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## By Muzammal Safdar:-

Q.No. 6.1:- Explain what do you understand by the term viscosity?

• Ans:- From the microscopic study of flowing fluid we know that fluid flows when

the layers of fluid slid over on another. But there exists another opposing force between the layers of fluid which wants to stop this sliding. This force is called the viscosity. In short we can say that viscosity is the opposing force (frictional effects between the relative motion of layers of fluid) between the layers of fluid which will slow down the flow of fluid or stop it if it is very large.

Q.No. 6.2:- What is meant by drag force? What are the factors upon

which drag force acting upon a small sphere of radius r, moving down through a liquid, depend?

• Ans:- When an object moving through a fluid then it will experience a

retarding(opposing) force called drag force. This force increase as the speed of the object increases in the fluid. The drag force ‘F’ is given by ‘Stockes Law’

F =6

rv

The factors upon which drag force depends are:

 (i) Speed of the sphere (ii) Radius of the sphere (iii) Coefficient of viscosity

Q.No. 6.3:- Why fog droplets appear to the suspended in air?

• Ans:- Let suppose that the fog droplet is just like a small sphere. So when it flows

through the air (which is fluid) then droplet will experience a retarding force of the magnitude

F =6

rv

As the droplet is very small so its radius is small and as a whole the drag force will be small. The drag force will be equal to its weight which is also very small. So the drop let will soon attains a terminal velocity which is

v =

t

2

gr

2

9

As terminal velocity also depends upon radius so the droplet will fall very slowly and it will appear to be suspended in air.

Q.No. 6.4:- Explain the difference between laminar flow and turbulent flow.

Ans:-

Laminar Flow:- If every particle of the fluid that passes a point moves along the same path, as followed by particles, which passed that point earlier is called laminar flow.

Turbulent Flow:- The irregular or unsteady flow of the fluid is called turbulent flow. In this case the exact path of the particles of the fluid cannot by predicted as the velocity of the fluid may change abruptly.

Q.No.6.5:- State Bernoulli’s relation for a liquid in motion and describe some of its applications.

Ans:- Bernoulli’s equation is the fundamental equation in fluid dynamics which

states that the sum of pressure and kinetic and potential energies per unit volume is a steady flow of an incompressible and non viscous liquid has the same value.

Thus;

P =

1

• 2 gh = Constant
2

v

+

Where” ρ” is the density of the fluid and “g” is the acceleration due to gravity. Some of the applications of Bernoulli’s equation are

 (i) Lift in an airplane. (ii) Swing of a cricket ball (iii) Working of a filter pump (iv) Measurement of speed of liquid or gas flow through a pipe.

Q.No. 6.6:- A person is standing near a fast moving train. Is there any danger that he will fall towards it?

Ans:- From the application of Bernoulli’s equation we have come to know that the place where the speed of fluid is high there the pressure will be low and vice versa. So, a person standing near a fast moving train will obviously in danger. Because when a train moving fast then speed of air near the train will be high and away from the person will be low. So this pressure difference will pull the man toward the fast moving train.

Q.No. 6.7:- Identify the correct answer. What do you infer from Bernoulli’s theorem? (i)Where the speed of the fluid is high the pressure will be low. (ii)Where the speed of the fluid is high the pressure is also high. (iii)This theorem is valid only for turbulent flow of the liquid.

Ans:- The correct statement is (i) where the speed of the fluid is high the pressure will be low.

Q.No. 6.8:- Two rowboats moving parallel in the same direction are pulled towards each other. Explain.

Ans:- When two boats moving parallel in the same direction, the water between them is also dragged along with them. When water dragged then the speed of water will be fast, than the water on the other sides of the boats. Hence the pressure will be low where the speed is high and vice versa. So, the high pressure at the other sides will pull the boats to the side where the pressure is low. Hence as a result the boats will pull toward each other.

Q.No. 6.9:- Explain how the swing is produced in a fast moving cricket ball?

Ans:- When a fast moving cricket ball moves in such a way that it spins as well as moves forward, then the air deflects due to the spin and unsmooth surface of ball the stream lines of air becomes closer to each other and results the increase of air speed and low pressure. On one side of ball there exists low pressure while on other side high. This change in pressure will cause the ball to lift. This will give an extra curvature to the ball known as swing, which deceives the batsman.  Extra Elucidation

Often Bernoulli's principle is used to explain the topspin effect, as the difference in speed between ball

surface and air is greater on the top of the ball. For example, if the air flowing past the bottom of the ball is moving faster than the air flowing past the top then Bernoulli's principle implies that the pressure on the surfaces of the ball will be lower below than above. In other words, since there is more air friction occurring on the top surface of the ball compared to the bottom, this differential causes a greater pressure to be applied on the top of the ball, resulting in the ball being pushed down. In ball sports, topspin is a property of a ball that rotates as if rolling in the same direction as it is moving. Topspin on a shot imparts a downward force that causes the ball to drop, due to its interaction with the air. It can be generated by hitting the ball with an up-and-forward swing, with the racquet facing below the direction it is moving. A topspin shot is the opposite of the slice; topspin itself is the opposite of backspin

Q.No. 6.10:- Explain the working of carburetors of a motorcar using Bernoulli’s equation.

Ans:- The carburetor of a car engine uses a Venturi duct to feed the correct mix of air and petrol to the cylinders. Air is drawn through the duct and along a pipe to the cylinders. A tiny inlet at the side of the duct is fed with petrol. The air through the duct moves very fast, creating low pressure in the duct, which draws petrol vapors into the air stream. Extra Elucidation

 A venturi is a tube with a convex taper, (one end wider than the other). As air enters the wider end it' s squeezed into the narrower section of the tube, lowering the air 's pressure. The area of lowest pressure is just past the narrowest point and is called the depression. This has always seemed counterintuit ive to me, but Bernoull i ' s Principle outl ines the fluid dynamics involved in this effect. This lowered pressure, or comparative vacuum is separate from the

engine vacuum. A variable venturi varies the venturi diameter at the depression by raising or lowering an obstruction. This obstruction is called a slide. On a CV the slide is called a piston or diaphragm valve.

Q.No.6.11:- For which position will the maximum blood pressure in the body have the smallest value: (a) Standing up right (b) Sitting (c) Lying horizontally (d) Standing on one’s head?

Ans:- When a man lying horizontally then in this case the heart will work quiet small. Consider the lying position, in this case all the parts are in level with the heart. When the blood circulates then every part of blood vessels make an angle of 90 degree with the earth surface. And the cos90 is zero(0) so the work done by heart against gravity becomes zero( or approximately negligible).

Q.No.6.12:- In an orbiting space station, would the blood pressure in major arteries in the leg ever be greater than the blood pressure in major arteries in the neck?

Ans:- Pressure is just like a force so to overcome a force we should exert a force which is equal but opposite. In case of orbiting space station where is the condition of weightlessness, so the blood pressure will be equal in all parts of body.

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