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Chapter 4 Electronics

1. Thermionic emission electrons emission from heated metal surface - free-moving electrons remain in metal until sufficient heat is obtained to overcome the nuclei attraction & escape Large surface area High temperature of metal Type of metal metal surface coated with metal oxide more electrons emitted more electron gain energy to escape require less energy for electron emission lower temperature for electron emission

Vacuum tube evacuated tube so that electron can move without obstruction of air molecule Cathode rays electron stream moving at high speed Cathode ray Oscilloscope - a device that convert electrical signal to visual display Electron 1. filament (cathode) - with oxide coating to produce high concentrated electron beam Gun 2. Control grid - control number of electron emitted 3. Focusing Anode - attract electron & focusing electron into a beam 4. Accelerating Anode - accelerate electron beam Deflection X-plates - sweep electron beams horizontally System Y-plates - sweep electron beams vertically Fluorescent coated with phosphor - to convert kinetic energy to light energy ( fluorescence) screen / zinc sulphide - show cathode rays have energy & momentum Control knob Brightness / Brilliance Focus AC/DC switch control control grid Focusing Anode function control bright spot intensity

control sharpness of bright spot switch to d.c.position to display a.c. & d.c. voltage switch to a.c.position to display a.c. voltage. D.c signal blocked by capacitor X-shift X-plates control bright spot horizontal position Time-base X-plates control magnitude of bright spot horizontal deflection X- input X-plates connect voltage to X-plates Y-shift Y-plates control bright spot vertical position Y-gain Y-plates control magnitude of bright spot vertical deflection Y- input Y-plates connect voltage to Y-plates Earth Y-plates disconnect voltage to Y-plates Peak voltage trace height from zero position X Y-gain (vp = Vr.m.s) C.R.O as voltmeter more accurate ( have infinite internal resistance, so current is negligible ) - measure time interval (detect small changes accurately) - measure d.c & a.c voltage - immediate response Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

Semiconductor - material conduct electricity better than insulator but not as good as conductor - insulator at low temperature, conductor at room temperature - made from silicon & germanium 1. silicon & germanium atom have four electron in outermost orbit & have perfect covalent bond. When temperature increase, electrons gain sufficient energy to break free, then positive hole is formed Intrinsic Semiconductor - made form pure material - affected by temperature - when voltage applied, it conducts small current - number of electrons same with number of holes - current flow is electron current & hole current Extrinsic Semiconductor - made form impurities added material - Doped semiconductor

Hole conduction migrating of hole in opposite direction to free electron movement Doping adding certain impurities (dopants) to semiconductor to increase conductivity n-type Semiconductor - high number of free electron - doped with pentavalent atoms (phosphorus, arsenic & antimony) - silicon atoms replaced by dopant atoms to form 4 covalent bond & an extra electron - pentavalent / donor atom donate extra electron - electron as majority carriers, holes as minority carriers p-type Semiconductor - high number of free holes - doped with trivalent atoms (boron, aluminum, indium & gallium - silicon atoms replaced by dopant atoms to form 3 covalent bond & create a hole - trivalent / acceptor atom accepts extra electron - hole as majority carriers, electron as minority carriers

Semiconductor Diodes - made from p-n junction Depletion layer - free electron diffuse from n-type to p-type to fill the holes, holes from p-type to n-type - block current flow from n-type to p-type, but allow current flow from p-type to n-type ( allow current flow in a direction but block in the opposite direction) Connection in series: Forward Bias 1. p-type connect to + terminal, while n-type to terminal 2. hole from p-type & electron from n-type push to p-n junction 3. continuous current flow 4. 0.7V needed to produce sufficient current to conduct the diode

Reversed Bias 1. n-type connect to + terminal, while p-type to terminal 2. hole from p-type & electron from n-type pulled away from p-n junction 3. small current flow, depletion layer widened 4. 10mA needed to conduct the diode

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Rectifier - a device that convert alternating current to direct current Rectification conversion of alternating current to direct current using a diode Half-wave Rectification ( Clipper Rectifier) 1. Process of every cycle half of an alternating current is made to flow in a direction 2. Current flow in first cycle when diode is forward bias, blocked in second-half when diode is reversed bias 3. Inefficient for power transfer Full-wave Rectification ( Bridge Rectifier) 1. Process of every cycle half of an alternating is made to flow in the same direction 2. D1 & D3 are forward bias while D2 & D4 are reverse bias in first half cycle 3. D1 & D3 are reverse bias while D2 & D4 are forward bias in second half cycle 4. cuurent flow continuous

Centre-tapped full-wave rectifier - Two diode are placed back to back in secondary coil of the transformer - D1 is forward bias & D2 is reverse bias Capacitor Smoothing - placed in parallel with load resistor - charging & discharging process will reduce wave ripples Transistor - device with three terminal : collector, base, emitter - function as switch, amplifier, voltage stabilizer & signal modulator - battery is connected to base to forward bias base-emitter junction, allow current flow from collector to emitter
- small current in base-emitter circuit switch on transistor & allow large current to flow in collector-emitter circuit - small base current cause big collector current

n-p-n Transistor - p-type semiconductor sandwiched with 2 n-type

p-n-p Transistor n-type semiconductor sandwiched with 2 p-type

Potential Divider Transistor switches depend on voltage applied to base Automatic Switch - rheostat resistance increase, base voltage increase, base current will flow & transistor turn on - rheostat can be replace by light-dependent resistor, thermistor & Light-controlled Switch 1. LDR & R form a potential driver 2. In daylight, LDR resistance decrease, potential difference across transistor decrease, bulb switch off 3. In darkness, LDR resistance increase, potential difference across transistor increase, bulb switch on.

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Heat-controlled Switch 1. Thermistor & R form a potential driver 2. In room temperature thermistor resistance high, potential difference across transistor decrease 3. Temperature increase, thermistor resistance decrease, potential difference across transistor decrease, bulb switch on, relay switch on & alarm activated 4. Diode- protect transistor damaged by large induced e.m.f when collector current drop to 0 Sound-controlled Switch 1. Microphone replace R. rheostat adjusted so transistor turn on when mircophone detect a sound 2. Capacitor- prevent d.c. flow but allow a.c from mircophone flow through base terminal. Logic-gate NOT AND (Automatic Fan- temp & light) OR (Fire Alarm- smoke & heat) NOR Logic-gate Control System Input sensor (sensor & switch) Control circuit ( Logic gate) Output device (Alarm, blub)

NAND NAND+NAND 2(NAND)+NAND 2(NAND)+NAND+NAND

detect physical condition changes make decision be an indicator

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Chapter 5 Radioactivity -spontaneous decaying of unstable nucleus followed by a photon emission Radiation energy release by unstable nucleus in form of photons Electromagnetic radiation electromagnetic waves with photons Ionising/Radioactive emission energetic particle / photon
Alpha particles helium nucleus + charge slow speed High Ionizing ability Low Penetrating power Stopped by paper heavier than beta particles deflected towards charged plate Beta particles high energy electron - charge fast speed Medium Ionizing ability Medium Penetrating power Stopped by aluminium foil lighter than alpha particles deflected towards + charged plate Gamma rays electromagnetic waves no charge speed of light Low Ionizing ability High Penetrating power Stopped by lead concrete no mass no deflection

Detecting ionizing effect of radiation


a) Geiger-Muller tube with ratameter 1. Radioactive emission enters through the mica window & ionises argon gas. 2. The ions produces current pulse counted by ratemeter. 3. Background count rates. - due to natural radiation & cosmic radiation (detect alpha, beta & gamma) b) Cloud Chamber 1. Radiation produces ions & alcohol vapour condenses on the ions to make visible radiation tracks. Alpha Beta Gamma 1. Dense strong 1. Thin straight non-clear or ionization power 2. tracks - Very fast. continuous tracks Straight tracks - has large 2. Short thick tracks due to low mass & momentum, not which curve in ionizing power easily deflected random direction d) Photographic Badge (detect beta & gamma)

c) Spark Counter (detect alpha) - Radioactive emission ionises air between Darken when received radiation. Darken degree show wire gauze & thin wire. The ions motion to radiation amount the person exposed to. wire gause & thin wire produce sparks Radioactive decay- process where unstable nucleus change into more stable nucleus by emitting radiation

Radioisotopes - unstable isotopes which decay and give out radioactive emissions. Half-life - time for half of the radioactive nuclei to decay Decay rate decrease with time, short half-life decay faster & long half-life decay slower 1. Industry (a) Smoke detectors Americium-241 (long half-life, last longer )emit alpha particles that ionized air molecules. Ionized air molecules conduct electricity and a small current flows in the smoke detector. When smoke enters the detector, the soot particles absorb alpha particles. & causes current flows in the smoke detector to decrease and trigger the alarm. (b)Thickness control Radioactive sends beta radiation through the sheet. Radiation detector on the other side measures radiation intensity passing through the sheet. If the sheet is too thin, the reading of the detector increases. Roller control sent a signal to the rollers to readjust pressure on sheets Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

(c) Detecting leaks in underground water pipes. Radioactive substance emits beta particles is added to water pipeline. Radiation produced is detected with a GM tube counter, large count rate indicate leak in that area. 2. Medicine (a) Radioactive tracers Nuclear medicine uses radiation to provide information about specific organs function & treat disease. Radioisotope taken in by inhalation, injection or orally Radiation emitted enables organs to be imaged by imaging equipment & detected disorders Characteristics of radioisotope: (a) medium half-life, enough to examine body metabolic processes and minimize radiation dose (b) Emits low energy gamma rays with greater penetration power & low ionization power (b)Sterilizing- Gamma rays used to kill bacteria (c)Cancer treatment Gamma rays can kill living cells without surgery through radiotherapy. Excessive radiation will damage healthy cells. Insufficient radiation will not stop spreading of cancer 3. Agriculture Phosphorus-32 (emit beta particles, medium half life) to study fertilizer absorption & movement in plant. Radioisotopes used to kill pests, produce new strains of plant and control ripening of fruits. 4. Archaeology Carbon-14 (long half-life & emits beta particles) in animals and plants to tell its age. When they die, the amount of carbon-14 in their body decreases at a known rate. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------atomic mass unit- unit of mass for atoms and subatomic particles nuclear energy kinetic energy released during radioactive emission nuclear fission- splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei - occurs when nucleus is bombarded with a neutron, cause nucleus to split into two or more nuclei & releasing a lot of energy chain reactions - self-sustaining reaction in which reaction products initiate another similar reaction controlled chain reaction used in nuclear power stations, uncontrolled chain reaction used nuclear bombs. Critical mass- minimum mass to sustain chain reaction
Graphite & water as moderators to slow down neutron & enable chain reaction to occur at a smaller critical mass

nuclear fusion - combining of two lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus, used in hydrogen bombs - release more energy than nuclear fission - occur two+ charged nuclei close enough that nuclear forces pull them together at high temperature Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

Mass defect = sum of the masses sum of the masses before reaction after reaction Mass and energy can be exchanged one for the other, total mass-energy is conserved A nuclear reactor Uranium fuel rods : Nuclei split by neutrons in controlled chain reaction, energy released heats up old gas that passes through the reactor core. Graphite moderator: As moderator to slow down the fast so that readily captured by uranium nuclei. Boron / cadmium control rod Control rate of fission reaction. Rods lowered into reactor core to absorb neutrons, than rate of the fission reaction decrease. Concrete shield: Prevents leakage of radiation from reactor core. Heat exchanger: Heat energy from hot gas is used to boil water into steam Coolant: Remove heat from the nuclear reactor. Use H2O & CO2 (high specific heat capacity) Turbines: Rotated by high pressure steam flow Coil and magnet: Generated electricity by electromagnetic induction. Electricity generated by fission reactions, consists of a nuclear reactor and a generator. Nuclear (fission reaction) > Heat (steam) > Kinetic(turbines) > Electrical Nuclear fission heat up cold gas. Hot gas boil water into steam flow that drives turbine & turn coils in generator to produce electricity Advantage Disadvantage 1. Not expensive 1. Expensive initial cost to build nuclear power station. 2. Does not produce carbon dioxide, does not cause 2. Explosion, leakage of radioactive substance may happen. greenhouse effect. & produces less waste 3. Used fuel rods are hot, highly radioactive & long half-lives. 3. Less fuel produces huge amounts of energy 4. Expensive procedures to cool down & store fuel rods 4. Vast reserves of nuclear fuel in the world. 5. Hot water discharged can cause thermal pollution 5. Produces useful radioisotopes in industry, 6. Affect health of worker & those living near due to medicine, agriculture and research. exposure of excessive radiation. Negative Effects of Radioactive Substances 1. Ionise & kill cells, cause tissue damage. 2. High doses of radiation can cause radiation burns. 3. Cause genetic damage to cells, lead to cancerous cells and tumour development. Inside the body, alpha particles are most harmful due to highest ionization power. Outside the body, gamma rays are most harmful due to highest penetrating power. 4. Somatic effect-. Hair loss, radiation burns, cataracts, Blood disorder (leukemia), Organ failure, death 5. Genetic effect affects reproductive cells & lead to defective offspring Birth defects, premature death, chromosome abnormalities, cancer in later life. Safety procedures handling radioactive substances. 1. Wear gloves - prevent radioactive source contamination 2. Wear laboratory coats, long pants, and closed-toe footwear should. 3. Wear radiation badges containing photographic film to monitor radiation exposure. 4. Cover radioactive storage areas with absorbent material to prevent radiation leakage . 5. Kept Radioactive material in unbreakable containers , concrete lead box 6. Handle radioactive sources with forceps &robots behind thick lead concrete panels.

E = mc E = energy released, in joules, J m = loss of mass or mass defect, kg c = speed of light = 3.0 x 108 m/s

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Waste Management Low level waste Buried in shallow landfill sites. Compacted & incinerated (in a closed container) before disposal to reduce its volume.

Intermediate level waste: - Solidified in concrete / bitumen for disposal Short-lived waste is buried. Long-lived waste is disposed deep underground

High level waste - Ex; used fueled rods /liquid waste - Used special shielding during handling and transport. - Incorporating into borosilicate glass & sealed inside stainless steel containers, then dispose into deep underground.

a) Concentrate & Contain waste compacted into smaller size & stored in isolated place b) Dilute & Disperse - waste diluted & discharged to environment c) Delay & decay waste store in underground / under the sea (high pressure) & left to decay

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