average time to wait for picking up the telephone by the receiver . : Average time required for explaining a new procedure to different sets of people .

KEY BENCHMARK AREAS


CRITICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND WORLD CLASS TOTAL QUALITY COMPANIES
PARAMETER 1 Rejects , errors as % of opportunities for error 2 Customer Promises Kept 3 Telephone Rings 4 Price of non-conformance as % of sales 5 Persons Contributing ideas 6 Average idea generated per person per year 7 Number of ideas implemented 8 Time budgeted for education training and process improvement 9 Absenteeism 10 Annual Employee Turn over TRADITIONAL 1- 2% 70 - 85 % 4-8 20 - 50 % 5 - 10 % 0.5 - 1.0 15 - 25 % 0-1% WORLD CLASS < 0.00034% > 99.9% <= 2 3 - 5% 95 - 100 % 30 - 100 85 - 95 % 10%

3-7% 5 - 40 %

1-2% < 2%

Development is the key for survival


Both planning and deployment are critical features of Development - the development of targets , the development of means to achieve targets and deployment of both are the main features of Development. Hoshin Kanri is a method devised to capture and concretize strategic goals as well as flashes of insight about the future and develop the means to bring these into reality . In short Hoshin Kanri is a developmental activity . Daily control , which can also be called as routine work activities , is used to maintain and control the current control level , where as policy deployment is used to improve the current control level .

The scope of Daily Management


The scope of daily management (DM) includes both the maintenance and incremental improvement of current process standards . Elements of this system includes the following : Process descriptions in terms of flow charts . QC Process charts , control points for process outcomes , and check points for process control parameters . Operation Standards Description of Roles , Responsibilities and Accountabilities . Data requirements ( type , collection method , frequency , reporting method and frequency ) Procedures for maintenance Procedure for corrective action when special causes occur Procedure for daily improvement Procedure for suggestion system Methods for intra-departmental and intra-process coordination Procedure for employee recognition .

Uses of Daily Management


Daily Management is used as the basis for Maintaining awareness of the current level of performance Determining breakthrough areas for Hoshin Kanri . Determining improvement priorities Planning - Annual , Midterm and Long range

Method to determine the areas for Hoshin Kanri .


As a result of daily improvement activities , a certain incremental rate of improvement , say 10% , is expected throughout the coming year on a given process . An analysis of customer needs by management determines that the process must be improved by 30% . This difference between 10% and 30% represents an area for breakthrough Improvement .
Performance
customer Needs from Management Analysis

Break through Area where a new method is required

Expected improvement from Daily Management current Future

Time

PDCA cycle to the SDCA cycle and vice versa .


The cycle of daily control can be called as SDCA cycle , that is , Standardization-DoCheck-Action . Critical / Chronic problems checked during the SDCA cycle in daily control are then taken up by policy deployment tasks , i.e. Hoshin Kanri . Hoshin Kanri use PDCA cycle for problem solving .
Breakthrough Improvements

A C

P D

Hoshin Kanri

YES

Standardization

Daily Management System Is Break


through Required ?

Critical /Chronic Problems

A C

S D

NO Incremental Improvement

The control steps are the movement from the PDCA cycle to the SDCA cycle and vice versa .

PDCA & SDCA CYCLE


Selection of the Theme Future Policy
10 1

Remaining Problems

Check result of action


9 17

Decide on purpose and Target


11

Reason for Selection

Decide on steps , method (Standardization) Act ( A) Plan (P) or Standardize (S) Implement (D)
13 12

16

Stability of Control

Take Action

16

Study of Current Status

Check (C) Check


15

Analysis

Education , Training

14

Prevention / Standardization

Implementation

Planning of Measures and Implementation

Confirmation of effect

5a

Implementation

Mutual movement of control ( Daily control ) and Improvement ( Hoshin Kanri ) Activity

Outer Circle : Cycle of Hoshin Kanri Policy Deployment ( PDCA)

Inner Circle : Daily control Cycle ( SDCA)

Identification of Control Items : The basic requirement


Some companies have discontinued use of control graphs and control charts because control items are useless . A negative attitude about control items will ensure that they end up as FireCracker duds . It is important to build Live control items . Then a set number of control items , and thus a control system , can be established .

No of Control Items

Excitement Period

Dull Period

Maturing Period Established Control System

End of top management's Fire Fighting Control Items Time

Five elements of customer satisfaction


Quality Product Design Conformance Service

Elements of customer satisfaction

Assurance of Quality

Cost

Cost Effective Price Effective Right Place Right Time Right Amount Right Material In use In production Everyone Cares

Delivery

Full Customer Satisfaction

Safety Morale

Potential Areas for development of methods Control Items

Control chart From various view points , the control chart can be said to be the central statistical tool for control . Put plainly , it is no exaggeration to say that quality control begins and ends with control chart . The main area of application of control charts are : 1) For 2) For 3) For 4) For 5) For control analysis graphs adjustments inspection

While control charts may be used for all of the above purposes , their essential role is still process control , followed by process analysis . Analysis could also be viewed as a preparatory stage in which control charts useful for process control are prepared .

Using control charts for analysis Control chart for analysis can be considered under the following two headings : 1) Those used for analysis for discovering and eliminating the causes of variation ; and , 2) Those used for analysis for estimating the process capability in preparation for controlling those processes in the future .

Steps for formulation of a control Chart 1) Sub-grouping 2) Stratification 3) Control Limit Calculation 4) Control Chart implementation and is mainly consists of charts prepared with the aim of discovering and eliminating the causes of variation by devising various ways of sub-grouping , stratifying and modifying data and testing whether a process is out of control .

Control limits are highly dependent on Sample size


Average Denier with sample size 25
1.02 1.01 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94

Denie

1-1

1-3

1-5

1-7

2-1

2-3

2-5

2-7

3-1

3-3

3-5

3-7

4-1

4-3

4-5

4-7

5-1

5-3

5-5

5-7

6-1

6-3

6-5
6-5
6-5

Average Denier with sample size 50


1.02 1.01 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94

1-1

1-3

1-5

1-7

2-1

2-3

2-5

2-7

3-1

3-3

3-5

3-7

4-1

4-3

4-5

4-7

5-1

5-3

5-5

5-7

6-1

6-3

Average Denier with sample size 200


1.02 1.01 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94

1-1

1-3

1-5

1-7

2-1

2-3

2-5

2-7

3-1

3-3

3-5

3-7

4-1

4-3

4-5

4-7

5-1

5-3

5-5

5-7

6-1

6-3

6-7

6-7

6-7

SPECIAL CAUSES/ ASSIGNABLE CAUSES/ FINDABLE CAUSES


Control charts are useful for tracking process statistics, like average, range, standard deviations etc. over time and detecting the presence of special causes, if any. A special cause results in variation that can be detected and controlled. Examples of special causes include supply like PTA 1 or 2 , ageing , or day of the week differences.

COMMON CAUSES/ CHANCE CAUSES


There are many causes:

Each contributes a little: Very difficult to identify: Very difficult to eliminate. Common cause variation, is that variation which is inherent in the process. A process is in statistical control when only common causes , and no special cause exists .

TWO TYPES OF CONTROL CHARTS


Variables control charts, described here, are statistics from measurement data, such as length or pressure. Attribute control charts plot count data, such as the number of defects or defective units.

Upper Control Limit

Observations

Structure of A control chart:

Central Line

Lower Control Limit

Sample/time-->

10

UCL, CL, LCL


A process statistic, such as a subgroup mean, individual observation, or weighted statistic, is plotted versus sample number or time.

A center line is drawn at the average of the statistic being plotted for the time being charted.

Two other lines the upper and lower control limits are drawn, by default, 3 above and below the center line.

PROCESS IN CONTROL
A process is in control when most of the points fall within the bounds of the control limits, and the points do not display any nonrandom patterns. The tests for special causes in control charts will detect nonrandom patterns in your data. Once a process is in control, control charts can be used to estimate process parameters needed to determine capability.

Selection of control chart type


Determine data type
Is data Measured or Counted ?
Measured data Variable data type YES

Counted data ( Attribute data type)

Are you Counting defects or Defective units ?

Counting Defects Poisson Data

Is Sample size Constant ? NO

Counting Defectives Binomial Data


Is Sample size Constant ? YES NO

YES
Use c chart or u chart

Use X and MR chart

Is sample Size = 1 ?

Use u chart

Is sample Size > 10 ?


NO YES

Use np or p chart

Use p chart

Use X-bar and R chart

Use X-bar and S chart

This system to be strictly followed for sample size less than 31. For sample size more than 100 , and fraction defective very low ( < .5%) , normal distribution assumption can be made .

Interpretation of Control Chart


106 104 102 100 98 96 94 92

Control Chart Zones


Afreak is a single point that is indicating an out of control situation . It signifies that something changed dramatically in the process for a short time or that a mistake was made

Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone

A B C C B A

+3 +2 +1 -1 -2 -3

UCL
X X X

X X X X X

LCL
** If 4 out of 5 consecutive points are in zone B or beyond on the same side of the centre line , a freak pattern is formed ** If 2 out of 3 consecutive points are in zone A or beyond on the same side of the centre line , a freak pattern is formed

1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34

Interpretation of Control Chart


106 104 102 100 98 96 94 92
** If 7 consecutive points are steadily increase or steadily decrease indicate a run . ** If 10 out of 11 points that steadily increase or steadily decrease form a run . ** A long fluctuation pattern that is steadily increasing or steadily decreasing is a trend .

A chart that shows a pattern of points that are steadily climbing or steadily falling is called a run . An increasing / decreasing trend would be a sequence of points that are indicating a run , including the process fluctuations , This means that in between some values can be in the different direction .

Control Chart - Trends


A B C C B A
X X X X X X X

Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone

+3 +2 +1 -1 -2 -3

X X

UCL
X X X

X X X X X

LCL

1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34

Interpretation of Control Chart


106 104 102 100 98 96 94 92

Control Chart - Cycles


Cycles on a control chart are patterns that repeat on a regular basis . They signal that something is systematically affecting the process .

Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone

A B C C B A

+3 +2 +1 -1 -2 -3

UCL

LCL

1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34

Interpretation of Control Chart


106 104 102 100 98 96 94 92
XXXXXX

Control Chart - Grouping


Grouping or bunching , occurs when the points on a chart occurs in clusters . Large fluctuations between clusters may qualify as one of the instability patterns ; freaks or freak patterns .

Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone

A B C C B A

XXXXXX XXXXXX XXXXXX

+3 +2 +1 -1 -2 -3

UCL
XXXXXX

XXXXXX XXXXXX

LCL

1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34

Interpretation of Control Chart


106 104 102 100 98 96 94 92

Control Chart - Instability


An erratic pattern that has large fluctuations on a control chart is classified as instability or unstable mixture .

Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone

A B C C B A

+3 +2 +1 -1 -2 -3

UCL

LCL
** More than one third of the points are in zone B or beyond . ** More than 4% of the points are in zone A or beyond . ** The chart has a steep zigzag pattern .

1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34

Interpretation of Control Chart


106 104 102 100 98 96 94 92

Control Chart - Stable Mixture


A mixture pattern that has erratic ups and downs similar to the instability pattern but has very few points in the middle of the chart is a stable mixture .

Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone

A B C C B A

+3 +2 +1 -1 -2 -3

UCL

LCL
This pattern usually indicates a mixing of two different stable distributions : one for the upper set of points and one for the lower set . ** 5 or more consecutive points outside the C zone (out side 1 limits ) on either side of the center line indicates a stable mixture pattern .

1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34

Interpretation of Control Chart


106 104 102 100 98 96 94 92

Control Chart - Stratification


In stratification pattern , the points hug the Average Line in the Control Chart . There is a notable absence of points near the control limits .

Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone

A B C C B A

+3 +2 +1 -1 -2 -3

UCL

LCL
** If 14 or more consecutive points are all within the C zone (within 1 limits ) then the process indicates an stratification pattern on a control chart . To the untrained eye , stratification pattern seems to identify as a smoothly running process . Recalculation of the Control limits will bring the appearance of the control chart back to a normal one .

1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34

Control chart applications ?


There are occasions where people use control charts as graphs , means plotting data in the form of a control chart and not using them as such . Although control limits are drawn in , such charts are only gazed at , even when some points fall outside the limits ; the causes of abnormalities are not sought and no action is taken . Such charts are simply drawn mechanically under instructions from superiors , and many of the so called control charts prepared in factories where process analysis and standardisation are inadequate are of this type . They are control charts in form but not in substance , and should really be called graphs .

Control chart applications ?


However plotting the data in the form of a control chart does show the ways in which a process changes with time and can also have quite a good motivational effect . It is therefore not recommended to abolish these type of charts . If presenting data in the form of graphs produces good results , they should be widely used ; but it is not to be mistaken that these are control charts . Also , boredom inevitably sets in after this type of a chart has been used for some time and people begin to argue that control charts are useless .

Control chart applications ? For this reason , efforts should be made as soon as possible to start Analysing and standardising processes , Reviewing the characteristics to be plotted on control charts , Standardising authority , responsibility and methods related to Searching out assignable causes , and taking action for control purposes and actually using the charts for control .

Measures of quality
Actual out put Effectiveness = ------------------------------------------------------ X 100 per cent Expected output Efficiency Resources planned to be used = --------------------------------------------------------- X 100 per cent Resources actually used Expected output = ---------------------------------------------------------------------- X 100 percent Resources expected to be consumed Actual output = ---------------------------------------------- X 100 percent Resources actually consumed

Target Yield

Actual Yield

Measures of quality

Value Added People productivity Ratio = -------------------------------------------------------------------------Number of employees ( Employee costs )

Net profit before Tax Return on Value Added = ------------------------------------------------- X 100 per cent Value added

Measures of quality Unit cost


Cost of quality Quality

= cost of production per MT


= As percentage of Unit cost . = Pure 1st quality percentage

( 1 x % STD + 2 x % PQ + 3 x % SS + 6 x %C ) X Production (MT) Loss due to down gradation = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------(Rs Lacs ) 10000 Rate of investment in Research & Development Amount of investment in R & D in a given period = -----------------------------------------------------------------Net sales amount in a given period .

Measures of quality Deliveries Percentage of on-time shipments Predictability of delivery dates Response time to demand changes Response to product or volume changes . Product substitutability Product options or variants

Measures of quality
Supplier certification NOI Number of suppliers certified = -------------------------------------------Total number of suppliers Volume of material received from certified suppliers = ---------------------------------------------------------------------Total volume received

Supplier certification VOI

Supplier performance

Number of shipments received within specification = ----------------------------------------------------------------------Total number of supplies received Number of vendor deliveries received early / late / on time = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Total number of vendor deliveries

Schedule stability

Effective supplier service Continuity of supply Supplier knowledge and competence

Measures of quality
Cost of purchased goods vs... standard costs . Administrative cost of the purchasing department as a percentage of total purchase . Inventory turn over ratios . Percentage of on time orders . Average delay on delinquent orders . Average out of stock situation of running items . Average time for procurement .

Performance measures for world class manufacture Quality :


SPC_ NOI Number of plant measurable processes under statistical process control = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total number of plant measurable processes Cpk _NO Number of parameters under Cpk evaluation = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total number of parameters monitored

No. of parameters with Cpk > 2.0 Cpk_RATIO = ------------------------------------------------------------------Number of parameters under Cpk evaluation Number of orders delivered on time and complete for the period Schedule maintenance = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Number of orders delivered for the period .

Performance measures for world class manufacture =

Program stability

Average number of times the production program changes occurred in a month

Cut length change Frequency = Average number of hours one cut length runs on one cutter . MT of Fibre on hand in warehouse ------------------------------------------------------Average daily production (MT)

Material days in hand

Time to order and receive materials plus production time Production delivery ratio = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Time from customer order until goods received Number different materials used = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Number of different finished products made

Materials flexibility

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION PLOT FOR DIFFERENT SIGMA VALUES


0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0
-9.8 -4.3 -1.5 -7 4 9.5 15 26 1.25 6.75 12.3 17.8 20.5 23.3 28.8 31.5 34.3 37 VARIABLE 39.8 -40 -37 -35 -32 -29 -26 -24 -21 -18 -15 -13

FREQUENCIES

SIGMA=1 SIGMA=3 SIGMA=5 SIGMA=10

t - Test
When do we apply the t test : This test is generally used for comparing to averages When the standard deviation of the population is not known . In other words we can Say that it is applied to test two sample averages .

TESTING BASICS
A hypothesis is an assumption confronted with a contradictory one . For any test we need to have 2 hypotheses . Null Hypothesis ( H0 ) : The assumption to be tested is called the Null Hypothesis Alternative Hypothesis ( H1 ) : The assumption contradictory to the Null Hypothesis is called the Alternative Hypothesis . Examples : 1.0 Assumption Ho : Average 1.0 den Tenacity is equal to 6.3 gpd H1 : Average 1.0 den Tenacity is less than 6.3 gpd 2.0 Assumption Ho : Average Average H1 : Average Average CP6 CP6 CP6 CP6 1.0 den 1.0 den 1.0 den 1.0 den DM1 Dye% = DM2 Dye% DM1 Dye% = DM2 Dye%

t - Test
t Test Process setting Known sample size < = 30 sample size > 30 Process setting Not Known equal process variability paired value test

un-equal process variability try to make the variability equal

equal sample sizes (n)

different sample sizes( n1 and n2)

1.0 Process Setting Known

Test Statistic X - 0 t = ----------------------- where , X is the average of n observations s/n and s is the standard deviation of n observation
CRITICAL VALUE : This is the limit for a value to declare that the difference is sufficient to conclude that the null hypothesis is to be rejected in favour of the alternative hypothesis and thus for any value of the test statistic more away from the centre than the critical value , the difference is considered as significant .

The Use of P values in hypothesis testing

One way to report the results of a hypothesis test is to state that the null hypothesis was or was not rejected at a specified value or level of significance . For example , for the denier value of 1.4 den produced in two different Draw machines , say SM #1 & SM #3 , has average denier values as 1.35 and 1.37 and number of observations as 53 and 182 respectively and the standard deviation is 0.01 for both of them . On testing the null hypothesis that all the average deniers are equal was rejected at 5% level of significance . This statement of conclusion is often inadequate . , because it gives the decision maker no idea about whether the computed value of the test statistic was just barely in the rejection region or whether it was very far into this region . Further more stating the results in this way , imposes the pre defined level of significance on other users of the information . This approach may be unsatisfactory , as some decision makers might be uncomfortable with the risks implied by = 0.05 .

To avoid these difficulties , the P-value approach has been adopted widely , in practice . The P-value is the probability that the test statistic will take on a value that is at least as extreme as the observed value of the statistic when the null hypothesis H0 is true . Thus a P-value conveys much information about the weight of evidence against H0 , and so a decision maker can draw a conclusion at any specified level of significance . More formally , we define the P-value as the smallest level of significance , that would lead to rejection of the null hypothesis H0 . It is customary to call the test statistic ( and the data ) significant when the null hypothesis H0 is rejected ; therefore we may think of the P-value as the smallest level at which the data are significant . Once the P-value is known , the decision maker can determine , for himself or herself , how significant the data are without the data analyst formally imposing a pre-selected level of significance . It is not always easy to compute the exact P-value for a test . However , most modern computer programs for statistical analysis report P-values , and they can be obtained on some hand held calculators .

BASIC SEVEN TOOLS OF SPC


FLOW CHART ( STRATIFICATION IN QC ) PARETO CHART CHECK SHEET CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM HISTOGRAM CONTROL CHART

7. SCATTERPLOT

Seven New Tools of Quality Design 1. Affinity diagram . 2. Interrelationship digraph or Relations diagram 3. Tree diagram 4. Matrix diagram or Quality table . 5. Matrix data analysis . 6. Process Decision Program Chart ( PDPC ) 7. Arrow diagram

Creative

Affinity Diagram
Logical

Interrelationship Digraph

Tree Diagram

Matrix Diagram

Matrix Data Analysis PDPC

Arrow Diagram

Relationship between the seven new tools of quality design - Relation I

Step 1

The new seven tools of quality design


Affinity Diagram Relations Diagram
Logical

Planning stage ( Probe in darkness Phase )

Step 2
Developing strategy for the problem
Matrix Data Analysis Prioritizatio n Analysis

Creative

Matrix Diagram ( To find relationship amongst objectives and strategies )

Tree Diagram ( To break objectives to sub groups )

Cause and Effect Diagram

Step 3
Formulating specific action plan Arrow Diagram
PDPC

Use of remaining basic seven tools Relationship between the seven new tools of quality design - Relation II

AFFINITY DIAGRAM

This is used to gather large amounts of language data ( ideas , issues , options ) and organises them into groupings based on the natural relationship between the items . In other words , it is a form of brainstorming . One of the obstacles often encountered in the quest for improvement is past success or failure . It is assumed that what worked or failed in the past will continue to do so in the future . Along with the experience , mindset should have the acceptability to ideas which challenges old practices . This is especially true in Quality Function Deployment ( QFD ) , where new logical patterns should always be explored .

AFFINITY DIAGRAM
It is used to generate ideas and categories that can be used later with more strict , logic based tools . This tool should be used to map the geography of an issue when : Facts and thoughts are in chaos and the issues are too large or complex to define easily . Breakthroughs in traditional concepts are needed to replace old solutions and to expand a teams thinking . Support for solution is essential for successful implementation . The affinity diagram is not recommended when a problem is simple or requires a very quick solution .

AFFINITY DIAGRAM
The steps for generating an affinity diagram are as follows : Select a Team : Assemble a group of people familiar with the problem of interest . Six to eight members in a group works best . Phrase the issue to be considered . Make a macro level presentation of facts and figures to kindle creative thinking . It should be vaguely stated so as not to prejudice responses in a predetermined direction . Be positive while proposing the issue under consideration . For example , if the brainstorming is on why issues are not followed up in an organization , it would be best to state the question as Why do issues remain unresolved ? rather than Why dont people take the responsibility to complete their assignments ? . Generate and record the ideas . Give each member of the group a stack of cards and allow 5 - 10 minutes for everyone in the group to record ideas on the cards , one per card . During this time , the objective is to write down as many ideas as possible . and as concisely as possible . There should be no communication between members of the group during this 5 - 10 minutes .

AFFINITY DIAGRAM
Display the cards : At the end of this 5 - 10 minutes each member of the group , in turn , reads out one of his / her ideas and places it on the table for every one to see . There should be no criticism or justification of ideas , and it is allowable to write new ideas during this time , if fresh thoughts are generated . Sorting the cards : When all ideas are presented , members of the group place together all cards with related ideas . This process is repeated until the ideas are approximately in six to ten groups . Arranging and rearranging continue till everybody in the group agrees to the arrangement . Creating Header cards :Look for one card in each group that captures the meaning of that group . The output of this exercise is a compilation of maximum number of ideas under a limited number of major headings .

AFFINITY DIAGRAM
Displaying the final set-up : The completely arranged activity wise set of cards along with their header cards are now ready for display . Even while on display , some suggestions may come . The group leader may use his discretion and take appropriate action . Presentation : The final affinity diagram is finally presented to the management , for their approval to go to the next step . This data can then be used with other tools to define areas for attack . One of these tools is the interrelation digraph .

EXAMPLE

Thats not my job

Multiple ownership

why do issues remain unresolved ?

Resourcing priorities

Too busy doing paper work

Lack of initiative

No one wants to take responsibility

Too many teams or committees that get bogged down

No buy-in from boss

We only work on crisis

Affinity Diagram
When to use it : For gaining insight into complex problems where opinions and views vary and There are no easy answers . When not to use it : Dont use for minor problems , for those with obvious answers , for situations where outcomes are pre determined , or in cultures where openness is not appreciated What youll achieve : Method of bringing together different view points and sorting them out constructively . Significantly increased chance of gaining insights into how to deal with the problem . Controls required : Needs an experienced facilitator to turn skeptics used to relying on their own Judgment into productive participators , who see the benefits of working together .
Identify problem and Phrase neutrally

Brainstorm ideas and impressions individually , and record on cards Sort cards into groups . Discard those with no affinity . Label groups and organise cards under them to form chart

Present Chart

Analyze results and plan action points

INTERRELATIONSHIP

DIGRAPH OR RELATIONS DIAGRAM

The interrelationship digraph begins to draw the logical connections or sequential links that surface in affinity diagram . This tool starts from a central concept and leads to the generation of large quantities of ideas , finally to the description of observed patterns . Like the affinity diagram , the interrelationship digraph allows unanticipated ideas and connections to rise to the surface . The interrelationship digraph is adaptable to both specific operational issues and general organizational questions . Example , A classic use of this tool at TOYOTA focused on all the factors behind the establishment of a billboard system as part of their JIT program . On the other hand it has also been used to deal with issues underlying the problem of getting top management support for TQM .

INTERRELATIONSHIP

DIGRAPH OR RELATIONS DIAGRAM

In summary , interrelationship digraph should be used when :


1. An issue is sufficiently complex that the interrelationship between ideas is difficult to determine . 2. The correct sequencing of management actions is critical . 3. There is a feeling or suspicion that the problem under discussion is only a symptom . 4. There is ample time to complete the required reiterative process and define cause and effect . The interrelationship digraph can be used by itself , or it can be used after the affinity diagram , using data from the previous effort as input .

The steps for using this tool are :


1. Clearly define one statement that describes the key issue to be discussed .

INTERRELATIONSHIP

DIGRAPH OR RELATIONS DIAGRAM

Record this statement on a card and place it on the wall or a table , in the center of a large sheet of paper . Mark this card in some way so that it can be easily identified as the central idea , e.g.. use a double circle around the text . Generate related issues or problems . This may be done in wide open brainstorming , or may be taken directly from an affinity diagram . Place each of the ideas on a card and place the cards around the central idea card . Use arrows to indicate which items are related and what leads to what . Look for possible relationships between all items . Look for patterns of arrows to determine key factors or causes . For example , if one card has seven arrows coming from it to other issues , the idea on that card is a key factor or cause . Mark these areas in some way , e.g... by using a double box . Use the key factors in a Tree diagram for further analysis

INTERRELATIONSHIP

DIGRAPH OR RELATIONS DIAGRAM

Selections of critical points or issues : Examine the points where many arrows converge .

Also examine the points wherefrom a few arrows are emerging .

Sometimes even with minimum arrow can also be a key point or issue .

INTERRELATIONSHIP

DIGRAPH OR RELATIONS DIAGRAM

EXAMPLE

System is out of control

Resourcing priorities
No bye-in from boss

We only work on crises

Resource constraints

Too much red tape

Too busy doing paper work

Boss does not understand the issue

System flow / Tree diagram


Tree diagram is a technique for mapping out full range of paths and tasks that need to be done in order to achieve a primary goal and related sub goals . It may also be used to identify all the factors contributing to a problem under consideration . Critical points identified in interrelationship digraph can be used as input s for a tree diagram . one of the strengths of this method is that it forces the user to examine the logical and chronological link between tasks . This assists in preventing a natural tendency to jump directly from goal or problem statement to solution ( Ready .. Fire . Aim! )

System flow / Tree diagram


The tree diagram is indispensable when a thorough understanding is required of what needs to be accomplished how it is to be achieved relationship between these goals and methodologies .

Tree Diagram has been found to be most helpful in situations when


1. Very ill defined needs must be translated into operational characteristics , and to identify which characteristics can presently be controlled . 2. All possible causes of a problem need to be explored . This use is closest to the cause and effect diagram or fish bone chart . 3. Identify the first task that must be accomplished when aiming for a broad organizational goal . 4. The issue under question has sufficient complexity and time availability for solution .

System flow / Tree diagram


Steps to prepare a tree diagram :
Ensure that the pre works like Affinity diagram and Interrelationship digraphs ready . One should have a group of technically capable people with him . Have a big magnetic board and small reusable metal plates . Plates are capable to get fixed on the board , with top surface painted in different colours usable for writing and rewriting . Select the primary mean for a goal (or principal cause for a constraint ) from the Interrelationship digraphs and subsequently select and relate the secondary, tertiary , quaternary means ( constraints ) and so on. At this causes causes can be stage further discussion by the group will help to identify some which were missed earlier . This way we can arrive at all the and position them on the board . The final form of the diagram copied to a bigger sheet .

Finally have a discussion putting up the question Whether these actions will help to achieve the result needed or fulfill the objective ? This is to ensure that no steps needed are omitted .

System flow / Tree diagram


To sum up , Affinity diagram uses gut level creativity and helps to have a meaningful picture when we face an unknown or a very difficult problem . Interrelation digraph or relations diagram helps to find out the causal relation between the various factors involved . Tree diagram or system flow diagram takes the key issues of these processes and helps to break them down into the lowest practical level of details possible . There are lot of similarities between the Tree Diagram and the Cause and Effect Diagram . But they have their individuality also . Cause and Effect Diagrams are made to find the causes for the effect . In case of Tree Diagram it is used for more purposes . Tree Diagram helps to work out the minutest details of a task undertaken . Here one can map out the choices before them and plan for actions based on their capability .

An example of a tree Diagram

Obtain list of all reports

Identify unnecessary paperwork

Conduct survey on report uses Determine where reports cover similar information

Replace paper work


Identify automation opportunities

Identify often repeated paperwork tasks

Identify data now handled manually

Matrix Diagram
The purpose of the matrix diagram is to outline the interrelationships and correlations between tasks , functions or characteristics , and to show their relative importance . There are many versions of the matrix diagram , but the most widely used is a simple L shaped matrix known as the quality table .

Quality Table ( the basis of QFD is a Matrix Diagram ) :


In a quality table customer demands ( the what ) are analyzed with respect to substitute quality characteristics ( the how ) . Correlation between the two are categorized as strong , moderate and possible . The customer demands shown on the left of the matrix are determined in cooperation with the customer . This effort requires a kind of verbal ping pong with the customer to be truly effective : Ask the customer what he wants , write it down , show it to him and ask him if that is what he meant , then revise and repeat the process as necessary .

Matrix Diagram
This should be done in a joint meeting with the customer , if at all possible . It is often of value to use a tree The right side of the chart is often competitors performance , company reference to the customer demands diagram to give structure to this effort . used to compare current performance to plan , and potential sales points with .

This should be done in a joint meeting with the customer , if at all possible . It is often of value to use a tree diagram to give structure to this effort . The right side of the chart is often used to compare current performance to competitors performance , company plan , and potential sales points with reference to the customer demands . Weights are given to these items to obtain a relative quality weight , which can be used to identify the customer demands . The relative quality weights are then used with the correlations identified on the matrix to determine the key quality characteristics .

Matrix Diagram
A modification that is added to create the house of quality table is a second matrix that explores the correlations between the quality characteristics . This is done so that errors caused by the manipulation of variables in a one at a time fashion can be avoided . This also gives indications of where designed experiments would be of use in the design process . In the training required for use of this technique, several hours should be dedicated to a detailed explanation of the steps in the construction of a quality table , and the system to be used to compare numerically the various items . Use of Tree Diagram with matrix diagram improves the presentation for the relationship between 2 or more sets of variables and gives it a better understanding . The Tree diagram can shown in either of the Row side or the column side or even from both the sides also .

Matrix Diagram
T - shaped matrix diagram :
The T shaped matrix is nothing more than the combination of two L shaped matrix diagram . It is based on the premise that two separate sets of items are related to a third set . Therefore A items are somehow related to both B and C items .

Y shaped matrix diagram :


It is the extension of a T shaped matrix where the relationship between B and C are also shown in a 3-dimensional cubical structured table with grids .

X - shaped matrix diagram :


The X shaped matrix is nothing more than the combination of two T shaped matrix diagram . It is based on the premise that two separate sets of items are related to a set of 2 set . Therefore both A and D items are related to both B and C items .

EXAMPLE OF MATRIX DIAGRAM


WHO ATTENDS

T SHAPED
WHO TRAINS

TMC

SMC

HOD

JMC

MC

OC

Courses

SIX SIGMA
SQC 7 OLD TOOLS T NEW TOOLS RELIABILITY DESIGN REVIEW QC BASICS QCC FACILITATION PROBLEM SOLVING COMMUNICATION SKILLS ORGANISE FOR QUALITY DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS QUALITY PLANNING JUST IN TIME NEW SUPERVISOR TRAINING TQM - TOOLS

X X X O O O O O O O X O O O O O O O O O O O O O O X FULL O OVER VIEW O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

REQUIRED

Matrix Data Analysis


Matrix data analysis is used to take data displayed in a matrix diagram and arrange them so that they can be more easily viewed and show the strength of the relationship between variables . It is used most often in marketing and product research . The concept behind matrix data analysis is fairly simple , but its execution ( including data gathering ) can be complex .
Pain Relievers gentleness Tylenol Effectiveness

Bayer Generic Aspirin Anacin

Bufferin

Excedrin

A good idea of the uses and value of the construction of a chart of matrix data analysis is shown in the adjoining example in which , types of pain relievers are compared based on gentleness and effectiveness . This information could be used together with some type of demographic analysis to develop a marketing plan . Based on the information , advertising and product introduction could be effectively tailored for specific areas . New product development could also be carried out to attack specific niches in markets that would be profitable .

Matrix Data Analysis


Matrix Data Analysis , in the form of inter relationship matrix , is also a step forward to the multivariate analysis technique known as Principal Component Analysis . Principal Component analysis is basically a data transformation technique used to make interrelated original variable into a plane / space that can be independently studied . Thus through principal component analysis , the total variation in the data is usually identified as explained by one or two critical variables . Matrix Data Analysis technique quantifies and arranges data presented in a matrix diagram to find more general indicators , that would differentiate and give clarity to large amount of complex information . Generally Correlation Coefficient , as defined earlier , is the measure used for variable type of parameters as the quantifier for the symbols used in matrix diagram .

Matrix Data Analysis


Inter relationship Matrix NG3 process : Oligomer & Base Pastilles properties
olig-deg olig-COOH -0.150 0.053 IV Lab COOH DPn OH Ratio deg ipa a b -0.018 0.816 0.033 0.676 0.022 0.781 -0.014 0.862 -0.025 0.749 -0.009 0.913 0.066 0.400 -0.009 0.907 -0.038 0.630 olig-COOH IV Lab COOH DPn OH Ratio deg ipa a

0.076 0.328 0.196 0.012 0.141 0.070 -0.203 0.009 -0.224 0.004 -0.068 0.386 -0.176 0.023 0.065 0.406 -0.067 0.389 -0.090 0.250 0.783 0.000 -0.595 0.000 -0.264 0.001 -0.070 0.371 -0.037 0.633 0.033 0.674 0.107 0.171 -0.107 0.169 -0.745 0.000 -0.935 0.000 -0.040 0.605 -0.040 0.612 0.104 0.181 -0.265 0.001 -0.440 0.000 -0.173 0.026 0.015 0.844 -0.045 0.566 0.011 0.884 0.082 0.295 0.929 0.000 0.076 0.330 0.058 0.457 -0.102 0.192 0.136 0.081 0.067 0.394 0.053 0.499 -0.116 0.138 0.220 0.004 -0.012 0.875 -0.010 0.900 0.065 0.407 -0.028 0.720 0.053 0.498 -0.188 0.015

Process Decision Programme Chart ( PDPC )


A process decision program chart (PDPC ) is used to map out each event and contingency that can occur when progressing from a problem statement to its solution . The PDPC is used to anticipate the unexpected and plan for it . It includes plans for counter measures on deviations . The PDPC is related to a failure mode and effect ( FMEA ) analysis and its structure is similar to that of a tree diagram .

Methods of PDPC :
Method 1 - Pre planned PDPC : This method is useful for all those activities which can be planned beforehand . Method 2 - Progressive PDPC or Contingency Planning PDPC : Even with all the precautions , something can go wrong at any stage under a disastrous situation or during a major quality problem . Such a situation calls for a PDPC method , which can be improved depending upon the situation .

Process Decision Programme Chart ( PDPC )


Steps to prepare a Pre Planned PDPC :
PDPC does not have any prescribed format , direction or guidelines . Like Affinity diagram and Relations diagram it can have distinctly different looks if two solutions comes from two distinct groups on the same project . The team should have persons who have an over all idea about the entire process , how it moves , can visualize what kind of problem one may encounter at all stages . Decide the specific goal . Draw a normal high level , without too detailed flow diagram assuming that no problem will be encountered . Such a diagram should show all the activity steps in a proper order .

Process Decision Programme Chart ( PDPC )


Steps to prepare a Pre Planned PDPC :
On a white board or a big paper sheet write or stick the label showing the starting point at left hand end and the goal or objective to be achieved at the right hand end . Discuss in sequential steps to find out the possible problems that may arise in any operation and a corresponding contingency plan to overcome those problems in achieving the final objective . The entire operation is like making a detailed flow diagram . The action plan should be discussed and the entire process to be connected with a feed back loop to the original system . Review periodically . On review , anything which needs to be added or removed should be done .

Process Decision Programme Chart ( PDPC )


Presentation Types of PDPC :
PDPC can be made in a graphical form as well as in an outline format i.e. After numerically coding the steps and the problems . Advantages of 1. 2. 3. 4. the graphical presentations are : Clarity of the pattern Easy to read and explain Alternate paths can be shown easily Comparison between different alternate paths easy.

Advantage of Outline format are : 1. Preparation is easier . 2. Each issue can be easily marked with numbers . 3. Each group can be studied separately and simultaneously to identify possible problems as well as to think about measures to overcome them . 4. It is easy to focus and draw out the all possible contingencies .

Process Decision Programme Chart ( PDPC )


EXAMPLE :

Decrease Main drive KW variability

Gear Box

Main feeder

Homogeniser variability

Pressure balance

Motor problems

Decrease N2 flow

Decrease weir height DONE

Arrow Diagram
The arrow diagram is used to plan or schedule a task . To use it one must know the sub-task sequence and duration . This tool is essentially the same as the standard gantt chart . Although it is a simple and well known tool for planning work , it is surprising how often it is ignored .The arrow diagram is useful in analyzing a repetitive job in order to make it more efficient . EXAMPLE :
Rework Valve 4

Remove Control Valve

Rework control wiring

Install valve

Job or activity Hydroblast line 3 Relationships between jobs . Takes no time . Start or end of an event

Arrow Diagram
Symbols used in Arrow Diagram :
Event , Node : Nodes correspond to events in a project . A circle generally indicates it . A number inside the circle indicates the event number in a project ; an event may mark the initiation of an activity or the completion of an activity after which the next activity will be initiated . e.g. Node 1 1 Job , Task ( activity ) : Arrows are used to represent activities . Length of arrow is arbitrary and has no relevance to activity time . This is to explain the task and time required for completion of a particular job is written on the arrow . Training to operators e.g. 7 8 t t = time for the activity (7) to (8) . ) represent a dummy . A Dummies : Dashed arrows ( ------dummy is used as a connector and has zero duration .

Arrow Diagram
Symbols used in Arrow Diagram :
Critical Path : The path for which the project duration is the longest is identified as the critical path . All activities ( continuous lines ) in this critical path are drawn in bolder lines . Any delay in these activities will delay the completion of the project .
Structure and RCC roofing 30 days Doors and windows 20 days Finish plastering , Whitewash and painting 25 days Plumbing 15 days Electrical Works 10 days

5 6
Trial Tests 5 days

Foundat ion 20 days

Walls construct ion 20 days

10

7 8

Trial Tests 3 days

Arrow Diagram of a small house construction Total slack : For any task , amount of time by which it can be delayed is called slack period , e.g. slack for electrical works is 12 days , slack for plumbing and Doors and Windows is 5 days each .

Arrow Diagram
Types of Arrow Diagram Normal arrow diagram : Here the arrow represents the activities .
Nodes represents events , start and finish . The details of activities and duration are written on the arrows .
1
Foundation 20 days

Activity on Node diagram : In this type of arrow diagram nodes


are converted as a rectangular box and the details are written in that . Here the arrows indicate the sequence . Time can be written in the box or on the arrow .
Details Details

Foundation Laying Time = 20 days

Structure and RCC roofing Time = 30 days

Node / Activity

Node / Activity

Total Organizational Excellence Framework


Organisation , Vision , goals and strategies Mission Application of SQC starts here Critical Success Factors & Key Process Indicators Benchmarking ( Process Capabilities) Measurement of progress

Self Assessment ( Gap Analysis )

Process Analysis ISO 9000 Define opportunities for improvement People Development

Visualize ideal process

Decide process priorities Education Training and development

Continuous Improvement

Business Process Reengineering

THE CRITICAL PARAMETER MANAGEMENT PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM


Gather and identify critical voice of the customer needs Translate critical VOC needs into critical Technical requirements House of Quality generated from critical VOC and technical requirements using QFD . Convert system requirements . Document into final performance specification Document . Critical Functional Responses identified during concept design and optimized during subsystem Development , system integration and Design certification .

Gather and identify critical voice of the customer needs System Requirements Documents

Measured System / Subsystem / Part CFR Cp / Cpk performance vs. final performance
System requirements to system CFR Maps / Database

System / Subsystem / Part Cp / Cpk assessment / audit / corrective action during steady state production and service

Construct Subsystem Level Houses of quality relating critical system requirements to critical sub system requirements Sub System Requirements Documents Construct Component Level Houses of quality relating critical sub system requirements to critical part requirements Component Requirements Documents Construct Component Level Houses of quality relating critical sub system requirements to critical part requirements Manufacturin g Process and Material Requirements Documents

Measured system CFR Cp values


System CFR to sub system CFR Maps / Database

Critical Functional parameters identified and optimized during Design and optimize phases ( Nominal set points ) .

Measured sub-system CFR Cp values


Sub System CFR to sub system CTF Maps / Database

Critical-to-Functional specifications identified and optimized during Design , optimize and verify phases. ( Tolerance set points ) .

Measured component CTF Cp values


Component CTF to manufacturing process CFR Maps / Database

Critical process parameters and responses identified and optimized during Design , optimize and verify phases. ( Nominal / Tolerance set points ) .

Measured manufacturing process CFR Cp values

CONCEPT EVALUATION AND SELECTION PROCESS (CPM) - PUGH MODEL INPUT


Requirements , Functions and numerous concepts from concept generation . Identify weakness in low scoring concepts that can be turned into (+)s .

Define concept selection criterion from a clear and complete set of requirements

Identify weakness in high scoring concepts that can be turned into (+)s . Create hybrid super concepts by integrating the strengths of like concepts to remove (-)s and (S)s . Select a new datum based on the scoring that suggests a superior concept after the previous cycle of evaluation . Add any new concepts that have been developed . Repeat the evaluation process through the current cycle . Analyse the results from the current cycle of evaluation : sum of (+)s , (-)s and (S)s . Create hybrid super concepts by integrating the strengths of like concepts to remove (-)s and (S)s .
Repeat the evaluation for the next cycle ? Yes

Define a best-in-class benchmarked datum concept

Provide numerous candidate concepts to evaluate against the datum .

Evaluate each concept against the datum using (+)s , (-)s and (S)s to rank fulfillment of the concept selection criterion Refine criterion as necessary during the first cycle of evaluation .

Analyse the results from the 1st cycle of evaluation : sum of (+)s , (-)s and (S)s .

OUTPUT

Superior concept is selected and ready to go forward into the Development or Design phase .

No

Product : Process : Date :

Product Process Relationship Matrix

D IR EC T IO N O F IM P R O V EM EN T UO M

C u s to P rio rit Com pl m er y a i n ts Com p R e c e i v e ti ti ve R a ti n g ed E va l u a t io n

SR NO

C R IT I CA LI TY

S PEC

U N IT

T E C H N IC A L P AR AM E T E R / PROCESS IN T E R M E D IA TE S

C U STO MER R E Q U IR EMEN T

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 .8 2 - 0 .8 6 <1 15-35 >50 * <100 >77 * - 2 .5

d l/g m ppm M E Q /K G % % ppm c o lo u r c o lo u r


c o lo ur

I.V . -C HO -C O O H C RY S T . D EF EC T S DUS T L* a *. b*

S Q U A R E O F T H E C O R R E L A T IO N C O E F F IC IE N T S . T H IS IS T H E M E A S U R E O F TH E C O N T R IB U T IO N O F TH E P R O C E S S P A R A M E TE R V A R IA B IL IT Y T O T H E T H E P R O D U C T P A R A M E T E R V A R IA B IL IT Y . .

C o m p e ti ti v e T e c h n i c a l A sse ssm e n t O p e r a ti o n a l G o a l s a n d T a r g e ts F ie ld Ex p e rie n c e s R e g u l a to r y T e c h n i c a l i ssu e s C o l u m n W e i g h ts C o lu m n N u m b e rs

QFD ELEMENTS
CO-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TECHNICAL PARAMETERS
DIRECTION OF IMPROVEMENT

TECHNICAL PARAMETERS
INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS AND TECHNICAL PARAMETERS COMPETITIVE TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OPERATIONAL GOALS AND TARGETS ORGANISATION FIELD EXPERIENCES
Regulatory Technical Company Issues PRIORITY RATING

IMPORTANCE

CUSTOMER COMPETITIVE EVALUATION

COMPLAINTS

CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS

COLUMN WEIGHTS COLUMN NUMBERS

ACTIONS

Sr. No.

This is an over all planning document . It should be a team developed document . The QFD concept suggests that a documented over all approach be developed by a cross functional team so that the whole challenge is addressed .

Simple Flow Diagram of a QFD


START

STEP 1

Determine the voice of the customer

( Customers wants and needs )

STEP 2

Survey customers for importance ratings and competitive evaluations

STEP 3 STEP 4

Develop the customer portion of the matrix . Develop the technical portion of the matrix .

STEP 5 STEP 6

Analyze the matrix . Choose priority items . Compare Proposed design concepts . Synthesize the best .

STEP 7

Develop a part planning matrix for priority design requirements

STEP 8

Develop a process planning matrix for priority process requirements .

STEP 9

Develop manufacturing planning chart .

STEP 1

Determine the voice of the customer ( Customers wants and needs )

At least once a month , the Stew Jr of Stew Leonards Norwalk , a Food store , meets with about 12 customers for a one time one-hour session in which the customers say what changes they d like to see in the store . Each participant receives a $20 store certificate . Some of the ideas that have come out of that have been incredible . Says Stew Sr. As per one of these suggestions , when he started selling Fish in ice packing instead of his conventional plastic packing , his fish sales increased to double even before full fledged

implementation .

He accepts I dont know how many years it might have been before I thought of that , may be hundred .

STEP 2-1

Survey customers for importance ratings and competitive evaluations

Barring a few , all customers does not have clear idea about the priority rating for their requirements . This information is to be extracted from them through One-on-One interviews . Search for the root causes in the One-on-One interviews . Keep asking Why? until the real wants are determined . Prepare a well designed group of small questionnaire . Each questionnaire can cover a portion of the total number of voices . Collectively the response to the whole group of questionnaires will cover the spectrum of voices .

STEP 2-2

Survey customers for importance ratings and competitive evaluations

Questionnaires on levels of importance and competitive evaluations normally use scales with odd numbers range such as 1 to 3 , 1 to 5 or 1 to 9 . On competitive evaluations for simplicity it might be asked to the customer , For this voice , does the competitor perform the same as , worse than , or better than our company ? . Organizations do not usually work on customer voices .They work on technical requirements that represent the translation of the voices .

STEP 3

Develop the customer portion of the matrix .

The analysis should represent an integrated decision based on the customers level of importance , their competitive evaluation , and any customer complaints . The decision process can be assisted by development of goals for improved customer satisfaction , determination of sales points and improvement ratios . This is not of major significance if the team continues to recognize that these calculations of goals ratios , and row weights are simply to help in the decision process . They are not a substitute for common sense . They are not algorithms that replace judgment . They are simply aids in the decision process .

STEP 4

Develop the technical portion of the matrix

A completed technical requirement must be measurable . If a team cant put a unit of measurement then the technical requirement should be re-examined . As a rule of thumb , the team should try to keep the ratio of technical requirements to customer requirements somewhere between 1 and 1.5 . When determining the relationship strengths , it is important to work in columns . Teams should look at each technical requirement and move down the column asking Would we work on this technical requirement to satisfy this customer requirement ?. Indicate direction of improvement for all parameters . Establish target & spec . Co-relationship between technical parameters . Column weightages .

STEP 5

Categorize all the customer requirements in the following manner : Category A item > the competitor has a significant current lead in the customers eyes . examine the competitors product for ideas

Analyze the matrix . Choose priority items .

Category B items

> the competitor has a minor lead . Competitors product should be examined first .

Examination of competitors product should be followed by development of a number of concepts for evaluation and synthesis to develop the best idea . Category C items > No company has a significant lead , There exists a competitive opportunity and new ideas and concepts should be explored .

These categories are in order of increasing difficulties . Category A would be the easiest and category C is the hardest . All of the designated items in the action column represent priorities for increasing customer satisfaction .

STEP 5

Analyze the matrix . Choose priority items .

Some organization add information to the customer portion of the matrix to help them in their analysis and in setting priorities . These indicators are , as mentioned in step 3 : Goal : Expected Customer satisfaction rating . If the organizations personality is such that establishing any goal less than Excellent or rating = 6 would be judged as Improper , then there is no value in using this column . This should be used to highlight those rows in which action to improve the product can provide a competitive edge . Some weightage can be assigned to these rows for final compilation of row weight along with other priority deciding factors . This is a calculated measure representing the scope of the improvement required to achieve the goal set at point 1 . If the existing CSI rating =2 and Goal =6 then improvement ratio = 6/2 = 3 .

Sales : Points:

Im : prove: ment : ratio :

STEP 5

Analyze the matrix . Choose priority items .

The final column row weight is the product of the three columns .
Customer Competitive Evaluation

Improvement Ratio

Sales Point

Sr. No.

Row weight 21.6 18.0 21.6 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 21.6 15.0 12.7 12.7 21.6 12.7

Importance

Complaints

Goal

Cup stays Cool Coffee stays hot Cups Won't Spill tip Resists Squeeze Doesn't leak Containers Easy to hold Lid fits tight Remove w ithout spill Opening for drink Lids Empty w ith lid on Easy-off drink tab Prevent spill Characteristic No-leak cup / lid Reg / decaf Good taste Good aroma Etc

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

8 7 7 6 7 6 7 5 8 7 6 8 6 8 7 7 6

3 0.1 3 0.5

Material

6 6 6 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 6 5 5.5 5.5 6 5.5

1.2 1 1.2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.2 1.2 1 1 1.2 1

3 3 3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 3 2.5 2.3 2.3 3 2.3

Action B C

A B C A C

STEP 6

Compare Proposed design concepts . Synthesize the best .

Excellence in design - especially the first stages of design when engineers outline the essentials of a product - offers any business its most fundamental opportunity to achieve Quality at low cost . At this point , many organizations examines the proposed product from the viewpoint of its potential for failure . These failure analyses force the organization to plan for its control through either the design requirements or by control . Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis ( FMEA ) are recommended to ensure that the issues of potential failure are fully explored . The risk assessment columns are provided for assessment of the probable effect of potential design concerns .

STEP 6

Compare Proposed design concepts . Synthesize the best .


pluses ( better than the datum ) , minuses ( worse than the datum ) and equals ( same as the datum ) .

From each column , determine the total no. of

Work to improve those concepts that scored best by incorporating strong ideas from other concepts . Continue the process of synthesizing concepts . Rerun the analysis several times with the synthesized concepts .
Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4 Option 5 Option 6 S + + 2 2 1

Re quireme nt1 Re quireme nt2 Re quireme nt3 Re quireme nt4 Re quireme nt5 Total Total Total + S

+ + + S 3 1 1

+ + + 3 2 0

+ + S + 3 1 1

+ S + S 2 1 2

S S + S 1 1 3

STEP 7

Develop a part planning matrix for priority design requirements

Part and process matrices are simpler and easy to manage . Furthermore , everything that was learned relative to development of a product planning matrix is repeated for the part and process matrices . Thus learning to use the matrix concept is much like learning to ride a bicycle . Once the product planning matrix is mastered , any remaining matrices follow the same pattern . The Design Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA ) format lists the possible failure mechanisms and permit an assessment of their risk based on likelihood of occurrence , severity , and ease of detection for every part in the process .

STEP 8

Develop a process planning matrix for priority process requirements .

Process Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA ) and Fault Tree Analysis ( FTA ) of the process is the primary requirement for reliability assessment of a process . Typically , QFD practices suggest that the process matrix be examined in a similar manner to the previous matrices . Those with weak and moderate relationship symbols would probably be disregarded . The remaining ones would probably be deployed to the next stage - manufacturing planning .

STEP 9

Develop manufacturing planning chart .

Manufacturing planning cant be done selectively . Every process requirement represents an item that must be controlled during manufacturing to ensure that parts will meet their design requirement and their customer expectations . Therefore, the QFD team should seriously consider doing the whole process study for the part involved . Note that some of the process parameters may not have relationship symbols in their columns . These parameters are also part of the process but not measurably related to the critical part requirements that were the inputs to the matrix .

Steps for making an Action Plan


When to use an Action Plan :
Particularly useful for planning initiatives where tasks fall outside the normal Pattern of peoples responsibilities . Set Objectives Break down objectives into tasks Put tasks in order , using flow chart Establish due dates for each task Allocate people to tasks Copy and distribute Action plan to every one involved

When not to use it :


Dont use when the project is sizeable , with action points well within double figures . Use a more formalized approach such as Critical Path analysis or Gantt Chart .

What youll achieve :


A way of planning how best to use people to achieve particular objectives . Makes sure people know exactly what their responsibilities are , and in what order

Controls required :
Just allocating tasks wont necessarily make them happen , particularly when they fall outside normal job routines . Check on memory , motivation and progress . Keep the plan simple and keep it up to date .

Barrier Analysis
When to use it :
When you want to make sure that a particular project or change initiative youre contemplating has a reasonable chance of success .
Define change being considered

When not to use it :


Dont rely on barrier analysis when you dont know the situation or the people well enough to identify the real barriers .

Brainstorm potential and actual barrier to change

What youll achieve :


Using barrier analysis significantly reduces likelihood of an initiative being sabotaged by major unforeseen barriers of attitude or resources . Also provide information to prepare the ground .

Group barriers into themes

Controls required :
Barrier analysis needs to be done realistically - both pessimism and optimism can cause difficulties . If using with broad range of staff rather than management group , consider using a facilitator .

Check that majority of barriers can be overcome . If not abandon project .

List actions to remove barriers .

Benchmarking
When to use it :
For making sure you are reaching the same standards as your competitors . Particularly feasible if you can find relevant collaborators , perhaps in quality departments who can share information without revealing commercial secrets .
Identify the key products and processes you want to benchmark Identify Competitor , or Best within yourselves

When not to use it :


Dont embark on a lengthy benchmarking exercise if customers and stakeholders are happy with the way things are . Watching what others are doing is important but customers are more important than competitors .
Identify possible collaborators organisations doing similar things who are not competitors . Brainstorm sources of information Libraries Government statistics Business databases Journals and reports Company reports Gather and analyse information regularly

What youll achieve :


You can gain an understanding of the standards and targets you can Realistically set - because others have achieved them , and which , at the very least your customers will expect .

Controls required :
Competitor information is often very hard to get and consequently is not always reliable . And its often hard to be certain what exactly the competition is All organizations have unique features which can make comparisons treacherous .

Establish strategies to close any gaps .

PDCA CYCLE
Select the problem analyse the reason chalk out the action plan
Ac the t a c m a ba c o r d k i n sis i n g a of t g t o n o he t h t h e pl e r r p an o e s u la n r s l t s ta r o n t

Se le

ana
cha lk

ct

lys
ou

the

et

pro

he

ble

t th

ea

rea

Carry out the Action plan

c ti

son
pla n

on

ACT

PLAN

Continue collecting Data for comparison

C CHECK re heck su no lt w t ha het s b he ee r t h na e ch des iev ire ed d or

DO
e th ti Ac on pl

an

Check whether the desired result has been achieved or not Act according to the results on the basis of the plan start making another plan

g in n c t r iso t ll e a ou e c o m p ry n u c o ar t i or C on t a f C a D

PDCA CYCLE

Improvised to

EPDCA CYCLE
EPDCA : Evaluate , Plan , Do , Check , Amend - the helix of never ending improvement .

PDCA is to be applied for each of the following problem solving steps

D
DEFINE

M
MEASURE

A
ANALYSE

I
IMPROVE

C
CONTROL

Nominal Group Technique


When to use it :
For reaching group consensus on decisions where there is a variety of view points and an unanimous decision is unlikely . More consultative than taking a majority decision .
Assemble the group and explain to them about the issues pending which call for prioritization . The leader should not indicate his preference . Generate ideas about the problem individually in writing

When not to use it :


Dont use with groups which dont have responsibility for the final decision .

Record ideas on a flip chart , without discussion

What youll achieve :


Decision making based on what people think , which minimizes the influence of personal or political factors , and makes sure that everyone is involved . Should result in a higher level of commitment to decisions .
Discuss to clarify meaning of ideas not for argument

Vote on ideas Rank and prioritize

Controls required :
Facilitator needs to exercise firm control to keep to a structured approach And to stop inappropriate discussions from developing
Discuss results of vote , and take final vote .

Check that all group members support decision

Break - even Chart


When to use it :
For comparing an expenditure to an economic return . Can be used to justify projects and investment expenditure , or To set sales targets .
Set up graph Horizontal axis : Financial returns / sales . Vertical axis : Expenditure / Cost of sales ( Fixed cost + Variable cost )

When not to use it :


Dont use with out reliable information on variable costs and fixed costs .

Plot data

What youll achieve :


A focus on profit rather than turnover . An understanding of how increasing the existing sales levels brings more profit than developing new products .
Mark break-even point where Cost and sales lines intersect

Controls required :
Remember that you cant just extend the cost line indefinitely . At a certain capacity , costs will hit a step change when major new investment is needed to produce more . Profits wont actually Hit the roof .
Interpret graph to see minimum sales requirement and sales figure for optimum profit .

Brainstorming
When to use it :
When you need plenty of good ideas about solving difficult or Unusual problems . When you work in a group like Quality Circle , Small Group Activity Etc .
Facilitator defines subject of brainstorm .

When not to use it :


Dont use when you dont have a clear idea of what the problem actually is , or when there is one right answer one can derive from a logical thinking process .

Everyone has 15 minutes to write down all ideas they can think of . Alternatively , Everyone in turn gives an idea ( or says pass)

What youll achieve :


Many more times ( approximately three times , it is claimed ) the number of ideas you would have from the same people working separately . People stimulate each others thinking . Also ideas likely to be more creative .

Facilitator records all ideas without comment or criticism

Controls required :
Needs good facilitating . Criticism of peoples idea will start with too casual facilitator and creativity stops with too firm facilitator . Facilitator must create a fun , hothouse atmosphere .

Facilitator asks group for more ideas until ideas run out .

Group discusses , prioritizes and selects The best idea .

Solution effect Analysis


When to use it :
Use this analysis when you are proposing changes , so that you can be clear About the consequences of the solutions . Use a cause and effect diagram for Analyzing problems .
Write down solution you are thinking of implementing Place at left of diagram with an arrow to the right

When not to use it :


Dont use when you dont need to - when the changes you are proposing are not very radical .
Identify all major effects on arrows on either side of the main arrow .

What youll achieve :


A way of thinking forward and anticipating what effects proposed changes will have , and a chance to avoid unforeseen consequences .
Brainstorm all other possible effects and add to the diagram

Controls required :
Dont stop people from making negative predictions about the changes you are committed to . They are not just being difficult - they might be right . Facilitation will be helpful to reduce feelings of threat .
Plan actions to make sure that the solution is effective

Gantt Chart
When to use it :
Use the Gantt chart as a project planning tool for scheduling project activities .
Define project tasks and / or steps

When not to use it :


Dont use for small and simple projects , where a list of tasks would suffice .

Estimate time needed for each task and start and finish dates Create Gantt Chart : Horizontal axis : Time Vertical axis : Tasks Chart non dependant tasks in Parallel . Contingent tasks in sequence . Display amendment on the chart with a distinguishable colour

What youll achieve :


Gantt chart shows activities , its dependencies and time scale . Clear and unambiguous method of showing project information .

Controls required :
People often create elaborate charts as a defensive measure and then ignore them as soon as dead lines start to slip . Keep the chart up to date If you are going to use it at all .

Monitor actual progress Against Chart .

Just in time
When to use it :
For managing the supply chain in repetitive manufacturing ,
Identify supply chains throughout production process internal and external links For each internal link , identify ways of supply and demand synchronization

where processes are operating efficiently . When not to use it :


Dont try to use this without clear direction of the top , or without full support .

Work with external suppliers to achieve synchronization

What youll achieve :


Increased responsiveness from suppliers , lower costs , and simpler processes For industries which traditionally rely on extensive buffer stocks , savings can be enormous .
Pilot new supply arrangements as they evolve .

Controls required :
Not easy to implement . Start with pilot schemes , especially if External Suppliers are involved , and build up JIT system gradually . Generally reckoned to take between 2 to 7 years to achieve . Needs full involvement and support from everyone . Training of people are very important , both in what can be achieved and in how to do it . Unlikely to be undertaken without consultancy .

Work internally to reduce inventory , resolving underlying problems as they evolve .

Extend JIT throughout supply chain

Rader Chart
When to use it :
Use to involve people in evaluating the performance of key areas of the business / product and in recognizing where things could be improved .
Select between 5 to 10 areas of performance .

Define low and high performance in each area

When not to use it :


Dont use without agreement on how to define performance targets .
Construct Rader chart : measurement scale with high performance on outside edge . Rate performance in each area , individually and as group . Join together rating scores and fill in performance areas .

What youll achieve :


Product wise picture of perceived strengths and weaknesses against agreed Performance targets . An assessment in which every one involved has to agree .

Controls required :
Ratings by groups of people who work together will tend to be similar .

Select biggest gap in most critical area for improvement program .

FMEA
When to use it :
Use FMEA at the planning stage of product or processes to focus attention on avoiding problems . Applies to manufacturing and service industries .
List all the activities in the project or process you are planning Identify the things that could go wrong with each activity .

When not to use it :


Dont use it you need a quality improvement tool . FMEA is about avoidance and not active improvement .
Identify the effects of these errors .

What youll achieve :


The confidence of taking a proactive approach to avoiding mistakes . Provides a safety net to make sure you havent overlooked any obvious problems .

Estimate the probability and seriousness of each error .

Controls required :
Like all predictive tools , it isnt foolproof . You can spend a lot of time predicting things that wont happen , and missing the things that will .

Produce plans to prevent most important problems , or mitigate others .

24 approaches in Total Quality


Just in time Statistical process control Quality Circles Total Quality Control Total Preventive Maintenance Taguchi 14 Tools High Technology Circles Automation deployment New Technology Development Quality Function Deployment Policy Deployment 13. Process Architecture 14. Process improvement 15. Process deployment Automation 16. Process Execution deployment 17. Customer Aided design 18. Customer managed corporation 19. Kansei Engineering 20. Middle - up down management 21. Cognitive quality of work life 22. Meta Cognitive corporation 23. Social Democratic Quality 24. Democratic Scientific corporation

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN GROUP DYNAMIC TOOLS
1.1 Democratic Rules of Order: The role of this method is to transform meetings from swamps to designed experiences. 1.2 Self-Management Enablement skills: Leaders use a set of practices to provoke groups into managing themselves. 1.7 Learning enablement management Simple direct work is split into a major direct work section, a meta work section, a meta-meta work section. 1.7 Doing what you say discipline Workers perform exercises implementation effectiveness in work-related skill areas at fantastic levels of intensity over short time periods. 1.7 Affect-task-concept balancing: A technique to access the relative contribution of affect task, and conceptual concerns in all the major daily work activities of a work process fragment and its people. 1.7 The three job week A technique to access all task sets that constitute jobs & workers additional contribution beyond task sets to their; it determines the balance between work portions dedicated to past, present and future forms of work. 1.7 Development group hobbying Improvisations with exiting functions and structures of work targeted to create unanticipated new capabilities are exercised in disciplined fashion in this technique.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN STATISTICAL TOOLS
2.1 Check sheet To collect data in a sample and systematic method. 2.2 Pareto diagram To identify vital few and Trivial many 2.3 Cause-effect diagram To display the relationship between causes and effect 2.4 Histogram To display the distribution of data 2.5 Graphs / Control charts: To show the data in a visual and easily understandable manner To see if the process is under stable conditions 2.6 Scatter diagram: To study the relationship between two sets of data 2.7 Stratification: To group the data by common characteristics

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN MANAGEMENT TOOLS
3.1 Relation diagram A relation diagram of objects are arrows freely connecting them in any order. 3.2 Affinity diagram The affinity diagram reveals groups, themselves grouped into even larger groups. 3.3 The System diagram System diagram elaborates means most suitable for attaining given ends. 3.4 The matrix diagram: The fundamental role of the matrix diagram quality is to force work forces to give up thinking in single factor terms and require the Multi-dimensional and multi-factor aspects of problems be acknowledges. 3.5 Matrix Data Analysis: A matrix data analysis involves matrix with numeric data a its intersections. 3.6 The process decision chart: The process decision chart is an operations research method simplified for general work for use in quality. 3.7 The arrow diagram The Arrow diagram is just a generalized of PERT chart for scheduling the numerous actions expected of numerous people in such a way that critical paths / dependencies can be monitored and protected during implementation.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN IMPLEMENTATION TOOLS
4.1 Control points: Control points are measurement points in a process that captures only those causes acting on the process and determining the quality of its outcome. 4.2 The Add-on / Replacement Matrix: One dimension of the matrix shows the changes to be made to solve a problem in the process, and the other dimension shows each step in the process. 4.3 The System diagram System diagram elaborates means most suitable for attaining given ends. 4.4 The pain-Sharing matrix: Process empowerment rooms combine work coordination software and electronic meeting mediation software that support all the steps of modeling a process. 4.5 Discipline stretch rooms: Workers carryout intense multi day group exercises in work-related skills in immensely faster or better manners. 4.6 Entertainmentization styles : Entertainmentization tactics invite into all work situations and relationships entertainment factors that themselves invite affect, reverie and informal and speculative behaviors driven out of work by bureaucratic systems and the top chimpanzee game. 4.7 Serial Equity : An accounting system equalizes privilege and pain over intermediate periods to repay those members of groups who sacrifice for the groups benefit during one activity.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY

SEVEN PROCESS TOOLS


5.1 A Delta T: A way of modeling ones work process; it compares theoretical versus actual times, costs, qualities, and outcomes from each process step segment, and problem solves the largest and most problematic gaps. 5.2 Value Analysis: This defines the functions required to deliver customer satisfaction with the product, arranging such functions to show dependencies among them, and evaluating the functions to find areas to the product design to improve. 5.3 FAST diagram Charles Bytheways Functional Analysis Systems Technique is a diagram of a particular sort, tailored for showing the results of value analysis. 5.4 Iterator / recursor analysis: Iterator / recursor analysis examines all the steps in a process and notes identical sets of steps that can be done by the same system, similar sets of steps that can be done by parameterizing a single implementation system for them, and steps repeated exactly or partially on different size scales of the process for execution using a single system parameterized by size scale.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN PROCESS TOOLS ( Continued )
5.5 Variance Analysis: This identifies all the steps of process (mental work, physical work, relation maintaining or establishing work, and other) 5.6 Empowerment path matrix
The rows of the empowerment path matrix are the major steps of a cross-units empowerment process broken down into sub steps that show practical actions needed in the cross unit to implement each major empowerment step.

5.7 Competency matrix :


The row of the competency matrix are types of work, learning, influence, and customer-priority competency.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN KNOWLEDGE TOOLS
6.1 Consultation map: The consultation map is a matrix , too, though often one of the three dimensions, instead of two, or seven six dimensions (represented a 2 three-dimensional matrices) 6.2 Mastery Timeline: A mastery timeline shows the time till mastery for every step in a process and for conditions of mastery in tools, techniques and co-ordination. 6.3 In-de-ab-ductive bias chart A chat ranks people and jobs by the type of thinking typically needed to obtain required outputs from them in present configurations of work. 6.4 Improvisation map: A map shows where past improvisations with a process have taken place and where present improvisations with a process should be encouraged as improvement is thought likely here. 6.5 Practical Intelligence matrix: The rows of the matrix are the major dimensions of practical intelligenceconceptual, emotional social, executional, physical and heterogenial. 6.6. Organizational knowing matrix:
A morphological matrix shows as columns all the organizational knowledge that is near benchmark and a decided competitive advantage for the firm in its present state.

6.7 Knowledge fractality chart :

A chart has all the size scales of the organizations as rows and all the kind of knowledge of near benchmark level as columns.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN ADVANCE STATISTICS TOOLS
7..1 Simple correlation: Simple correlation compares data on one variables value to data on another variables values in such a way that possible casual influence between them can be ruled out entirely or possible ruled in (correlation is not equivalent to causation and does not prove it) 7.2 Multiple correlation: It is as simple, correlation except that it is done for many independent variables at once. 7.3 Stratification It is qualitative (examination of extremes and identifications of polar opposite phenomena) and quantitative methods (from exploratory data analysis) for seeing possible casual relations in data for explicit investigation using other statistics methods. 7.4 Anova: Anova is a statistical technique for proving the possibility of causal relation among several variable where one or more of the variables has non specific number values from nearly continuous range of values, but discrete values.
.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN ADVANCE STATISTICS TOOLS ( Continued )
7.5 Multiple Regression: It is same as multiple correlation except that the other shows us a number giving the degree of relationship, where multiple regression analysis gives as information on the kid and shape of relationship between variables. 7.6. Design of experiments :
A set of principles for crating experiments defines regions of variable value that accomplish customer satisfaction.

7.7 Factor Analysis:

A data reduction technique handles great numbers of variable when we do not know much about a situation and want to superficially survey dozen or hundreds of variable to find some likely to be influential and improvement.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN SYSTEMS TOOLS
8..1 Situational feed forward diagram: A diagram of all steps in a work process shows effect that deed forward from one step to any others further down, chronologically, in the process. 8.2 Situational feedback diagram: A diagram of all steps in a work process shows effects that feed backward to prior steps in a process. 8.3 Nonlocal Effects Diagram A diagram of a set of related physically continuous processes showing for each steps in a process the effects that it has on related or contiguous processes. 8.4 Conditions-of-doing effects diagram: A diagram captures for all the steps in a process the requisite of doing that step and their effects in fed forward and feed back terms. 8.5 Catastrophe effects diagram: a Diagram examines preset quantitative levels of key failure mode variables affecting a process. 8.6. Holographic state map: A diagram shows all size scales and process steps of all processes in a company that are addressing each of the major challenges of the company at any one time. 8.7 Time series analysis: A statistical technique foretells the future or predicts future values from present and past ones.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN MANAGEMENT-BY-EVENTS TOOLS
9..1 Participatory Research Assembly: A Mass Workshop Event Gets Major Research Results Nearly Instantly By Mobilizing Hundreds And Thousands Of Employees And Other in Highly Structured Workshop Process Carried Out Over Several Days. Entire Weeks, Or 1-Day Periods. 9.2 Participatory Town Meeting A Smaller Version Of The Participatory Research Assembly, The Town Meeting Only Involves Upto Few Hundred People. 9.3 Participatory Cabaret: A Mass Workshop Invents Art Forms As Acts In A Particular Cabaret Celebration. 9.4 Problem-Solving Unit: A Very Rapid Form Of Conducting The Cross Units Problem Solving Process Compress Workshop Into Three Days OR One Weekend Of 16-Hour Days.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN MANAGEMENT-BY-EVENTS TOOLS ( Continued )
9.5 Value Conversation: In Some Companies, A Value Conversation Is An Accrutrement To The 15 Minute Daily Company News Meeting For All Employees. 9.6. Venture Business Consult: A 10 Day Workshop Brings Together All The Parties Needed To Fund, Legally Create, Staff, Lead, Supply, Support, And Define Venture Business For A CrossUnit To Create. A Smaller Version Of The Participatory Research Assembly, The Town Meeting Only Involves Upto A Few Hundred People. 9.7 Customer Understanding Tour: A Company Led Vacation Schemes Mixes World Tours Of Competitors And National Tours Of The Other Competitors With Highly Subsidized Relaxation Activities In A Company Group Format That Is Deliberately Cross-Functional Yet To Allow Friends Within Functions To Travel Together.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN CUSTOMER UNDERSTANDING TOOLS
10..1 Loss Function: It Is A Quadratic Functional Representation Of What Divergence From Perfect Quality Costs The Customer Of A Product And The Company Supplying The Imperfect Product. 10.2 Neural Net Emotion Detection: A Famous Facial Muscle Measurement Technique Detects Inarticulate Customer Feelings In The Presence Of Test Product. 10.3 Focus Group Protocols: A Method Of Coding Body Language, Voice Intonation, And Interpersonal Social Interaction Effects, to Discount Verbal Reports In Focus Groups. 10.4 Voice Of The Customer Interaction Matrix: Test Product Displays In Shopping Centers Have Microphones On The Products To Pick Up Customers Casual Remarks As They Interact With The Products.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN CUSTOMER UNDERSTANDING TOOLS ( Continued )
10.5 Voice Of The Customer Interaction Matrix: An Interaction Matrix Shows Which Things Customer Want In A Product That It Easier To Want Other Things And Which Make It Harder To Want Other Things That They Want. 10.6. Expert System Voice Determinant Matrix: A Matrix Contains Expert Systems That Each Represent The Causal Determinants Of One Of The Aspect Or Features Of A Product And To Extend Influence On. Other Customers Of The Product Around The World. 10.7 Customer Leadership Establishment Chart: A Pert Chart Of Tactics Firms Use To Make Their Customers Best-InWorld In Taste And Use Of The Product And To Extend Their Influence On Other Customers Of The Product Around The World.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN Commitment TOOLS
11..1 Mentorship Coverage Map: A Map Of Al He People Having 8,12,16 Or 20 Years Experience In A Cross-Unit Or Company; It Facilitates Pairing Them With Newer And Less Experienced People For A Period Of Years. 11.2 Action Readiness Chart: A Diagram Shows Five Factors Required For Changing Human Behavior And Scoring Individuals And Groups On Each Quality Dimension, As Well As Work Processes. 11.3 Purposing Matrix A Set Of Score Sheets Has Rows Containing The Requisites Of High Performance. 11.4 Detachment Costing: A Technique Measure The Ability Of People To Engage Proactively In New Arrangements To Make Themselves And The Company Succeed.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN Commitment TOOLS ( continued )
11.5 Engagement Costing: A Technique Measures The Ability Of People To Engage Proactively In New Arrangements To Make Themselves And The Company Succeed. 11.6. Endurance Matrix: The Endurance Matrix Measures The Responsibility That People Embody For Finishing What They Start Even When Job Transfers Move Them From The Site Of Their Original Work. 11.7 Meta-Action Diagram: A Diagram Measures The Relative Portion Of Work, Meta Work, And Meta-Meta Work In A Persons Job.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN INNOVATION TOOLS
12..1 Morphological Forecasting: It Combines Unmet Customer Needs With Unused Technical Capabilities To Find Areas Of Possible New Products Or Enhancement Of Existing Products. 12.2 Idea Rooms: The Walls Of Idea Rooms Are Asynchronous Workshops Where People Walk Up And Items To Ongoing Thought Processes Represented There. 12.3 Consensus Graphs: Paper Or Computer Software Systems Show Each Individual Idea Or Piece Of Evidence Added To On-Going Arguments Or Discussions Of Issues. 12.4 Delphi: The Famous Written Asynchronous Workshop Where Formats Has In A Group Of People Interchanging Written Ideas In Response To Particular Directions Over a Period Of Days or Weeks. 12.5 Paradoxon Analysis: It Is A Problem Defining And Problem Solving Method. 12.6. Daily Life Protocols: Transcription Record Of All The Mundane Things Done And Said In Particular Everyday Situations Such As Making The Coffee Or Straightening The Top Of Ones Desk. 12.7 Product Metaphoric Transposition Matrix: A Matrix Of Aspects On One Product Or Invention Mapped Onto Correlate Aspects Of Other Situations Where There Is No Exact Fit, Only Metaphoric Fit.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN SOFTWARE TOOLS
13..1 Hypertext: It is a software for building indexs and directories, or simulating waking through new homes. 13.2 Group interfaces: Software developers created most interfaces to company or cross-unit systems for individuals to use, not groups. 13.3 End user programming using visual programming by assembly: Tool kits manipulated by graphic operations allow ordinary workers to build their own computer programs for certain categories of task. 13.4 Expert decision systems and knowledge bases Knowledge models contain the knowledge used in certain work situations that is turned into video tapes, expert system software, or object-oriented knowledge bases people can access the way they access ordinary data. 13.5 Work co-ordination and workflow software: A relatively new technology creates a completely different way for large organizations (or individual work groups) to support themselves with software. 13.6 Electronic facilitation of meetings: A technology wherein one facilitator in meetings transcribes what everyone says into a set of forms projected onto a larger screen. 13.7. Neural nets and classifier search engines: Technology for optimizing systems represents them quantitatively or in semi-structured message systems.

14 GENERATION OF QUALITY TOOLS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 98 TOOLS FOR QUALITY SEVEN SOCIAL CONNECTIONISM TOOLS
14..1 Process deployment automation: This includes work co-ordination, electronic meeting facilitation, self managing document technology, and know bots. 14.2 Function execution by mass work events: during mass participation events, firms distribute the most boring and mundane work to thousands who do in hours what a handful of people would otherwise spend a year doing. 14.3 Cognitively balanced jobs & careers: A map contains the cognitive requisites and opportunities of all the jobs in one persons career with an organization. 14.4 Value added process careers: A map shows the final impact of a persons work at all previous job positions. 14.5 Cross-unit promotion paths: Cross unit promotion paths show ways of networking the work forces that are members of a particulars cross-unit. 14.6 Self-explaining work processes: Work systems interactively tutor whose using them. Full motion video help announces news to process steps and publishes information to such process steps instead of to specific individuals. 14.7. Paradoxon in smallest work unit: A system addressing the major challenges of an organization in each of the smallest units of conducting work.