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Session: 3 Best materials for a safe and reliable gas grid

Plastics pipes A look into the future

S H Beech - SHB Consulting

Introduction whyuseplastics? Introduction why use plastics? Useofplasticsforgasdistribution Essentialrequirements i l i Fusionwelding Multilayerpipes RTPReinforcedthermoplasticspipes RTP Reinforced thermoplastics pipes Conclusion

Nocorrosion,noadditionalprotection No corrosion no additional protection Flexible,resistanttogroundmovement Endloadresistantleakfreefusionjoints Suppliedinlightweightcoils(< 200mm diameter)reducingjointingfrequency IdeallysuitedtoNoDigtechnology y g gy Maintenancefree,trackrecordofreliabilityand durability durability

Usedsince1960sfor<2barsystems Since1990s7barto10barsystemsinservice g followingtheintroductionofPE100 MajorpartoftheLPgridinmanycountries,eg UK,Belgium,France,Spain,Japan UK Belgium France Spain Japan PredominatelyPE,primematerialchoiceforlow pressuresystemsglobally pressure systems globally Otherplasticsusedinsmallvolumes,eghigh impactPVC,PEX,nylon i PVC PE X l


No-dig technology

Understandingoffracturebehaviour Understanding of fracture behaviour RCPandslowcrackgrowthresistance Deformation/effectofenvironment f i / ff f i Jointing/fusionweldingcharacteristics StandardsandCodesofPracticepromoting g q y highquality Costeffective

Innovative Continualmaterialdevelopments Manufacturersdevelopnewmultilayerand f d l l il d compositeproducts Increasingdiameterrangeforelectrofusion fittings ISO/TC138andCENTC155areveryactivein developmentofstandards p

Harmonisation of Polyethylene Pipe Buttfusion Procedures and Test Methods

Objective Obj ti
Recent advances in materials and extrusion technology are leading to increased use of large diameter thicker walled pipe. This project was set up by h b the PE 100+ A 100 Association to achieve the f ll i objective. i i hi h following bj i To develop both short term and long term tests to assess the integrity of buttfusion welds in thick walled pipe, to allow the harmonisation and optimisation of buttfusion procedures, and to allow machinery, operators and in-field welds to be assessed.
( (An example of collaboration between the end user, manufacturer, test laboratories p , , and material suppliers)
dont crack under pressure

Welded pipe rings

Cutting test specimens

dont crack under pressure

Sourcefeeds>100bar Highpressuregrid,~60to85bar Localtransmissionmediumpressure<40bar Lowpressuredistribution,<7to10bar Low pressure distribution < 7 to 10 bar Servicelines<2bar Withinbuildings,applianceconnection

CurrentlyplasticsmainlyusedinLPsystem Futurepotentialuseofplasticssystems? Indoorsystemsrequireresistanceto doo syste s equ e es sta ce to permeation,assessrisktofire/damage Medium/highpressuresrequiresstrength / g p q g beyondplasticscurrentlyused Multilayerandcompositeconstructions y p providetheanswer

ISO 174841/2 ML pipe for indoor applications ISO174841/2MLpipeforindoorapplications ISO18225MLpipeforoutdoorapplications Barrierlayerpipeforcontaminatedgroundorto eliminatepermeation PEpipewithaluminiumcentrelayerforindoor applications behaveslikecopperpipe ReadilyusedinGermanyandtheNetherlands Extensive experience in hot water applications Extensiveexperienceinhotwaterapplications

Typical5layerpipe PE Aluminium PE Adhesivelayersfor metal Fittingsshouldseal endsofpipe ends of pipe

Canplasticsmakethenextsteptohigher pressures? pressures? Monolayerpipe materialstrengthlimitations RTP R i f RTPReinforcedThermoplasticsPipes d Th l i Pi TypicallyPEbasepipe,tapereinforcement, extrudedPEouterlayer d d PE l Aramid(KevlarorTwaron),glass,steelmeshor cord d AllplasticsbyusingorientedPEtape


PE Kevlar tape PE

(Courtesy of Soluforce-Pipelife)

PE oriented PE tape PE i t d t

(Courtesy of Egeplast GmbH)

Advantages of plastics systems Advantagesofplasticssystems retained Corrosionresistance Suppliedincoils limitedto200 mmdia.forroadtransport Electrofusion technology for Electrofusiontechnologyfor joining Squeezeoffpossible RTP i RTPpipescanachievearatingof hi ti f >150bar,50years65C

Flexibility Strength RTP pipes Steel pipes

Light weight


Resistance to corrosion


Over 10 years oil industry experience Over10yearsoilindustryexperience Abovegroundserviceindesert steel failsinafewyears! Oilgathering70bar,waterinjection90 bar Field trials and experience being gained Fieldtrialsandexperiencebeinggained forgasdistributionparticularlyin Germany Pressuresupto42bar

Takeintoaccountpotentialgas permeationintoreinforcementlayer Noriskofouterlayerblowoffat>42 bar/65C Alightercheaperconstructioncanbe usedforthispressurerange df h Permeationcanbereducedor eliminated RTPnotvulnerabletoRCP wrapped tapepreventsaxialcrackgrowth Resistantto1100Cjetfirefor6 minutes Highresistancetodamage

Fieldtestswithbackhoehitting,horizontaldrilling g, g Worstcasesituation Superficialdamageofoutercover,notaffectingpipe performance Oneextremecasecreateshole(backhoehitspipeverticallyon topofpipe) Similartestsonsteeldamagecoatingwhichmayaffectlong termperformance Safety of steel and RTP systems is equal SafetyofsteelandRTPsystemsisequal Failureprobabilityforbothsystemswithinacceptablelimits
(Ref. RTP systems for gas distribution, Wolters et al., 23rd World Gas Conference, 2006)


InnersleeveEFweldedtopreventexposureoffibrelayertogas FibrereinforcedexternalsleevewithEFcoil Fullendloadresistance


Portable equipment for fusion welding

Swagedorcompressionfittings g p g hydraulicallypressedonpipe


Pressuretestsfailinpipe Nofailure axialtensile tests Bending with internal 40 Bendingwithinternal40 bar noleakage

Date Nov 03 Apr 04 Aug 04 Oct 04 Mar 05 Aug 05 Aug 05 Oct 05 Company Fahum Gas Egypt VNG Badenwerk Gas GmbH Ruhrgas Germany SGC Syna Shell Brunei Shell Syria (AFPC) E.ON Germany G Field/Location El Fayoum Berlin Plant BuchigOberacker Hannover relining SJC-SBC Seria Tanak Field Hirschbach Application Gas distribution Brine gas waste line Gas distribution Gas distribution Sour Gas ULLG Production gas Gas 25 bar/15C 25 bar/15C 90 bar/60C 50 bar/25C 98 bar/55C 22-42 bar/15C Press/Temp 36 bar/20C Size 4 in 5 in 5 in 4 in 4 in 5 in 5 in 4 in Length 380 m 60 m 4500 m 600 m 6m 18 km 11 m 440 m

ISO TS 18226:2006 Reinforced thermoplastics pipes (RTP) for ISOTS18226:2006Reinforcedthermoplasticspipes(RTP)for highpressuregasapplications(upto40bar) APIRP15S,RecommendedPracticefortheQualificationof SpoolableReinforcedPlasticLinePipe,publishedbythe S l bl R i f d Pl i Li Pi bli h d b h AmericanPetroleumInstitute(API)2006. DVGWTechnischeRegelVP642(2004),FaserverstaerktePE Rohre(RTP)undzugehoerigeVerbinderfuerGasleitungen mitBetriebsdrueckenueber16bar


Ref. Aramid reinforced plastic pipes, high strength pipes for gas transportation, D. von Amein, W.Wessing, E.ON Ruhrgas AG

Plastics pipes systems have been used very successfully since Plasticspipessystemshavebeenusedverysuccessfullysince 1960sforlowpressuregasdistribution solvingcorrosion issuesofmetals(PrimarilyinPE) Reliabilityanddurabilityhasbeenproven MultilayerandRTPpipesystemsarenowavailabletoextend theapplicationintoindoorandmediumpressuregas the application into indoor and medium pressure gas distribution UltimatelyRTPsystemsmaybeconsideredforhighpressure y y y g p pipelines

Theauthorwishestothankthefollowing forsupportandprovidinginformation: PE100+Association SoluforcePipelife FriatecAG EgeplastGmbH