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Computer Networks

A computer network is a collection of computers and other hardware components interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information. More than one computer interconnected through a communication medium for information interchange is called a computer network. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics, such as the medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, and organizational scope. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of these disciplines.


The ability to easily share information, software and other resources with multiple computers and multiple users, making file sharing easier and more efficient. The sharing of hardware by connecting all computers to one set of hardware and resources, such as a single printer, Internet connection, etc. The ability to keep your computer safe, since its much easier to control information on one shared system, rather than having it transferred and shared through email, USB keys, etc. You can also apply the same security features across all computers, so that all users in the network have the same protection against viruses, the same backup system and the same maintenance schedule.


Networked computers are more susceptible to hackers, since physical access to the computer is not required in order to access its data. To keep your network safe, use security software and regularly change your passwords. Computer viruses can spread rapidly through a network. To keep your network safe, install a high-quality anti-virus program and run regular virus scans. If the main server crashes, all computers residing on the network would be affected. To avoid losing your information, maintain a scheduled backup system that saves your data to either a second drive or cloud-based service.

PC Personal Computer NIC - Network Interface Card - This is both an electrical interface to the router/modem, and a logical board that communicates to the rest of the pc, usually registered jack forty five or registered jack eleven standard. The cable to provide a carrier for the signals is either shielded or unshielded. When you connect to the internet for example the nic should send out fast link pulses that try to establish the acceptable speed of connection between the modem/router on the global side. These pulses are of a fixed length - if one side can respond within x number of milliseconds it will communicate at y speed, assuming both sides are set to autonegociate. Hub -Seldom used, this splits the connection between multiple PCs, which may regenerate the signal. Switch - used to split multiple pcs into different groupings based on logical needs or security needs, within the same subnet or LAN Router - used to send data between physical networks.

Types of computer networks

LAN - Local Area Network: spread over few km WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network: a LAN based on Wi-Fi wireless network technology WAN - Wide Area Network : a WAN spans a large physical distance. The Internet is the largest WAN, spanning the Earth. MAN - Metropolitan Area Network: a network spanning a physical area larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN, such as a city.

A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers in a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media.[1] The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide area networks (WANs), include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. Early LAN cabling had always been based on various grades of coaxial cable. As cabling is not always

possible, wireless Wi-Fi is now very common in residential premises - and elsewhere where support for mobile laptops and smartphones is important.

OSI Model
The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. It is a prescription of characterizing and standardizing the functions of a communications system in terms of abstraction layers. Similar communication functions are grouped into logical layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it.

Layer 1: physical layer The physical layer defines electrical and physical specifications for devices. It defines the relationship between a device and a transmission medium, such as a copper or fiber optical cable. This includes the layout of pins, voltages, cable specifications, signal timing, hubs, repeaters. The major functions and services performed by the physical layer are:

Establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium. Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users. For example, contention resolution andflow control. Modulation or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. These are signals operating over the physical cabling

Layer 2: data link layer The data link layer provides the functional means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and correct errors that may occur in the physical layer. In modern practice, only error detection, not flow control using sliding window, is present in data link protocols such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), and, on local area networks, the IEEE 802.2 LLClayer is not used for most protocols on the Ethernet, and on other local area networks, its flow control and acknowledgment mechanisms are rarely used. Sliding window flow control and acknowledgment is used at the transport layer by protocols such as TCP, Both WAN and LAN service arrange bits, from the physical layer, into logical sequences called frames. Not all physical layer bits necessarily go into frames, as some of these bits are purely intended for physical layer functions. For example, every fifth bit of the FDDI bit stream is not used by the layer.

Layer 3: network layer The network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source host on one network to a destination host on a different network, while maintaining the quality of service requested by the transport layer. The network layer performs network routing functions, and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly, and report delivery errors. Routers operate at this layer, sending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible. This is a logical addressing scheme values are chosen by the network engineer. The addressing scheme is not hierarchical. The network layer may be divided into three sub layers: 1. Subnetwork access that considers protocols that deal with the interface to networks, such as X.25; 2. Subnetwork-dependent convergence when it is necessary to bring the level of a transit network up to the level of networks on either side 3. Subnetwork-independent convergence handles transfer across multiple networks. Layer 4: transport layer The transport layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. The transport layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control, segmentation/desegmentation, and error control. Some protocols are state and connection-oriented. This means that the transport layer can keep track of the segments and retransmit those that fail. The transport layer also provides the acknowledgement of the successful data transmission and sends the next data if no errors occurred, tunneling protocols operate at the transport layer, such as carrying non-IP protocols. While Generic Routing Encapsulation(GRE) might seem to be a network-layer protocol, if the encapsulation of the payload takes place only at endpoint, GRE becomes closer to a transport protocol that uses IP headers but contains complete frames or packets to deliver to an endpoint. L2TP carries PPP frames inside transport packet. Although not developed under the OSI Reference Model and not strictly conforming to the OSI definition of the transport layer, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) of the Internet Protocol Suite are commonly categorized as layer-4 protocols within OSI.

Layer 5: session layer The session layer controls the dialogues (connections) between computers. It establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. It provides for full-duplex, half-duplex, or simplex operation, and establishes check pointing, adjournment, termination, and restart procedures. The OSI model made this layer responsible for graceful close of sessions, which is a property of the Transmission Control Protocol, and also for session check pointing and recovery, which is not usually used in the Internet Protocol Suite. The session layer is commonly implemented explicitly in application environments that use remote procedure calls. On this level, Inter-Process communication happen (SIGHUP, SIGKILL, End Process, etc.). Layer 6: presentation layer The presentation layer establishes context between application-layer entities, in which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides a mapping between them. If a mapping is available, presentation service data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units, and passed down the stack. This layer provides independence from data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating between application and network formats. The presentation layer transforms data into the form that the application accepts. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. Layer 7: application layer The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. Application-layer functions typically include identifying communication partners, determining resource availability, and synchronizing communication. When identifying communication partners, the application layer determines the identity and availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. When determining resource availability, the application layer must decide whether sufficient network or the requested communication exists. In synchronizing communication, all communication between applications requires cooperation that is managed by the application layer.