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ACKNOWLEDGEMEN T

A formal statement of acknowledgement will hardly meet the ends of justice in the matter of expressing my deep sense of gratitude and obligation to all those who helped me in the completion of this project report. The past six weeks working on this project under the guidance of my Project Leader and Guide has greatly influenced my way of thinking towards facing the challenges during day-to-day development of this project. This will help me a lot in future as I move further ahead in my professional life in the days to come. It gives me immense pleasure to express my deepest gratitude towards Ms. Himmi Jain, Mr. Deepak Kumar & HPL employees who helped me a lot throughout this project.

Pallavi Pandey

TABLE OF CONTENTS

S. NO. CONTENTS
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 2. 3. 4 5 6 7 8 9 COMPANY PROFILE INTRODUCTION TO STRESS MANAGEMENT RESEARCH METHODOLOGY QUESTIONNAIRE DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATION BIBLIOGRAPHY

PAGE NO. 4 5 6 17 60 63 65 77 78 79

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
PEOPLE is the most important and valuable resource every organization has in the form of its employees. Dynamic people can make dynamic organizations. Effective employees can contribute to the effectiveness of the organization Competent and motivated people can make things happen and enable an organization to achieve its goals.

Organizations have now started realizing that the systematic attention to human resources is the only way to increase organizational efficiency in terms productivity, quality, profits and better customer orientation. HR can help deliver organizational excellence by focusing on learning, quality, teamwork, and through various employee friendly strategies. My project has been accomplished in HPL INDIA LTD. This is one of the best company in manufacturing of Electrical goods headquartered at New Delhi.

This project has been accomplished in two parts: The first priority was to understand the working of an HR department and hence the first part of the project report is about the HR Processes, Policies and Systems at HPL INDIA LTD. The various processes like recruitment & selection etc.

The second half of the project report is focused on stress assessment and its

management.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objective of this project was: For PART I


To understand the functions, working, of HR Dept at HPL India Ltd.

For PART II

To study the causes and sources of stress among employees at HPL.

To analyse satisfaction level of employees.

To analyse the ways to reduce stress at workplace.

To study the importance of stress management.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY


This research provides me with an opportunity to explore in the field of Human Resources. Apart from that it would provide me a great deal of exposure to interact with the high Profile managers of the company.

COMPANY PROFILE
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(HPL India Ltd.)

HPL, with its unwavering commitment to the creation of world-class quality products, the HPL Group has created a niche for itself in the electrical industry. Today, HPL is regarded as The Technology Brand of India and is one of the premium manufacturers of reliable Electrical Protection Equipments, Switchgears, Energy Meters and Energy Management Systems. Consistent and sound policies have helped the HPL Group mark a strong presence nationally as well as globally. In its own special way, HPL is committed to the growth and expansion of Brand India. HPL, current year with a turnover of over Rs.800 crores, has a strong work force of over 4500, including Technocrats, Design and R&D Engineers and Marketing Professionals. HPL believes in providing a range of quality products to the consumers. The latest JV with Moeller will enable us to provide world-class product having latest technology. HPL India Ltd, one of the leading manufacturers of Switchgears and Protection Devices, Lighting, Wire &cable Electronic Energy Meters and Energy Management Systems in India Superior technology, impressive product portfolio and a quality driven attitude have given HPL an edge in the competitive market. This has also attracted major international players to collaborate with HPL and work successfully together.

Moeller HPL India Pvt. Ltd: Announced its joint venture Moeller-HPL India Pvt. Ltd with the European Giants The Moeller Group, Germany, one of the leading suppliers of Power Distribution and Automation components worldwide. Moeller-HPL India Pvt. Ltd. the new joint venture Company will manufacture & market the latest world-class Power Distribution and Protection Components in India. HPL Electric & Power Pvt. Ltd. : A joint venture between HPL Group and Europe's leading switchgear company Socomec S.A. France, is a market leader in switches and protection equipment manufacturing changeover switches, ATyS, isolators, Panel Meters, 5

Electronic Energy Meters, Multifunction Energy Meters &energy Management System, the energy management control and protection system. HPL Socomec is today the top of mind brand in the market. HPL LK: HPL and LK of Denmark alliance has resulted in the manufacture of compact space saving technically advanced Switch Disconnector Fuse and Switch Disconnector of international quality. HPL Elektra: an alliance with Elektra Tailfingen of Germany, HPL Produces new age Cam operated Rotary Switches. At HPL, we firmly believe quality is not a program; it is an approach to business. It is a collection of powerful tools and concepts that is proven to work. It is defined by the customer through his or her satisfaction. Total Quality Management:

Quality includes continuous improvement and breakthrough events. HPL aimed at performance excellence, anything less is an improvement opportunity. Increases customer satisfaction, reduces cycle time and costs, and eliminates errors and rework. Certification HPL'S is ISO 9002 certified, HPL Product range is successfully tested as per latest IS and IEC standards, also conforming to BSEN & VDE, the European Standards and approved by UL, CE, Lloyds Register of Shipping and TUV. The products are periodically tested as per latest standards at all major testing laboratories in India.

HPL has its presence all over the country and overseas in Srilanka, Bangladesh, Malaysia, UAE, Kuwait and other Southeast Asian & European Countries. Foreign Tie-ups

HPL has collaborations with equity participation with world renowned multi-national companies in the electrical field such as Moeller in Austria & Germany and Socomec S.A., in France. Moeller is over a billion Euro company renowned for its low and high voltage electrical equipments and circuit breakers. It is having equity participation with HPL in Moeller HPL (P) Ltd.

Socomec of France which specializes in Switchgear & Energy Management Products in Europe is having equity participation with HPL in HPL Socomec (P) Ltd and Socomec HPL (P) Ltd. The product manufactured by these joint ventures companies are the best in Technology, Quality and Design that is available in Europe & now in India. HPL manufactures a wide range of Products in Switchgears, Metering, Lighting, protection equipments. The company has 69 marketing offices spread throughout the country with 1200 authorized dealers and 15000 retailers stretched all across the country. Our team of over 4500 work force and more than 350 sales and service engineers are there for effective and quick before-and-after sales service.

MISSION AND VISION:

Mission
Our mission is to provide the latest and the best technology product in the field of Switchgear, Electronic Meters, and Lighting.

Future Vision
In line with its global ambitions, HPL has been gearing up its operations by strengthening current business

practices and aligning them with the best global standards to create new benchmarks of quality and customer satisfaction. HPL is committed to develop empowering technology in the form of easy to use, dependable products that meet the Customers needs. Exporting its products to Middle East, SAARC and European Countries, HPL is increasingly focused on export-led growth through optimal utilization of its comparative technical advantage vis--vis competitors. Two key factors at HPL ensure a lasting competitive advantage: an innovative business model, and complete market intelligence. Optimum implementation of these factors enables HPL to create a more effective, sustainable operation, and more value for the customers and it will continue to focus on consolidating its dominant position in India, while expanding its reach globally.

MANAGEMENT TEAM

Mr. Lalit Seth


Managing Director

A visionary entrepreneur endowed with inimitable dynamism and futuristic sagacity is a keen observer of market trends all over the world. It was his distinctive idea of import substantiation that resulted in growth of HPL, having experience of over 37 years in the Industry.

Mr. Rishi Seth Joint Managing Director An MBA has been in business for the past 15 years looking after the Energy Meter marketing, Production, Planning, General Administration of a few units.

Mr. Gautam Seth Joint Managing Director A Qualified Chartered Accountant has been in Business for 12 years and is handling Finance, Accounts, taxation and other related activities. Mr. C.P. Jain is an Electrical Engineer with 23 years of experience of manufacturing electrical product. He has worked with leading companies. He has been working with HPL Group for the past 11 years and is the Executive Director of Electronic Meter Division besides being incharge of Research, Development and Quality Control.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF HPL INDIA

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INFRASTRUCTURE

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HPL is committed to constantly pushing new frontiers of knowledge in pursuit of new horizons of technology. HPL has seven integrated state-of-the-art Manufacturing facilities having international quality certificate ISO-9001:2000. These production units dedicated to deliver international quality standards are located at Okhla (Delhi), Noida (U.P.), Gurgaon (Haryana), Jabli (Himachal Pradesh) and Sonipat (Haryana). We have a well equipped:
R

& D Centre for energy Meters Meter Test Benches Manufacturing Plants shop shop

Electronic CFL

Moldings Machine Press

Shop shop

Electroplating Paint

All our products go through various intricate stages of testing and inspection that conform to national and international standards of quality. During 2005, large investments were directed towards enhancing the manufacturing strengths. In addition to expansion and modernization of the existing facilities, significant investments were HPL is committed to have satisfied customers through supply of quality Energy Meters, Energy Measurements Systems, Switchgears, Circuit Breakers, Distribution Systems, Sheet Metal Enclosures and Lighting products by way of fulfilling the customers requirements, timely delivery and services. made in building substantial capacities for new products, targeted to drive growth in key geographies in the coming years.

QUALITY POLICY

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Our quality management policies ensure customer satisfaction, reduce cycle time and costs, and also eliminate errors and rework. At HPL, We strongly believe that results (performance and financial) are the natural consequence of effective quality management.

Products / Services
We are manufacturer and exporter of Reliable Electrical Protection Equipments, Switchgears, Energy Meters and Energy Management Systems. We manufactures a wide range of Products : Switchgear such as Switch Fuse Units, Fuse Switch Units, Electronic Energy Meter - Single Phase & Three Phase, HRC fuse links (BS & Din Type), Switch Fuse Disconnector, On Load Changeover Switches, Load Break Switches, Latest technology Miniature Circuit Breakers with a Breaking capacity of 10 KA - B & C Curves as per latest IS & IEC Specifications and suitable Distribution Systems, Side Handle Change Over, Cam operated Rotary Switches, Energy Management - Control & Protection System.

PRODUCT RANGE: -Switchgear:


-On Load Changeover Switches -Isolator (Load Break) -Switch Fuse Changeover -By Pass Switches -Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS)

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-Switch Disconnector Fuse


-Switch Disconnector -HRC Fuse Links (Bolted Type) -HRC Fuse Links (DIN-Type)

-Rotary Cam Switches -Industrial Plug & Sockets -Switch Fuse Units Side & Front Handle Operation -Double Break Fuse Switches Changeover Switches & Isolator (Air Break) -KIT - KAT Fuse Units.

Metering: -Single Phase Electronic Energy Meters


-Three Phase Electronic Energy Meters -Three Phase kWh Panel Meter -Hand Held MRI Meter. Energy Management Control & Protection System:

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-Diris -Countis AT/ATI. Miniature Circuit Breakers

-Techno-10KA -Rakshak-6KA -MCB's Distribution System. Residual Current Circuit Breaker (RCCB): -Techno RCCB -10KA.

OVERVIEW OF HR PROCESSES / POLICIES


HPL INDIA LTD. follows a centralized system for HR in India. All the activities are started and coordinated through their corporate HR office at New Delhi. Human Resource Management is a management function that helps organizations to recruit, select, train, and develop members in an organization. Only human resource management is obviously one function which is concerned with peoples dimension in organization. All major activities in the working life of an employee, that is from the time of employees entry into the organization to the time employees leaves the organization all the activities come under the purview of human resource management. The activities are human resource management are human resource planning, job analysis, job design, recruitment, selection, orientation and placement, training and development, performance

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appraisal and job evaluation, employee and executive remuneration, motivation and communication, welfare, safety and health, industrial relations. At HPL, HR is considered as one of the most important resource for the organization.

Band Structure for management staff in HPL:

INTRODUCTION
The term stress is derived from the Latin word stringere, which means to clutch, compress or bind. The concept of stress was first introduced in the life sciences by Hans Selye in 1936.during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, stress was equated with force, pressure or strain exerted upon a material object or person which resists these forces and attempts to maintain its original state. Stress has become a major concern of the modern times as it can cause harm to employees health and performance. Stress refers to pressures or tensions people feel in life. As living human makes constant demands, so it produces pressure, i.e., stress. Stress

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is, therefore, a natural and unavoidable feature of human life. However, stress beyond a particular level can cause psychological and physiological problems which in turn would affect the individuals performance in the organization. Thus, management of stress has become a challenging job for the modern organization.

MEANING OF STRESS
Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important Stress is an experience that creates physiological and psychological imbalance within a person. It is a body reaction to any demands or changes in internal and external environment. Whenever there is a change in external environment, such as temperature, pollution, humidity and working conditions, it leads to stress. These changes usually come from feelings we have, like: Happiness Sadness Scared Madness

THINGS THAT CAUSE STRESS ARE CALLED STRESSORS FOR EXAMPLE

Going to a new school Loss of a good friend Divorce or separation of parents

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Winning an award Taking a test Death of a relative Being sick Moving to a new town

FOR EXAMPLE- An individual is undergoing an annual performance review.


Now in this situation the outcome is uncertain and important. This individual can feel the stress because he is facing a situation where bad performance review may lead to stopping of his promotion and good performance review can lead to higher salary and promotion.

stress:

So two conditions are extremely important for stress to become actual

Uncertainty over the outcome Outcome must be important

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NATURE OF STRESS

Stress affects all of us differently. It can prove a threat or an opportunity. Hormones are released in a stressful situation which changes our body language. Research studies are conclusive, comprehensive and complete. Stress can be positive and negative i.e. (eustress and distress). Stress is not necessarily followed by stressors. Stress is caused by number of factors like money, relationship, job related factors,

school, universities, queing, etc.

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STRESS MANAGEMENT
Stress Management is an important part of daily living for everyone. We all need stress in order to survive. Teams need it to perform well, and in the right doses, it can be very healthy, or even enjoyable.

However, when stress becomes excessive it can be very damaging. It can harm:

Health Happiness Work performance Team spirit and co-operation Relationships Personal development

STRESS MANAGEMENT INVOLVES FOLLOWING STEPS AT THE SIMPLEST LEVEL

1. Recognizing the symptoms of stress. 2. Identifying the causes. 3. 4. Taking action to address the causes and thereby reduce the symptoms. Where necessary, taking interim steps to relieve the symptoms until the underlying causes have been addressed.

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It is important to recognize and address the underlying causes of stress, or else the experience of stress will never go away.

FOR EXAMPLE, suppose 'overwork' is causing stress, which is resulting in


headaches. If you only address the symptoms (eg: by taking pain killers to reduce the headaches), the stress remains, and the headaches will return. However, if you can restructure your work demands so that you are not overworked, the headaches will then disappear without the need for pain killers.

A further complication can arise in that some symptoms may be 'learned', and therefore removal of the underlying causes may not relieve the symptoms. For example, in the overwork example, the headaches might continue long after the problem of overwork has been addressed.

TYPES OF STRESS
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Stress affects us all. Physiologically, stress is a bodys reaction to a perceived threat which requires either fight or flight in a stressful situation. The body is placed on a war footing because of the hormones secreted by the body in a stressful situation. This stage is referred to as alarm stage with increased heart beat, high blood pressure, increased respiration etc. This could prove helpful as well as sometimes unhelpful depending upon the circumstances and situation but prolonged stress can prove even fatal for individuals and it can also lead to stress and its relationship with different factors like job etc. are not conclusive, comprehensive and complete.

TYPES:
1. 2. 3. 4. EUSTRESS DISTRESS HYPERSTRESS HYPOSTRESS

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DISTRESS

HYPO STRESS

TYPES OF STRESS

HYPER STRESSS

EUSTRESS

FIGURE.TYPES OF STRESS

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1. EUSTRESS
Eustress is one of the helpful types of stress. It is the type of stress you experience right before you have the need to exert physical force. Eustress prepares the muscles, heart, and mind for the strength needed for whatever is about to occur. Eustress can also apply to creative endeavors. When a person needs to have some extra energy or creativity, eustress kicks in to bring them the inspiration they need. An athlete will experience the strength that comes form eustress right before they play a big game or enter a big competition. Because of the eustress, they immediately receive the strength that they need to perform.

When the body enters the fight or flight response, it will experience eustress. The eustress prepares the body to fight with or flee from an imposing danger. This type of stress will cause the blood to pump to the major muscle groups, and will increase the heart rate and blood pressure to increase. If the event or danger passes, the body will eventually return to its normal state. Stress need not be bad all the time. Sometimes, stress can be good too. Eustress, a type of positive stress is actually good for your body. It is basically a desirable form of stress which is healthful and gives a feeling of contentment. It keeps you excited about life.

EUSTRESS IS NOT DAMAGING

Just because Eustress is a type of stress, it need not be damaging to our body. Unlike chronic stress that is taxing on our body, eustress does not have any unfavorable effects on our body. Instead, it lifts up our spirits and helps us stay in a good mood. Eustress provides the desired balance by evening out the negative stress.

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EUSTRESS FOR STRESS MANAGEMENT

If utilized in a proper manner, Eustress can actually help us get rid of stress. Since eustress is a positive phenomenon, it can help change our mindset and attitude towards things. It helps us consider the threats in our life as challenges. This changes our mental attitude towards different situations in life and helps us steer clear of stress. Eustress is what they call good stress. The kind we feel when we get a raise, or buy a new house, or go on a great first date. Good in the sense that it makes us feel good, that the stress is enjoyable. Challenges and projects create eustress; overload and problems create distress (bad stress). However, eustress is not the same as serenity and blissfulness. Eustress is still stress. It still has many of the same symptoms of distress, including:

Raised adrenaline levels Raise corticosterone levels (a steroid hormone) Increased heart-rate Increased respiration Higher blood pressure

Good stress will also just as easily lead to physical problems such as heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, enlargement of the adrenal glands, and other illnesses.

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2. DISTRESS

Distress is one of the negative types of stress. This is one of the types of stress that the mind and body undergoes when the normal routine is constantly adjusted and altered. The mind is not comfortable with this routine, and craves the familiarity of a common routine.

There are actually two types of distress:


a) Acute stress b) Chronic stress.

a) Acute Stress
Acute stress is the type of stress that comes immediately with a change of routine. It is an intense type of stress, but it passes quickly. Acute stress is the body's way of getting a person to stand up and take inventory of what is going on, to make sure that everything is OK

b) Chronic Stress
Chronic stress will occur if there is a constant change of routine for week after week. Chronic stress affects the body for a long period of time. This is the type of stress experienced by someone who constantly faces moves or job changes.

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3. HYPER STRESS

When a person is pushed beyond what he or she can handle, they will experience what we called hyper stress. Hyper stress results from being overloaded or overworked. Its like being stressed out. When someone is hyper stressed, even little things can trigger a strong emotional response. People who are most likely to suffer from hyper stress are: - Working mothers who have to multi-task, juggling between work and family commitments

- A Wall Street trader who are constantly under immerse tension

- People who are under constant financial strains.

- Generally people working in fast pace environment

Hyper stress is the type of negative stress that comes when a person is forced to undertake or undergo more than he or she can take. A stressful job that overworks an individual will cause that individual to face hyperstress. A person who is experiencing hyper stress will often respond to even little stressors with huge emotional outbreaks. It is important for a person who thinks they might be experiencing hyper stress to take measures to reduce the stress in their lives, because hyperstress can lead to serious emotional and physical repercussions.

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4. HYPOSTRESS

Hypostress stands in direct opposite to hyperstress. That is because Hypostress is one of those types of stress experienced by a person who is constantly bored. Someone in an unchallenging job, such as a factory worker performing the same task over and over, will often experience hypo stress. The effect of hypo stress is feelings of restlessness and a lack of inspiration. Hypostress is basically insufficient amount of stress. That is because hypostress is the type of stress experienced by a person who is constantly bored.

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SOURCES OF STRESS

The factors which have the potential to cause stress may be grouped under two headings:

Organizational stressors Individual stressors Group stressors General stressors

ORGANIZATIONAL STRESSORS
Organizational stressors are various factors in the workplace that can cause stress. The general sets of organizational stressors are as follows: 1) Task demands Task demands are stressors associated with the specific job a person performs. Some occupations are by nature more stressful than others. The jobs of surgeons, air traffic

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controllers, and professional football coaches are more stressful than those of general practitioners, air plane baggage loaders, football team equipment managers. Beyond specific task related pressures, other aspects of job may pose physical threats to a persons health. Unhealthy conditions exits in occupations such as coal mining and toxic waste handling. Security is another task demand that can cause stress. Someone in a relatively secure job is not likely to worry unduly about losing that position. Threats to job security can increase stress dramatically. FOR EXAMPLE, stress generally increases throughout an organization during a period of layoffs or immediately after a merger with another firm. 2) Role demands The sources of stress in organizational role include role ambiguity, role conflict, responsibility towards people and things and other stressors. Role ambiguity involves lack of clarity about the work objectives, expectations of colleagues related to scope and responsibilities of the job. Role conflict arises where the individual is exposed to conflicting job demands or is required to do things which he does not want to do. Responsibility towards people is more stress generating than responsibility towards things (i.e. equipment, material, etc.)Other role stressors include lack of participation in decision making, lack of managerial support and need for maintaining high standards of performance. 3) Inter personal relationships at work The nature of relationship with ones boss, subordinates and colleagues also form a major source of stress. Poor relations involve low trust, supportiveness and low interest in listening to and dealing with organizational problems of the members. The members feel more stress if the boss is low on consideration. Task oriented managers cause more stress to subordinate than people-oriented managers. Stress is generated not only by the pressure of relationship but also by a lack of adequate social support from colleagues during difficult situations.

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4) Organizational structure and climate This source of stress involves perception of being in the organization and a threat to ones freedom, autonomy and identity. Specifically such stressors include: little or no participation in decision-making, lack of belongingness, lack of effective consultation, poor communication, restrictions on behaviour and politics by some organizational members. 5) Organizational leadership Leadership style also may cause stress. Suppose an employee needs a great deal of social support from his leader but the leader shows no concern or compassion for him. This employee will probably feel stressed. Similarly, assume an employee who has a strong need to participate in decision-making and to be active in all aspects of management. But his boss is very autocratic and refuses to consult subordinates about anything. Naturally, stress is likely to result. 6) Group pressure Group pressure may include pressure to restrict output, pressure to conform to the groups norms, and so forth .For instance, it is quite common for a work group to arrive at an informal agreement about how much each member will produce. Individuals who produce much more or much less than this level may be pressurized by then group to get back in line.

INDIVIDUAL STRESSORS
Some stressors at the level of an individual may arise in the context of organization life or personal life. These include: Career Development, Personality type, Life change and Life trauma 1) Career development

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There are two major clusters of stressors relating to career development:


i. Lack of job security(fear of redundancy, obsolescence or early retirement) ii. Status incongruity (under or over promotion and frustration stemming from attainment of ones career ceiling).

2) Type A and type B profiles Type A and Type B profiles were first observed by two cardiologists, Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosen man. They first got the idea when a worker repairing the upholstery on their waiting room chairs noted that many of the chairs were worn only on the front. This suggested to the two cardiologists that many heart patients were anxious and had a hard time sitting stillthey were literally sitting on the edges of their seats.

The extreme Type A personality is characterized by feeling a chronic sense of time urgency and by an excessive competitive drive. The Type an individual is aggressivelyinvolved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time, and if required to do so, against the opposing efforts of other things or other persons.

The characteristics of Type A personality include the following: I. II. III. IV. V. Always moving, walking, talking and eating rapidly. Feeling of impatience with the rate at which most events take place Striving to think or do two or more things simultaneously. Persistent inability to cope with leisure time. Aggressive and competitive attitude.

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In contrast to the Type A personality, there is the type b, who is exactly opposite. Type Bs are rarely carried by the desire to obtain a wildly increasing number of things or participate in an endless growing series of events in an ever decreasing amount of time. Type B personalities can be identified by the following characteristics: I. Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost II. Can relax without guilt. III. Have no pressing deadlines IV. Are mild mannered V. Are never in a hurry One should not draw the conclusion that Type A people are more successful than Type B people. 3) Life change A life change is any meaningful change in a persons personal or work situation. Holmes and Rahe reasoned that major changes in a persons life can lead to stress and eventually to disease. Several of these events relate directly (fired from work, retirement) or indirectly (change in residence) to work.

4) Life trauma A life trauma is any upheaval in an individuals life that alerts his or her attitudes, emotions or behaviors. To illustrate, according to the life change view, a divorce adds to a persons potential for health problems in the following year. At the same time, the person will obviously also experience emotional turmoil during the actual divorce process. This turmoil is a form of life trauma and will clearly cause stress, much of which may spill over into the workplace.

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GROUP STRESSORS
1) No social support When an individual gets social support from group members, it satisfies his social needs and he feels happy and relieved but if it is the other way round it is very depressing and is bad for individual. 2) Lack of group cohesiveness Absence of group cohesiveness causes stress. When group cohesiveness is less, there is low morale, less communication, more conflict. Group cohesiveness means the degree to which members are attracted to a group, are motivated to remain in the group, and are mutually influenced by one another. 3) Conflict When there are discussions and interactions amongst individuals, sometimes there are conflicts, which become the source of stress for the individual.

GENERAL CAUSES
There are some causes also which generate stress like: Threat Fear Uncertainty

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STAGES OF STRESS

FIGURE STAGES OF STRESS

THE ALARM PHASE


The Alarm phase is characterized by the triggering on the Stress Alert System (the fight or flight response). There is thus an over activity of the sympathetic nervous system, and the simultaneous inhibition of the parasympathetic nervous system. Alarm is generated in the body and the whole body starts preparing for a fight or takes a flight. There is a flush

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of energy, and all activities are speeded up. The pressure is evident and could be seen in his excitement or fear. Look at a student's face just before he is going to give an exam. Isn't the fear and tension clearly evident? When something has just started stressing you and you feel a fight or flight kind of attitude, then you are in the alarm stage of stress. It is the start up stage which defines the first reaction to the stressor. This stage experiences an over acting of the sympathetic nervous system wherein adrenaline and cortical increase and blood flows away from the brain to the muscles As a result, dendrites shrink back in the brain to moderate the flow of information, slowing or closing down the nonessential body functions. The whole body starts preparing itself to fight against the reason of stress. The fear, excitement or pressure is evident on the sufferer's face.

THE RESISTANCE PHASE


In the Resistance phase because of the continuity of the stressful conditions there is depletion of energy, the person feels run down. As the pressure mounts he struggles to meet the various demands expected of him. He starts getting bouts of irritation, there is over-reaction to minor issues, sleep pattern starts getting altered and he starts getting weaker both mentally & physically. Very clear physical, psychological and behavioral changes are observed by others. When a child is sitting in the examination hall and writing his exam, he is bothered about completing it in time. He is making full efforts to cope with the situation and his whole body is engaged in fighting against the condition. This is the resistance stage. In this stage, the body keeps making continuous efforts to cope with stress and therefore feels run down and exhausted. The person starts feeling irritated, over reacts to minor situations and gets mentally and physically weak. Psychological, physical and behavioral changes are also clearly visible.

THE EXHAUSTION PHASE


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When the stressful condition prolongs, and even after observing distinct symptoms of resistance phase, appropriate measures are not resorted to, then the Exhaustion phase takes over. As the very name suggests the person feels fully exhausted & tired. This may go even to the extent of absence of all enthusiasm to work or even to live. Psychosomatic diseases take roots. There is emotional breakdown, insomnia, heart & BP complications, and host of other very painful symptoms associated with burnout. FOR EXAMPLE- If a student is preparing for his exam and despite of every possible effort, he is not able to relate to his studies, he is bound to get stressed. The stress could reach a height where he/she may feel completely exhausted and helpless to the extent of committing suicide. This is the exhaustion stage.

THIS STAGE IS FURTHER DIVIDED INTO TWO PHASES:

Initial phase The stress persists and due to lack of appropriate measures the person is not able to concentrate and work efficiently.

Burnout The person is completely exhausted and drained of all energy reserves. There is a complete physical, psychological and emotional breakdown. This requires immediate attention.

There are certain medications that can help you crawl out of the situation. But, you need to identify your stressor first. You also need to practice some self help tips depending on the type of stress you are suffering from.

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Burnout is the most dangerous stage which the stressed people come to. Any signs of burnout show the urgency of the situation and have to be handled at the earliest with highest priori

A PSYCHOLOGICAL MODEL

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SYMPTOMS OF STRESS

Stress symptoms: Effects on your body, feelings and behaviour

Stress symptoms may be affecting ones health, even though he might not realize it. A person may think illness is to blame for that nagging headache, or frequent forgetfulness or decreased productivity at work. But sometimes stress is to blame. Indeed, stress symptoms can affect your body, your thoughts and feelings, and your behavior. When a person recognizes common stress symptoms, he can take steps to manage them.

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SOME SIGNS OF STRESS

PHYSICAL(BODY)

MENTAL(MIND)

EMOTIONAL(FEELINGS)

Headaches Nervousness

Lack of concentration Forgetfulness

Bored Anger outburst Night mares

Rashes Stomachaches Fast heartbeat Perspiration Dry mouth Diarrhea Cold hands and feet Tense muscles Drop in school performance Unable to study Carelessness

Sad/depressed Withdrawn Fighting

If you do have stress symptoms, taking steps to manage your stress can have numerous health benefits. Stress management can include:

Physical activity Relaxation techniques Meditation Yoga

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STRESS WARNING SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Cognitive Symptoms


Emotional Symptoms

Memory problems Inability to concentrate Poor judgment Seeing only the negative Anxious or racing thoughts Constant worrying Physical Symptoms

Moodiness Irritability or short temper Agitation, inability to relax Feeling overwhelmed Sense of loneliness and

isolation Behavioral Symptoms


Aches and pains Diarrhea or constipation Nausea, dizziness Chest pain, rapid heartbeat Loss of sex drive Frequent colds

Eating more or less Sleeping too much or too little Isolating yourself from others Procrastinating or neglecting

responsibilities Using alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to relax

Symptoms of stress can be classified as follows:


1) Short-term Physical Symptoms 2) Short-term Performance Effects 3) Long-term Physical Symptoms 4) Internal Symptoms 5) Behavioural Symptoms

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CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS

Stress is the spice of life. Complete freedom from stress comes only in death. Stress becomes distress when we begin to sense a loss of our feelings of security and adequacy. It may produce physical, behaviour and psychological consequences as discussed below:

FIGURECONSEQUENCES OF STRESS

a) PHYSICAL CONSEQUENCES
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The physical or medical consequences of stress affect a persons physical well-being. Heart disease and smoke, among other illness, have been linked to stress. Other common medical problems resulting from too much stress include headaches, backaches, ulcers and related stomach and intestinal disorders, and skin conditions such acne and hives.

b) BEHAVIOURAL CONSEQUENCES
The behavioural consequences of stress may harm the person under stress or others. One such behaviour is smoking. Research has clearly documented that people who smoke tend to smoke more when they experience stress. There is also evidence that alcohol and drug abuse are linked to stress, although this relationship is less well documented. Other possible behavioural consequences are accident proneness, violence and appetite disorders.

c) PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES
The psychological consequences of stress relate to a persons mental health and wellbeing. When people experience too much stress at work, they may become depressed or find themselves sleeping too much or not enough. Stress may also lead to family problems. BURNOUT Burnout is a general feeling of exhaustion that develops when an individual simultaneously experiences too much pressure and has too few sources of satisfaction. Burnout is the most severe stage of distress. Depression, frustration and a loss of productivity are often symptoms of burnout. It can be due to a lack of personal fulfillment in the job, or a lack of positive feedback. Thus, both supervisors and managers have a crucial role to play in identifying jobs likely to result in employee distress or burnout.

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Consequences for the organization


The consequences of stress on individual may have both direct and indirect impact on the organization. Specifically, the organization is affected in terms of the following parameters: Low performance and productivity- Too much stress might lead to decline in performance of the individuals. Thus, overall productivity and quality will suffer leading to reduced margin of profit. High labor turnover- The individual under stress may withdraw from the scene. There may be increased rates of absenteeism and labor turnover. An employee may withdraw psychologically ceasing to care about the organization. Job dissatisfaction among employeesAnother direct organizational

consequence of employee stress relates to attitudes. Job satisfaction, morale and organizational commitment can all suffer, along with motivation to perform at high levels. As a result, people may become more prone to complain about unimportant things, do only enough work to get by, and so forth. Delays in decision making- Decision-making might be delayed or even poor decision might be taken if the decision-makers are under excessive stress. Poor communication in organization- If stress is common among the employees, it will hamper communication and human relations in the organization.

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SOME COMMON SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS STRESS

Regularly walking, eating or working in a rushed way. Regularly thinking and worrying about the past or future. Frequent tension in the body (esp. neck, face, shoulders, back and chest, and

stomach) which often goes unnoticed until one slows down, breaths deep and carefully surveys the body.

Feeling of the "weight of the world" on your shoulders. Emotionally "on edge." Regular tiredness during the day. Significant need for outside stimulation to feel good (coffee, sweeteners, food,

TV, alcohol, money, accomplishments, etc.)

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STRESS AND JOB PERFORMANCE

Stress can either be helpful or harmful to job performance of an employee depending upon the amount of stress on them.

The following graph can be used to study stress and performance relationship

PERFORMANCE-STRESS RELATIONSHIP CURVE

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FIGURE. Performance-Stress Relationship Curve

Stress is considered as a friend when optimum amount of stress is present. When there is no stress, job performance is very low as challenges are very low in the job. As stress increases, it helps an employee to face and meet the challenges that increases the performance level of the employee.

Optimum stress is the amount of stress that refers to a persons best performance. Stress becomes foe if it increases beyond the level of optimum stress as there is no improvement in the persons performance after this level of stress. And if stress becomes too heavy, performance declines sharply and if further stress increases, it comes to a breaking point where the breakdown occurs and performance comes down to zero finally. 47

FOR EXAMPLE: If an employee in an office has no stress and pressure to complete the work assigned to him, then his performance will be very bad as he has no challenges to face in the job. This makes an employee dull and affects his performance further. But if he faces optimum level of stress, his performance will be at the peak according to the graph and he will prosper in life. In this case stress proves to be a friend. Whereas when stress grows badly and there is very large pressure on an employee from his boss to complete a certain task in a certain time, his performance will decline slowly as the pressure on his mind will lead to distress situation and finally a situation will arise when the increasing stress will lead to zero performance condition. In such a condition, the employee will not deliver anything beneficial to the employer and the company and will be depressed. In such situations, where stress exceeds beyond a limit, stress presents to a foe to a person.

Stress pushes us to grow, to change, to fight, and to adapt. All life events, even positive ones, cause a certain degree of stress. For example getting a new job is a positive change, getting married, falling in love, getting a raise, winning a tennis match?

TWO IMPORTANT FACTORS IN STRESS AND PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE ARE

1) KIND OF JOB

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Various studies have proved that stress is more in such kind of jobs which have major responsibility for financial and human resources. Managers fall in this category. Stress is of little degree in jobs which are less responsible like maids, domestic servants, etc.

2) PERSONALITY AND STRESS Stress is what one feels when the personality of an individual has a set of beliefs that adds rigidity to the personality structure. Such rigid personalities face lot of problems and feel stressed. All is needed to release the stress is to bring flexibility into the personality and recondition the old belief and have a broader outlook regarding different issues and incorporate the charges taking place in the envoronment.Research indicates that those who seem to effectively handle a high level of stress, possess one or more of the favourable personality features of internal focus of control, self esteem and high level of tolerance. They feel less stressed and less pained in contrast to those persons who have less tolerance and who work in uncertain environment. Those with positive attitude, high self-esteem can handle stress in an excellent way in bad and stressful conditions and they are more confident, successful in life. By raising ones capacity to handle stress we can feel good.

JOB STRESSERS AT THE WORKPLACE

In the workplace, stress can be the result of any number of situations. Some examples include:

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Categories of Job Stressors

Examples

workload (overload and under load) pace / variety / meaningfulness of work FACTORS UNIQUE TO THE JOB shift work / hours of work physical environment (noise, air quality, etc) isolation at the workplace (emotional or working alone) role conflict (conflicting job demands, multiple supervisors/managers) role ambiguity (lack of clarity about responsibilities, expectations, etc) level of responsibility autonomy (e.g., the ability to make your own decisions about our own job or about specific tasks)

ROLE IN THE ORGANISATION

STRESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL IMPACT

Stress, both work and non-work can have a profound effect on an organizational climate and morale. For most people, a moderate amount of stress can be beneficial (positive stress).but when pressure and stress reach a level where an individual struggles to cope, both mental and physical changes can occur. There are numerous negative stressors impacting todays workforce. Things like job security fears, increased workloads and extended work hours can all result in negative stress. Some of the outcomes of stress on

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an organization can include employee job dissatisfaction, employee turnover, absenteeism, reduced performance and lack of productivity and efficiency. For most organizations, great attention is paid to employee morale and workforce engagement levels. If the majority of employees are experiencing negative level of stress, things like teamwork and effective communications suffer. Many companies conduct yearly employee opinion surveys to measure engagement. There is usually significant correlation between the current climate in an organization and survey scoring. During times of uncertainty (business optimization initiatives resulting in lay-offs), not surprisingly, scores in areas like motivation and company commitment are very low. Conversely, during positive times (company reaches financial targets resulting in incentive payments for staff); survey scores are considerably more favorable. Overall, manageable levels of stress in an organization will translate into higher employee morale and job satisfaction. Regarding stress and employee absenteeism from a disability management stand point, the duration of absences due to stress is often much greater than absences from other causes. employees often return to work four weeks after breaking a bone while employees on stress levels can be absent for months. Stress can also manifest itself in suppressed immune function resulting in susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections. The negative impacts resulting from worker absenteeism are farreaching. in the customer service industry their seems to be a vicious circle when it comes to individual stress impacting team stress, which in turn impacts stress on the customer. Employees working short staffed due to employee absenteeism are under pressure. Being short staffed can cause employee irritability and conflict and increased delays in customer service for customer. This in turn results in lower customer satisfaction levels which ultimately negatively affect the companys bottom line. Stress can therefore significantly impact the profitability of an organization.

Management representatives routinely observe lowered individual performance due to stress which subsequently negatively affects the overall team performance. Stress causes

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memory impairment, less effective decision making and from a health and safety standpoint, increased accidents in the workplace. Employee situations requiring discipline to improve performance can cause stress resulting in the opposite effect. If an employee is facing a suspension or termination due to repeated offences, you often see even poorer performance as employees feel the impending discipline looming over their head. Many companies have identified that as an organization, they need to focus on coaching and positive reinforcement to give employees every opportunity to be successful. Stress management is essential to improve overall organizational performance.

Another impact of stress on an organization is reduced productivity and efficiency. Although the effect of absenteeism is obvious, reduced productivity and efficiency can also result when a workforce is experiencing negative stress and pressure. Employees under stress are much less inclined to channel energy into continuous improvement initiatives or creative problem solving pursuits. While in self-preservation mode when dealing with stress, individuals tend to spend their time and energy doing the bare minimum to keep up. As well, an over-stressed team will have less energy to begin with as studies have shown that stress depletes energy stores and a persons physical and mental capabilities. Often greater demands are placed on workers in todays competitive market place. For example, in the customer service and entertainment industry, there is no shortage of options for people to spend their disposable income. And in todays economic climate, companies are expected to try to do more with less. Although profitability is the focus, this pursuit can not be to the detriment of the workforce. Putting too much pressure and stress on staff to perform will u8ltimately have the opposite effect (i.e. burn out, conflict and incidents of workplace aggression?)

Stress and stress management is a reality in todays organizations. Successful organizations today realize the importance of not only monitoring workplace stress, but implementing vehicles to reduce stress for all employees. Time and money can be spent

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by a company creating programs and initiatives to address stress related issues or a company can spend their money battling absenteeism, employee turnover and rising benefit costs.

MANAGEMENT OF STRESS
Stress is inevitable in human life. There is, therefore, no way out but to cope with stress or fight it out. There are two strategies that can help the employees to cope with stress. These are the coping strategies at the organizational level, at individual level and others.

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COPING STRATEGIES AT THE ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL


ORGANIZATIONAL ROLE CLARITY People experience stress when they are not clear about what they are expected to do in the organization. This may happen because either there is ambiguity in the role or there is role conflict. Such a situation can be overcome by defining each role more clearly. Role analysis technique helps to analyze what the job entails and what the expectations are. Breaking down the job to its various components will clarify the role of job incumbent for the entire system. This will help to eliminate imposing unrealistic expectations on the individual leading to reduced stress. JOB REDESIGN Job may be a source of stress to many individuals. Properly designed jobs and work schedules can help ease stress in the individuals and the organization.

STRESS REDUCTION AND STRESS MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES Stress reduction programmers aims to identify relevant organizational stressors and thus to reduce their effects by redesigning, reallocating workloads, improving supervisory skills, providing more autonomy or job variety, etc. Stress management schemes usually focus on training individual employees or their work groups, to manage their stress symptoms in more effective ways.

SUPPORTIVE ORGANIZATION CLIMATE Many organizational stressors emerge because of faulty organizational policies and practice. To a great extent, these can be controlled by creating supportive organizational climate. Supportive organizational climate depends upon managerial leadership rather than the use of power and money to control behaviour. The focus is primarily on

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participation and involvement of employees in decision-making process. Such a climate develops belongingness among the employees which helps them reduce their stress.

COUNSELLING Counseling is discussion of a problem by a counselor with an employee with a view to help the employee cope with it better. Counseling seeks to improve employees mental health by the release of emotional tension which is also known as emotional catharsis. People get an emotional release from their frustrations and other problems whenever they have an opportunity to tell someone about them.

COPING STRATEGIES BY INDIVIDUALS

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Individuals can use the following techniques to overcome stress:

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1. Relaxation: Coping with stress requires adaptation. Proper relaxation is an effective way to adapt. Relaxation can take many forms. One way to relax is to take regular vacations. It has been observed that peoples attitudes toward a variety of workplace characteristics improve significantly following a vacation. People can also relax while on the job.. 2. Time management: Time management is often recommended for managing stress. The idea is that many daily pressures can be eased if a person does a better job of managing time. One popular approach to time management is to make a list every morning of the things to be done that day. The things to be done may be arranged in the list according to their importance. This strategy helps people get more of the important things everyday. It also encourages delegation of less important activities to others. 3. Role management: Under this, the individual works to avoid role overload, role ambiguity and role conflict. For instance, if a worker does not know what is expected of him, he should ask for clarification from his boss. A worker should accept extra work if he feels that he would be able to do that. 4. Support group: It is a group of friends or family with whom a person can share his feelings. Supportive family and friends can help people cope with routine types of stress on an ongoing basis.

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THE BENEFITS OF STRESS MANAGEMENT

Stress is something that happens in our daily lives and is usually associated with a particular event such as work, family or other responsibilities. There are many situations that we can not control, but there are ways to control how we deal with certain situations. Effective Stress management is something that our lives can go a little more smoothly. We have little control over family deaths, emergencies or accidents, but we can see some of the circumstances under which our daily life. One of the biggest stress factors in our lives is often work. Since most of us can not afford to quit, some stress management can go a long way. Stress management can help you control your emotions and the way you deal with the stress can not be avoided. It can help you relax and reduce the fear occurs to you. It can also help you stay healthy. Continued periods of extreme stress will eventually take its toll on your health.

STRESS MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS


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Stress management programs are programs developed to help a person cope up with stress and its short and long term effects. Each and every stress management program is tailored to the needs of the individual.

Stress management programs are program packages developed to help a person cope up with stress and its short and long term effects. Each and every stress management program is tailored to the needs of the individual. The evaluation and the intervention should be specific to the individual. Stress management program materials are available online, in CDs, in textbooks. The program is also conducted in various institutes. They are not only beneficial to the participants, but also to those who conduct them. They are turning out to be lucrative businesses especially in the west. Moreover the US Public Health Services had stress reduction by the end of 2005 as one of its health promotion goals.

OBJECTIVES

To identify the person with stress To assess his problems To assess his qualities including the vulnerability to stress To provide all details about stress To teach him stress reduction techniques suitable to him

The tool for staying calm and in focus despite uncertainty Mastering the choice and change challenge

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Reduced stress through improved organization Avoiding the "As Soon As Trap"

STRESS MANAGEMENT TRAINING BENEFITS TO THE ORGANIZATION

STRESS MANAGEMENT TRAINING BENEFITS TO THE INDIVIDUAL

Reduced negative organizational stress Increased individual productivity and responsibility

Reduced personal stress Improved decision making Increased productivity Connecting better to family & friends More value, balance & happiness every day

Better team communications and morale


Retention of valued employees Improved customer satisfaction

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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Research Design:
A research design is a logical & systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. It constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement, analysis and interpretation of observations.

Descriptive Study:
Descriptive study will be carried out to know the actual stress level among the employees at HPL India Ltd. The knowledge of actual training and development process is needed to document the process and suggest improvements in the current system to make it more effective.

Sample Selection:
A sample of 100 employees was selected randomly consisting of employees of various departments like accounts, marketing, IT, global sales & marketing, order, dispatch etc.

DATA SOURCES

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In this stage, there is need to gather Primary as well as Secondary data.

PRIMARY DATA Primary data is collected directly from the data source. It is the first hand Information gathered to solve the research need. It is collected using research instruments like mailers, questionnaires, telephonic interviews, observation etc. In this study, the primary data is collected by surveying employees of various departments of the company randomly with the help of questionnaires.

SECONDARY DATA Secondary data is collected from already available sources such as published papers, journals, magazines, reports, etc. Compared to primary data, collection of secondary data is cheaper and less time consuming. However, reliability of secondary data is an aspect that should be considered while collecting secondary data. Secondary data is collected from companys external and internal sources. The internal sources include the companys literature, annual reports, sales reports, etc. The external sources cold be independent magazines, journals, survey reports etc.

SAMPLE DESIGN FOR THE STUDY

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RESEARCH TYPE SAMPLE SIZE

: :

DESCRIPTIVE STUDY 100(Consists of HRD, Marketing, Import-Export,Accounts, International Business, Global Sales & Marketing, Communication, IT, etc. at Head Office only)

SAMPLE UNIT TIME PERIOD Technique used For collecting Data : :

Employees of HPL India ltd. 20.6.2011 TO 31.7.2011 Questionnaire

QUESTIONNAIRE
Name----------------------------------------63

Designation--------------------------------Department--------------------------------Q.1 How would you describe your professional life in general? a) Interesting b) Challenging c) Miserable Q.2 How do you handle excessive workload? a) Prioritise your tasks b) Get frustrated c) Do work step by step Q.3 Do you have time for your family every week? a) Yes b) No Q.4 Do you think you have excessive work load? a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No

Q.5 Do you think you are not clear about the scope and responsibilities of your job? a) Agree b) Neutral c) Disagree Q.6 Do you think you are not able to meet the demand of your seniors? a) Yes b) Cant say c) No Q.7 Do you think you are not able to take care of your health due to work pressure? a) Agree b) Neutral c) Disagree Q.8 Do you think the amount of work you have to do interfere with the quality of work you want to maintain? a) Agree b) Neutral c) Disagree 64

Q.9 Do you face conflicts at work? a) Very Frequently b) Sometimes c) Never Q.10 Do you get any benefit or extra pay for doing overtime? a) Yes b) No Q.11 Do you think your expectations from the job are being satisfied? a) Yes b) No c) Only few are being satisfied Q.12 How are your relations with your peers and seniors? a) Very Good b) Satisfactory c) Bad Suggestions-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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DATA ANALYSIS & Interpretation

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Do you think you have excessive workload?

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How do you describe your professional life in general?

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How do you handle excessive workload?

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Do you have time for your family every week?

Do you think you are not clear about the scope and responsibilities of your job?

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Do you think you are not able to meet the demand of your seniors?

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Do you think you are not able to take care of your health due to work pressure?

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Do you think the amount of work you have to do interfere with the quality of work you want to maintain?

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Do you face conflicts at work?

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Do you get any benefit or extra pay for doing overtime?

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Do you think your expectations from your job are being satisfied?

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How are your relations with your peers and seniors?

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CONCLUSION
Stress has become a major concern of the modern times as it can cause harm to employees health and performance. Stress is a natural and unavoidable feature of human life. However stress beyond a particular level can cause psychological and physiological problems which in turn would affect the individuals performance in the organization. Thus, management of stress has become a challenging job for modern organizations.
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An optimum amount of stress should always be present to motivate the employees to improve their performance. At HPL, most of the employees are having either optimum amount of stress or less amount of stress. But still there are certain loopholes which can be rectified by giving attention towards work place stress and its remedies. During the survey, it was found that employees find their job interesting as well as challenging. This positively indicates that the employees are not over stressed. It was also found that there are certain job stressors which are increasing employee dissatisfaction such as: a) Work overload b) Conflicts at workplace c) Partial fulfillment of expectations from the job

RECOMMENDATIONS
Although stress is an inevitable phenomenon, but due to increasing complexities of jobs , its management has become a necessary activity in organizations. Following are certain recommendations which are made after surveying the employees:
a) Proper stress management programs should be conducted at regular intervals to rejuvenate the employees and inculcate optimism in them. Family get togethers and recreational activities can be arranged occasionally which can make the employees feel that their personal wellness is important for the organization.

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b) Job rotation and job enrichment should be encouraged wherever possible so that the employees can develop versatile skills and their aspirations from their profession can be fulfilled .

Job enlargement can also be an effective tool. These terms are explained in detail as below: Job enrichment : It implies increasing the contents of a job or the deliberate upgrading of responsibilities, scope and challenges in work. It involves vertical loading of functions and responsibilities which require higher level of skills and competence. In order to enrich the job, management should take following measures:
i)

Give sufficient freedom to employees in deciding about work methods, pace, sequence etc. Increase participation and responsibilities to the extent it is feasible. Provide feedback to the employees. Make the personnel understand how tasks contribute to a finished product of the enterprise.

ii) iii)
iv)

Job enlargement : It implies horizontal loading of or expansion i.e., the addition of more tasks of the same nature. It attempts to make a job more varied by removing the dullness associated with performing repetitive operations. For e.g. a clerk who is doing the typing work only may also be assigned the tasks of drafting letters, sorting of incoming mails and filing of letters. This will reduce his boredom and make him feel satisfied. Job Rotation: It is a technique in which employees are moved between two or more jobs in a planned manner. The objective is to expose the

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employees to different experience and wider variety of skills to enhance job satisfaction and to cross train them.

c)During the survey, it was found that there were certain employees who were not clear about the scope of their job. This can lead to lower job satisfaction and higher stress level. Such a situation can be overcome by defining each role more clearly. Role analysis techniques help to analyse what the job entails and what the expectations are. Breaking up the job into its various components will clarify the role of the job holder. For this, job analysis can be done for various jobs. The two outcomes of job analysis are:
Job description: It clearly identifies the responsibilities of a specific job. It includes information about working conditions, relationships with other positions.

Job Specification: It is a statement of employee characteristics and employee qualifications required for satisfactory performance of defined tasks included in a specific job. It describes what skills an individual should have to perform the job.

Proper preparation of job description and job specification will lead to increased role clarity among the employees.

a) Participation of employees in decision-making should be encouraged wherever possible to foster a sense of belongingness to the organization which will help them to reduce stress and make them feel that they are important to the organization .

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a) Yoga and meditation sessions can be held where employees can learn how to cope with work related stress and how to reduce health problems.

a) Workplace conflicts should be seriously tackled as it hampers peace of mind of employees and can adversely affect their productivity.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

REFERENCE BOOKS
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR-CB GUPTA BUSINESS MANAGEMENT-T.N. CHHABRA HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT-C.B GUPTA 82

INTERNET WEBSITES:

Wikeipedia www.citehr.com

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