Anda di halaman 1dari 322

' : 8 2012 .

(KAKABASBASILEIOS)
( )
(perpant)
( )
(parmenides51)

Email : silogiaskiseon@yahoo.com

mathematica.gr.

.

mathematica.gr;
, , ,
.
, .
, , .
mathematica
.
. ,
.
.
mathematica

. (
mathematica)
. .
.
, . '
,
.
, ,
,
,
.
.

,

.
parmenides51

.
,
,


.
, , .
email silogiaskiseon@yahoo.com
. ,
.
.
, ,
mathematica
.
.
.
.

Email : silogiaskiseon@yahoo.com

mathematica.gr.

:
:

1.

: 40 .
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=54&t=22769

2.

- :- 30
.

:
7-70
:
73- 112

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=52&t=22127

3.

:- 50 .
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=53&t=22305

4.

:- 60 .
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=51&t=21713

:
115-198
:
201-320


40

mathematica -7

+ : 29/01/2012 17/02/2012

: 40 .
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=54&t=22769

:

















parmenides51

mathematica.gr.

mathematica -8

z : Re z 2Re z , 1
z

1.
z.
Re z 0, :

2.
3.
4.
5.

w z

4

z

4 w 4.

u z 3 4i.
,
u.
z1 , z 2 z 3 1
, z1z 2 z 2z 3 z 3z1 2 z1 z 2 z 3 .
:

4
Re z 2Re(z) Re(z) Re 2Re(z)
z

z
4
Re(z) Re . z i , R , 0 :
z
4
4
4
i
4
4

4( 2 2 ) Re( ) 2 2 . 2
.
2
z i

z

1.

0 4. z ,
M(z), 2
2

O(0, 0) 0,2 0, 2 .
0 0 z , M(z),

yy O 0,0 .

0,2

M(z)
O(0, 0)

0, 2

2.
Re z 0 0. z , M(z)
y
2 O(0, 0)
0,2 0, 2 . , z 2
4
zz 4 z . , w z z 2Re(z) R . ,
z
2 Re(z) 2 4 2Re(z) 4 4 w 4.
w , M(w)
AB, A(2,0) B(2,0),

O(0, 0)

O(0,0).

3.

,
mathematica -9

u z 3 4i z u 3 4i z 2 u 3 4i 2 u (3 4i) 2.
u , K(3, 4)
2.

4.

6 y

M(x, y)

(x 4)2 (y 3)2 4 . OK,


A,B.

K(3,4)

OB (OM) (OA).

(OK) d(K,O) 42 32 5,
u max (OA) (OK) 5 2 7.

-2
-1

x
O(0, 0)2

u min (OB) (OK) 5 2 3.


5.

, z1z 2 z 2z 3 z 3z1

z1z 2 z 2 z 3 z 3 z 1

z1 z 2 z 3
16
16
16

16

z 1z 2 z 3
z1 z 2 z 2 z 3 z 3 z1

16
z z 2 z 3 2 z1 z 2 z 3 .
8 1

zz 3(z z)i 4(z z), z C

1 .

1.

z
.

2.

z z1
.

3.

, R , z1

4.

1 2
z z 0.
4

z 0 1 ,
2012

z 0 4 3i
52012 , w 5i ,

w 5i
w (0, 5) 2 1.
:

1.

z x yi, x, y R

z 3(z z)i 4(z z) x 2 y 2 32yi 2 42x x 2 y 2 6y 8x 0

(x 2 8x 16) (y 2 6y 9) 16 9 (x 4) 2 (y 3) 2 25 .
K(4, 3)
2
2
1 5 . x 0 y 0 (0 4) (0 3) 16 9 25.

mathematica -10


2
2
O(0, 0) (x 4) (y 3) 25 ,
.

2.

M(x, y)

z 1 8 6i

(x 4) (y 3) 25 . OK,
A.
2

K (4, 3)

(OM) (OA).
(OK) 42 32 5 ,
z max (OA) (OK) 5 5 10.

,
2
2
OA (x 4) (y 3) 25 .
OA OK

30 3
. OK : y 3 x.
40 4
4

25
3
25

(x 4) 2 (y 3) 2 25 (x 4) 2 ( x 3) 2 25 x 2 x 0

16
2
4

3
3
3
y

y x
y x
4

4
4
x 0
25 2 25
25

0
x(x

8)

16
16

y 0
2

3
3
y x
y x
x 8

4
4
y 6
z1 8 6i (
z 2 0 ) .
A
A O K .

x A xO
xA

x 8

2
2

yA 6
y yA yO
3 y A

2
2
3.

1 2
z z 0 z1 8 6i ,
4
z 2 z1 8 6i . Vieta

mathematica -11

8 6i 8 6i 4
4

(8 6i)(8 6i) 4
25
P

3
1 2
z z 0 z1 8 6i , ,
4
1
1
: (8 6i) 2 (8 6i) 0 (64 96i 36) 8 6i 0
4
4

8 7 0 25
7 24i 8 6i 0

24

4
4.

z 4 3i 5 z 4 3i 5 z 4 3i 5
z 4 3i
o

w 5i

z o 4 3i
w 5i

(0, 5)

2012

5 2012

2012

5 2012

K (4, 3)

z o 4 3i
w 5i

x
(1)

5
5 w 5i 1 . w
w 5i

(0, 5) 2 1.


3
z C , z 1 z 1 , R . :
1.
2.
3.
4.

0 2.
2 2
Re(z)
.
2
z2 z 1 2 3 .
3 z2 z 1

13
.
4

1.
, | z 1| z 1 0 .
0 | z 1 || z | 1 1 1 2 0 2.
2.

, z 1 z 1 2 z 1 z 1 2
2

zz z z 1 2 z z z 1 2 z z 2 2 , 1 .
2

mathematica -12

2 2
2

1 2Re(z) 2 2 Re(z )

z x yi x,y R.

, z 1 x yi 1 (x 1) yi (x 1)2 y 2

(x 1)2 y 2 2 x2 2x 1 y 2 2 . z 1 x2 y 2 1.
2 2
2 2
Re z
.
1 2x 1 2x 2 x
2
2
2

1
zz 1 z .
z
1
1 , z 2 2 z 2 1 z 2 2z
z

3.

|z| 1

z z 1 z 3z z z 1 z 3 z 2 z 1 2 3 .
2

2 2
2 x y 1 x
.
2
2
z 2 z 1 x yi x yi 1 x2 2xyi y 2 x yi 1
2

y 2 1 x2

x2 y 2 1

x 2xyi 1 x x yi 1 x(2x 1) y(2x 1)i (2x 1)(x yi).


2

z z 1 (2x 1)(x yi) 2x 1 x yi


2

4.

2x 2 2

2 2 1 z 2 3 .

1, 3

13
, 0,2 ,
4
13
3 2 3
0,2 .
4
3 2 3

f x x x2 3 x 0,2 .
.

x 2 x 3 , x 0, 3

f x
2
, x 3,2
x x 3

mathematica -13


x
1
2x 1 , x 0, 3
2
3
0
2

f x
f (x) 2x 1
+
0 0
, x 3,2
2x 1

f
f (x) 2x 1
+
1
0,
f (x)
9 . 0
9 .
2
.
.
3,2 ,

, 3 .
2

f :
1 13
: f 0 3,f 3 3. : f ,f 2 3.
2 4

.
1 13
fmax f
fmin f 3 3 .
2 4
13
fmin f x fmax 3 f x
x 0,2 .
4
13
13
, 3 x2 3 x , x 0,2 . , 3 2 3 , [0,2].
4
4

4

2
2
z, w | z | zw 1,| w | zw 3 .

1.

| z w | 2 .

2.

z w
, .
z w .

3.
4.

z, w
.
:

1.

, z w (z w)(z w) z zw wz w 1 3 4

z w 2.
( )
, zw R zw R zw zw ,
:

z zw 1 zz zw 1 z z w 1
2

w zw 3 ww zw 3 w z w 3
2

mathematica -14

:
2
z z w w z w 4 z w z w 4 z w 4 z w 2.
2.

, : z z w 1

, z z w 1 z z w 1 z z w 1 2 z 1 z
z

1
.
2

1
2

1 .

w z w 3
:
wz w 3

z
3/2

1/2

wz w 3
3
w z w 3 2 w 3 w .
2

w
3
2

2 .
3.

z w (z w)(z w) z zw wz w z (1 z ) (3 w ) w
1
9
2 4 1.
4
4
2
z w 1 z w 1.
z w 1.
2

2 z 2 w 4 2

4.

A, B z, w ,

C1 C2 AB z w 1 . A, B, O
, ABO
:
OB OA AB

3 1
3 3
1 .
2 2
2 2


A,B z,w
zw 1

z w z w z w z w

3 1 2
z

2 2 2

mathematica -15

AB OA BO AO OB AO OB

, , OA,OB
O, A,B .
5

2
z 2(t)z (5 4t) 0, t [0, ] .
:

1.

z1 , z 2 .

2.

| z1 z 2 | .

3.

| z1 z 2 | .
:

1.

, 4 2 t 20 16t 4 1 2t 20 16t

4 42t 20 16t 2t 4 0, t 2 .
z1 t t 2 i z 2 t t 2 i.
2


z1 t 2 t i x yi

y
3

x 1,1 , 1 y 2 t [0, ] .

x t
x t

.
y 2 t 2 y t
2
2
t t 1

x 2 y 2 1 .

0, 2

x2 y 2 1
2

-1

z1
0, 2 1 x 1,1 , 1 y 2 .
z 2
t t 2 i x yi x 1,1 ,
2 y 1 t [0, ] .
x t

x t

y t 2

y 2 t
t t 1 x y 2 1 .
2

y
-2

-1

x-12 y 2 1
2

-2

(0,-2)

-3

z 2
0, 2 1 1 x 1,1 , 2 y 1 .

mathematica -16

2.

z1 z 2 (2t 4)i ,

| z1 z 2 | 2t 4 .
| z1 z 2 |

2t 4 ,
t 0 t max | z1 z 2 | 4.

/2

-2

3.
z1 z 2 2t ,
| z1 z 2 | 2t .
| z1 z 2 |
2t , t 0

y
4

y 2t

x
/2

t max | z1 z 2 | 2 .

-2

z t (t 1)i, t [0,1] . :
1.
2.

z.

3.
4.

w .

5.

| z w | .

6.

| w | | z w | k [0, 4] .

| z | .
w (k 2 2) (k 2 1)i,k R. :
| w | .

1.

z x iy,x,y R ,
x t
x iy t t 1 i
x 0,1
y t 1

y 1, 0 t 0,1 . , t

,
x y 1.

y
-1

x
2

-1
-2

z
x y 1 , x 0,1 y 1, 0 .
A 1,0 B 0, 1 .

mathematica -17

2.
z

.
0 01
2
min z (OM) d O,

.
2
11

-1
-1

-2

w x iy,x,y R ,
x k 2 2
2
2
k R
x iy k 2 k 1 i
2
y

2
2
x 2 k 0 y 1 k 0 . k
x y 3.

3.

1 y
x
-1

-1

K 2, 1

-2

-3
w 1 : x y 3
x 2 y 1.

4.

1 : y x 3 .
y x
1 . y x

y
1
x
-1

3 3
y x 3 ,
2 2
1 : x y 3
w

K 2, 1 3.

K 2, 1

-1

3
3
,
2
2

-2
-3

min w OK 5.
5.
AB
1 : y x 3 .
1 0
1

21
1 : y x 3 z w
z
A 1,0 w K 2, 1 . ,

min z w AK 2.

mathematica -18

B 0, 1

A 1, 0

K 2, 1

6.
k 0, 4
w

1 ,
2, 1

18,15

y
W

max|w-z|

ZA
min|w-z|

ZB

Wk

18,15 :

K 2, 1

k 0, 4 0 k 4 0 k 2 16 2 k 2 2 18 2 x 18
k 0, 4 0 k 4 0 k 2 16 1 k 2 1 15 1 y 15 .

, max w O 549 max z w B 580.


7

1.
w 2 w 1 0.
z1 , z 2 z12 z1z 2 z 22 0.
2.

: z1 z 2 .

3.

: z1 z 2 z1 z 2 .

4.

z1 z 2
N z z 0, u

z1 z 2
.
: .- . ( )
*

1.

1
3
i .
3 0 w1,2
2 2

2.
z12 z1z 2 z 22 0 z 22 z12 z1z 2 (1).
(1) z 2
(1)

z z z z z z12z 2 z1 ( z12 z1z 2 ) z12z 2 z13 z12z 2 z13 .


3
2

2
1 2
3
1

2
1 2
3

| z | | z 2 | | z1 || z 2 | .

z12 z1z 2 z 22 0.
z 2 0 z12 0 z1 0 z1 0 z 2 .
2

z z
z 1 2 z 1z 2 z 2 2
0
z 2 0 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 0.
z2
z2
z2
z2
z2 z2

mathematica -19

z1
w 2 w 1 0 1
z2

1
3
z
1
3
w
i 1
i
2 2
z2
2 2
2

2
z1
1
3
1 3
4
1 3


i

1 z1 z 2 .

z2
2 2
4 4
4
2 2
z1 z 2 .


z1 z 2

z12 z1z 2 z 22 0

z2

2
1

z1z 2 z 22 0 z13 z 23 0 z13 z 32 .

z13 z 23 z13 z 32 z1 z 2 .
3.
A z1 0 , z12 z1z 2 z 22 0
z 2 0 .
z1z 2 0 , :

z12 z1z 2 z22 z1 (z1 z 2 ) z 22 | z1 || z1 z 2 || z 2 |2


|z1| |z 2 |

| z1 z 2 || z 2 | | z1 z 2 || z 2 || z1 | .


2.
,

z1
1
3

i.
z2
2 2

z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1
1
3
1
3
1
i 1
i
z2
z2 z2 z2
2 2
2 2
2

2
z1 z 2
1
3
1 3

i
1 z1 z 2 z 2 .
z2
2
2
2 2

z1 z 2 2. z1 z 2 z1 z 2 .
4.

u u .

2
z1 z

1
z1z 2 0, | z1 || z 2 | | z1 |2 | z 2 |2 2 z1 z1 z 2 z 2 2
2
z
2

z2

, u

z1 z 2
z1 z 2

mathematica -20

v
v
2 2
2 z 2 z 1


z
z
z1 z 2 v
z1 v z 2 v
1 v 2 v

u.
v
v
v
v
2
2
z

z
z

z

1
2
2 2 1

z1 z 2
z1 z 2


8
z1 , z 2 , z 3
A, B, , : z1 2z 2 3z 3 z1 z 3 1, z 2 2 .

1.

Re(z1 z 2 ) 0.

2.

. z1 z 2 z1 z 2 .
. OAB .

3.

Re(z 2 z 3 ) Re(z1 z 3 ).

4.

. A, B, .
. A B.
: . ( )

1.

, z1 2z 2 3z 3 z1 2z 2 3z 3 z1 2z 2 9 z 3

(z1 2z 2 )(z1 2z 2 ) 9
2

z1 z1 2z1 z 2 2z 2 z1 4z 2 z 2 9 z1 2(z1 z 2 z1 z 2 ) 4 z 2 9

1 4Re(z1 z 2 ) 42 9 Re(z1 z 2 ) 0.
2.

. z1 z 2 (z1 z 2 )(z1 z 2 ) z1 z1 z1 z 2 z 2 z1 z 2 z 2

z1 (z1 z 2 z 2 z1 ) z 2 z1 2Re(z1 z 2 ) z 2

(1)

z1 z 2 .

2
2
2
. z1 z 2 z1 z 2 (AB) (OA) (OB) .
, OAB
AOB 90o.
2

3.

,
2

z1 2z 2 3z 3 2z 2 3z 3 z1 2z 2 3z 3 z1 2z 2 3z 3 z1
(2z 2 3z 3 )(2z 2 3z 3 ) 1 4z 2 z 2 6z 2 z 3 6z 3 z 2 9z 3 z 3 1
2

4 z 2 6(z 2 z 3 z 3 z 2 ) 9 z 3 1 42 6(z 2 z 3 z 2 z 3 ) 9 1
4
17 12Re(z 2 z 3 ) 1 12Re(z 2 z 3 ) 16 Re(z 2 z 3 ) .
3
,
2

z1 2z 2 3z 3 z1 3z 3 2z 2 z1 3z 3 2z 2 z1 3z 3 4 z 2

mathematica -21

(z1 3z 3 )(z1 3z 3 ) 42 z1 z1 3z1 z 3 3z 3 z1 9z 3 z 3 8


2

z1 3(z1 z 3 z 3 z1 ) 9 z 3 8

1
1 3(z1 z 3 z1 z 3 ) 9 8 10 6Re(z1 z 3 ) 8 6Re(z 1 z 3 ) 2 Re(z 1 z 3 ) .
3
4.
. , z1 2z 2 3z 3 z1 z 3 2z 3 2z 2 z1 z 3 2(z 3 z 2 )
OA O 2(O OB) A 2B A, B,
.
2

. (A)2 z 3 z1 (z 3 z 1 )(z 3 z 1 ) z 3 z 3 z 3 z 1 z 1z 3 z 1z 1

2
4
2
2
2 3
z 3 2Re(z1 z 3 ) z1 1 1 . (A)
.
3
3
3
2
, (B)2 z 3 z 2 (z 3 z 2 )(z 3 z 2 ) z 3 z 3 z 3 z 2 z 2 z 3 z 2 z 2
8
1
2
2
3
z 3 2Re(z 2 z 3 ) z 2 1 2 (B)
.
3
3
3

9
z1 i, z 2 i ,, ,
z1 z 2 1 . x 2 2 z1 z 2 x 2 0
x1 ,x2 . :
1.

x1 , x 2 .

2.

x1 x2 2 .

3.

x1 x2 4 z1 z 2 8.
x x
w 1 2
x 2 x1
.
:

4.

1.

,, , 0 , ,

, z1 , z 2
,
, 1, 0 0,1 .
0 z1 z 2 2 AB .
:

0,1 y

z1

z2

x
1, 0

4 z1 z 2 2 0 . 2 x1 , x 2 ,
.
mathematica -22

2.

x1 x1 x2 .
2

x1x2 2 x1x2 2 x1 x2 2 x1 2.
x1 x2 2.
3.

x1,2

i
.
2
2

, x1 x 2

i i
i
2

4 z1 z 2 8 .
2
2

x1 x2 4 z1 z 2 8.
4.

x
x1 x2 x1 x1 x1 x1

2Re 1 R.
x2 x1 x1 x1 x1 x1
x1

x x
x 2 x22 x1 x2 2x1x2
, w 1 2 1

. x1 x2 2(z1 z 2 )
x2 x1
x1x2
x1x2
2

4 z1 z 2 4
2
2 z1 z 2 2 2.
x1x2 2. , w
2
2 z1 z 2 ( x1,2 i 2 ) .
10

z 6 t 8 t i, t 0.
1. z 6 8i .
2. z.
3. z
.
4. t 0 , z
1 3 .
5. t 0 R , w z 1
.


z 1

1. , z 6 8i 6 t 8i t i 6 8i

z 6 8i t t i 2 t 2 t 1.
2. 1. z 6 8i 1 z 6 8i 1 .
z , K 6, 8
1.
mathematica -23

3. M(x, y)

(x 6)2 (y 8)2 1 . OK ,
A,B.
(OK) d(K,O) 62 82 10.

OB (OM) (OA).

z max (OA) (OK) 10 1 11

(6,8)
(x,y)

z min (OB) (OK) 10 1 9 .

4. t 0 z
1 3 . ,
Re z Im z 6 t 8 t t 1 t 1.
, ,
.
.
t 1
2
2

. t t 2,.
t 1
t 0, z
1 3 .

: y x 1 3 .
y o x0

x0 ,y 0 6,8

86

2
2 1 .
2
2
1 1
, t 0
z 1 3 .
d K,


z M(x,x),x R
99
(x 6)2 (y 8)2 1 (x 6)2 (x 8)2 1 x 2 14x
0
2
196 198 4 0 . t 0,
z 1 3 .
5. t 0 z 7 8i . ,
8 8i

w z 1
7 8i 1
8 8i
8 8i

z1
7 8i 1
8 8i
128
i

w 8 8i w 8 8 i .
16 16
16
16

mathematica -24

0 128.
16

11
2(x y)(1 i)
*
z
x,y R .
x yi
x 2 y 2 2xy
x2 y2
1.
Re z 2
Im z 2 2

x2 y2
x y2
x,y R* .
w R Im w 0 8

2.
3.

z.

z.
z .
:

4.

:
(2x 2xi 2y 2yi)(x yi) 2x 2 2y 2 4xy 2x 2 2y 2

2
i
1.
, z
x2 y2
x2 y2
x y2
x2 y 2 2xy
x2 y 2
2
2 2
i.
x2 y 2
x y2
x2 y 2
x 2 y 2 2xy
.
Re z 2
Im z 2 2
x y2
x2 y2

2.
z i, , R ,
2
x y 2 2xy
x2 y2
2xy

2xy

2xy
2
2
2
1 2
1 2
2
2
2
2
2
x y
2 x y x y
2
x y
2
x y2
x2 y2
x2 y2
2 2
2
x y2
2 x y2
2

2 2xy x y

2

2
2
2
2 2 x y x y
2

2xy x 2 y 2
2

2x y y x 2x y y
x y
x y

4x 2 y 2 x 2

y2

y2

y2

2
2

2
2

1 2 2 4 z

2 2
K(2, 0) 2.

mathematica -25

3.

M(x, y)

(x 2) y 4 .
2

x 0 y 0 (0 2) 0 4 .
O(0, 0)
2

-1

(2,0)

-1

(x 2) y 4 ,
-2
.
| z |min 0
OK , A.
(OM) (OA).
(OK) 2 , Z max (OA) (OK) 2 2 4.
2

4.
z z1 4
OK ( xx ) .

12
z | z 1 || z 2 9z 20 | | z 4 | , 0 .
1.

:
| z |2 16 2
. z z
.
4
. (1 2 ) | z |2 (52 1)(z z) 252 1.
. | z | 2.

2.
3.

z.
z.

1.

. ,
0

z 4 z 4 2 (z 4)(z 4) 2 zz 4z 4z 16 2
2

4(z z) z 16 z z
2

z 16 2
4

. ,
()

z 1 z 9z 20 z 1 (z 4)(z 5) z 1 z 4 z 5
2

z 1 z 5 z 1 2 z 5 (z 1)(z 1) 2 (z 5)(z 5)
2

zz z z 1 2 (zz 5z 5z 25) z (z z) 1 2 ( z 5(z z) 25)


2

z (z z) 1 2 z 52 (z z) 252
2

z (z z) 2 z 52 (z z) 252 1
2

(1 2 ) z (52 1)(z z) 252 1.


mathematica -26

z 16 2
2
2
252 1
. , 1.. , (1 ) z (5 1)
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
(4 4 ) z (5 1)( z 16 ) 100 4
2

(2 3) z 54 192 12 (2 3) z (2 3)(52 4)
2

z 52 4 4 z 2.
2.

z 52 4 z 5 z 4 4 x2 y 2 5(x 4)2 5y 2 4

4x2 4y 2 40x 84 0 x2 y 2 10x 21 0


(x2 10x 25) y 2 25 21 (x 5)2 y 2 4.
z K(5, 0) 2.

3.

2 y


OK , A.

(OA) (OM). ,
z min (OA) (OK) 5 2 3.

1
-2

-1

(5,0)

-1
-2

z 4
.
2
z 4 x 4 y 2 2

z 1 2 x 1 y 2 42
2

z 52 4
z 5 2 x 5 y2 4
2


4 .
13

z, w C z (3i 4) 5iz 2 0, .. w (4 3i) 5iw 2 0 .


2

1.

z w (4 3i) 5i(z w) 2 0 .

2.

q q

1
1.
z

1.
z 0 w 0 .
2
z 0 w (4 3i) 5iw 2 0.
mathematica -27

w 0 z (3i 4) 5iz 2 0.
z 0 w 0

5iz
4 3i
2
5iw
w (4 3i) 5iw 2 0 ww (4 3i) 5iw 2 w
4 3i

5i z w z w
5iw 5iz
5i(z w) z w
zw

zw
z w z w
4 3i 4 3i
4 3i
4 3i
2

z (4 3i) 5iz 2 0 zz (4 3i) 5iz 2 z

zw

5i z w
4 3i

zw

4 3i 5i z w

0.


z x yi, x,y R .
2

, z (3i 4) 5iz 2 0, :

(x2 y 2 )(4 3i) 5i(x2 y 2 2xyi) 0


4(x2 y 2 ) 3i(x2 y 2 ) 10xy 5i(x2 y 2 ) 0 (4x2 4y 2 10xy) (8x 2 2y 2 )i 0
2x 2 2y 2 5xy 0 (1)
2
2
y 4x (2)
H (2) y 2x .
y 2x (1): 2x 2 8x 2 10x 2 0 x 0, y 0 z 0 .
y 2x (1): 2x 2 8x 2 10x 2 0 .
, z x 2xi, x R .
, w 2i, R .
, () z, w () : y 2x .
, z x1 iy1 y1 2x1 w x2 iy 2 y 2 2x2
u :
u z w x1 iy1 x 2 iy 2 x1 x 2 y1 y 2 i

x1 x2 2x1 2x2 i x1 x2 2 x1 x2 i.

Im u 2Re u , u
z, w () : y 2x
2

u (3i 4) 5iu2 0 z w (3i 4) 5i(z w) 2 0 .

2.
z x yi, x, R* .

5i x yi
5iz
z
x-yi
x-yi 4 3i 5xi 5y
4 3i
4 3i
4x+3xi-4yi+3y 5xi 5y 4x+3y + 3x-4y i 5y 5xi
mathematica -28

5y 4x 3y
2y 4x

y 2x.
-5x=3x-4y
-8x=-4y

z x 2xi,x 0 .

1
1
x-2xi
x(1-2i)
1-2i
1
2i
q 1
1 2
1
1
1
1
2
2
z
x 2xi
x 4x
5x
5x
5x
5x
1
2
A q X Yi , X 1 , Y .
5x
5x
2 :
2X Y 2 Y 2X 2 () 1,0 0, 2 .


xy 0 ,
2
1 2
x2 2x 2i 2x 2i 4x 2 x 2xi 5x x 2x
1

2 i 1 i
q 1
2
2
2
x 4x
5x
5x
5x 5x
z

1
2
A q X Yi , X 1 , Y .
5x
5x
2 :
2X Y 2 Y 2X 2 () 1,0 0, 2 .
14

2
2
2
2
z, w C zw 1 . ,, , R 0
(z z) i(z z) (zz 1) (zz 1) 0 , :

1.
2.
3.

z .
z
, w .
z
, w
.
:

1.

z x yi, x, y R ,
(z z) i(z z) (zz 1) (zz 1) 0

2x 2y x 2 y 2 x 2 y 2 0
( )x 2 ( )y 2 2x 2y ( ) 0 (1)
, (1) 2x 2y 2 0 x y 0 (2)
(2) ,
2
2
2
2
2
2
x y , 0
2
2
( )
x
y
0 (3)
(1) x 2 y 2
( )
( )
( )

mathematica -29

2 2

2
2

A B 4

2
2
2
2
4 4 4( )( ) 4( 2 2 )

0.
( )2
( )2
( )2


(3)
,

4( 2 2 2 2 )
( ) 2
2 2 2 2

.
2

z .

2.
z
, (3) 0 ,


x 2 y 2 x y 0 ,

2 2

2 2
2
2 2

.
2
2

2 2
i

.. 1 .
2 2
2

2 2

i
z 0

.
2
2 2

z 0
z

1
w

z z0 z0
z0

2 2
1
2

1 wz 0
1
z0 z0
z 0 1 wz 0 w z 0
w
w

z0 0
1
1
1
w w z0 z0
w w z0 w
w0
z0
z0
z0

w
1
A O 0 0i .
z0


z ,
(3) 0 ,

mathematica -30


x 2 y 2 x y 0 ,

2 2

2 2
2
2 2

.
2
2

2 2
i

. w k mi, k, m R .
z
2 2
2
,
w 0
1
i 1 i
i
1 i
zw 1 z z

w
2 2 w 2 2
2 2
w 2 2

2 w wi
2 2
2 2
1 i

w 2 2
2
2 w
2
2 k mi ki m w 2 2

(2 k m)2 (m k)2 2 2 k 2 m2

4 2 k 22 2m2 4k 4m 2km m22 2mk k 22


k 22 m22 2m2 k 22
0

4k 4m 4 0 k m 0 (4) .
2

(4)
2
2
2
2
2
2
k m , 0 .
3.
z x y 0 (5).
0
xk ym 1
zw 1 (x yi)(k mi) 1 xk xmi kyi ym 1
mx ky 0
k
m
x 2

k m2
k 2 m2
k
m
(5) 2
2
0 (k 2 m2 ) k m 0
2
2
k m
k m

2
2
2
k 2 m2 k m 0 (k 2 2 k 2 ) (m2 2 m 2 ) 2 2

2
4
2
4
4 4
2
2


(k )2 (m )2
.
2
2
42

2 2

,

2

2
2

,
.
mathematica -31

15

, C* z1 , z 2 z 2 z 2 0 .
:
1.
2.
3.

| || | 1 | z1 | 2 | z 2 | 2.

| z1 || z 2 | ,
.

R , 1 , | z1 || z 2 | .
2
z2
:

1.

z1 , z 2 z 2 z 2 0.

, z z1 z z 2 0 z 2 zz 2 z1z z1z 2 0 z 2 z1 z 2 z z1z 2 0.


z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z 2 1.
z1 z 2 2 z1 z 2 2 z1 z 2 1.
z2

z1z 2 1

z1 2 z1 z 2 2 z 2 z1z 2 2 z 2 1 2 z 2 z 2

1
(1)
2

z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z 2 1 z 2 .
1 z 2 z1 z1 2 1 z 2 2 z 2 1
(1). z1 2 z1 2.
z 2 2.

z1

2.
z1 z 2 0 z1 z1 z 2 z 2
z
2
2
2
2
2
z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z 2
w

z1

z2

z z2
1
.

z1 z 2
z1 z 2
z1 z 2
z z2
w

1
.
z1z 2

w.
z1 z 2 z1z 2 , w
2
2

w R .

3.

mathematica -32

k,k R 2k.
2

z1 z 2 2k z1z 2 2 .

(z1 z 2 )2
: (z1 z 2 ) 4k (z1 z 2 ) 4k z1z 2
k2 R .
4z1z 2
2

2 2

(z1 z 2 ) 2 (z1 z 2 ) 2

4z1z 2
4z1 z 2
2

(z12 2z1z 2 z 22 )z1 z 2 (z1 2z1 z 2 z 2 )z1z 2


2

z12 z1 z 2 z 22 z1 z 2 z1 z1z 2 z 2 z1z 2 0


z1 z1 (z1 z 2 z1z 2 ) z 2 z 2 (z1 z 2 z1z 2 ) 0

2
1

z2

(z z
1

z1z 2 ) 0.

z1 z1
z

1 R .
z2 z2
z2
.

z1 z 2 z1z 2 0
16

z 2 2 ,z C* ,(1).
z

1.

z1 z 2 (1).

2.

v ,
z1v z 2v 0 .

3.

x y ,
1
1
1

( i)2011 i 16 2 2 .
x yi
z1 z 2

4.

z ,
z z12 z z 42 .
. z 0 .
. z 7 i .
:

2
4

z 2 2 z 2 2 z 2 2 2z 4 0 .
z
z

2 2 i2 2
z 2 i 2
.
8 z1,2
1
2
z

i
2

1.

2.

z1v z 2v 0

2 i 2

2 i 2

1 i
v

1 i

mathematica -33

1 i 1 i 0 1 i i 1 i 0 1 i i 1 i 0
v

1 i 0 1 i
v

0 1 i 0

v 4. ( i) 1 . 2
v 4 2 0,1,2,... .

3.

1
1 1
1
1 z 22 z12
2011
16
2011
i i 2 2
i 16 2 2
x iy
z1 z 2
x iy
i
z1 z 2

z z 2 2z1z 2 x iy i 1
1
1
i 4502 3
1
4
2
x iy
x2 y 2
z 1z 2
i4
2

2 2

24

42

x
x2 y 2 1

x
iy
x
y

2
i 1 2
1 2
i 1
2
2
2
2
2
x y
x y
x y
x y
1 y 0
x 2 y 2
1
x y .
2
4.
z42

z12
2 i 2

2 i 2

1 i
2

1 i 4 1 i
4

2 2

4i

4 2i 16 .
2

z z12 z z42 z 4i z 16 z 4i z 16 .
z
4i 16 1 : 4x y 30 0 .
( z 2 4 )
4

4i

z 24 z1 z14 z12

16 16 .

y
.
1 : 4x y 30 0x

.
z
120 30
O 0, 0 1 B ,
17 17
1
2 : y x .
4

120 30
. B
,
17
17
120 30
zo
i.
17 17
mathematica -34

. z 7 i z 7 i .

(-7,1)


7 i
1 : 4x y 30 0 .

y
7 i

1 : 4x y 30 0

A 7,1 7 i ,

min z 7 i d A,1

4( 7) 1 30
4 2 12

3
.
17


17
z (k t) (k t)i t R k 1 .
1.
2.

z.
w y x (k 1) ,

5 2
1 .
2
k E2 z
| z z | .
k | z w |min

3.
4.

k E2 | w 3 4i | .

5.

u u ( 1 mt) ( 1 mt)i ,
m u
.
k, m E2 E5 ,
| z u | .

6.

1.
z x yi, x, y R
x k t,y k t. ,

2 (t) 2 (t) 1 (x k)2 (y k)2 1 .


z
A(k, k) 1 1 k 1.

|z-w|min
A(,)
x

| 3k 1 |
1 k 1 ,
2
| 3k 1 |
. | z w |min d(A,) 1
1
2
5 2
| 3k 1 |
5 2
| z w |min
1
1
1 | 3k 1 | 5 k 2 , k 1 .
2
2
2

2.

d(A,)

mathematica -35

3.
k 2 z (2 t) (t 2)i .
z i, , R 2 (t) (t) 2

2 (t) 2 (t) 1 ( 2)2 ( 2)2 1 . ' z


B(2, 2) 2 1 1.

1 k 2 | z (2 2i) | 1 | z (2 2i) | 1
z B(2, 2) 2 1 1 .
z z

(2 t) (2 t)i (2 t) (2 t)i 4
2(2 t)i

| z z |min 2 1 2

| z z |max 2 3 6

max|2-t|

min|2-t|

x
6

4.
| w 3 4i || w (3 4i) |
w K(3, 4).
| 3 4 1|
0 (
| w 3 4i |min d(K, )
2
K ) .
5.

u i, , R .
1
1
(t)
( m 0 m 0 , u
, (t)
m
m
(1, 1).
( 1) 2 ( 1) 2

1 ( 1)2 ( 1) 2 m2 u
2
2
m
m
( 1, 1) 3 m .
O(0, 0) (0 1)2 (0 1)2 m2 m2 2 m 2 .

w
m R u 0 0i
1

1 mt 0
m

1 mt 0 t 1

m
2
2
2
1 1
2
2
t t 1 1 2 1 m 2 2 m 2.
m
m m
mathematica -36

6.

c z u (k t) (k t)i ( 1 mt) ( 1 mt)i


(k t) (k t)i (1 mt) (1 mt)i
(k t 1 mt) (k t 1 mt)i
k 1 (1 m)t (k 1 (1 m)t) i
c x yi,x, y R
x k 1 (1 m)t x (k 1) (1 m)t,
..y k 1 (1 m)t y (k 1) (1 m)t

2
2
x (k 1) y (k 1) (1 m)2 2t (1 m)2 2t

x (k 1) y (k 1)
2

x 3 y 3
2

k2

(1 m) x 3 y 3 (1 2)2
2

m 2

(1 2)2

x 3 y 3
2

(3,3)
(x,y)

M(x, y)

(1 2)2

(3,3)
(x,y)

M(x, y)

(x 3)2 (y 3)2 1 2 .

(x 3)2 (y 3)2

OK ,
A,B.

OK ,
A,B.

(OK) d(K,O) 32 32 3 2.

(OK) d(K,O) 32 32 3 2.

OB (OM) (OA).

C min

2 1 .

OB (OM) (OA).

C max (OA) (OK)

C max (OA) (OK)

.. 3 2 1 2 4 2 1

(OB) (OK)

.. 3 2 2 1 4 2 1

(OB) (OK)

.... 3 2 1 2 2 2 1.

C min

.... 3 2 2 1 2 2 1.

mathematica -37

18

2
2
z, w 4 | z | 2zw 1,| w | 2zw 3 .

1.

| 2z w | 2.

2.

z w
, .
| 6z w | .

3.
4.


z w .
:
:

1.

4 z 2 1
R .
4 z 2zw 1 2zw 4 z 1 zw

zw zw
2
2z w (2z w)(2z w) 4zz 2zw 2wz ww
2

4 z 2zw w 2zw 4 z 2zw w 2zw 4

, 2z w 2.
2.

, w 2zw 3 ww 2zw 3 w(w 2z) 3

1
3
w w 2z 3 2 w 3 w .
2
zw wz

K 4 z 2zw 1 4zz 2zw 1 4zz 2zw 1


1

1
.
4
z
2z(2z w) 1 2z 2z w 1 4 z 1 z

1
, w
4
3
2 .
2
1
1
3
4 1
1
3
4
4
3.
zw zw 16
2
2
2
8

6z w (6z w)(6z w) 36zz 6zw 6wz ww


2

36 z 12zw w

mathematica -38

zw zw

36
3 9 9 18 9
12 0
16
8 4 4 4 4

6z w 0 . A 6z B w ,
A B .
4.

z w (z w)(z w) zz zw wz ww

zw wz

1
1 49
3 9 1 3 9
2
3

16
16 16
8 4 16 4 4
7
7
z w . z w min z w max .
4
4

3 A 6z
B w , z ,
,O,B
2

z 2zw w

OB O .
3 1 7
z w B BO O .
2 4 4

3 6z w 0 6z w 0 w 6z .
1
4

z w z ( 6z) z 6z 7z 7 z 7

7
1
z
4
4

7
4

z w min z w max z w .
19

z f (z)

i
.
| z 2 | | z 1|

1.

z f (z).

2.

| f (z) | 1.

3.

f (z) i , :
. N | z 1| Re(z) 1.
. Re(z).
. z , z
3 .
:

1.

| z 2 | | z 1| 0 | z 2 || z 1| . :

| z 2 | | z 1| 0 | z 2 || z 1|| z 2 |2 | z 1|2

z 2 z 2 z 1 z 1 zz 2z 2z 4 zz z z 1

z z 3 2Re z 3 Re z

3
. f (z)
2

3
z Re(z) .
2
mathematica -39

2.

| f (z) ||

i
1
1
|=

1.
| z 2 | | z 1| || z 2 | | z 1 || z 2 z 1

i
i | z 2 | 1 | z 1|
| z 2 | | z 1|
:
3.

. f (i) i

z 2 1 z 1 z 2 z 2 1 2 z 1 z 1 z 1
2

zz 2z 2z 4 1 2 z 1 zz z z 1 2 z 1 2 z z
2 z 1 2 2Re z z 1 1 Re z .

. 0 z 1 1 Re(z) 1 Re(z) 0 1 Re(z) Re(z) 1.


. z 1 1 Re(z) z x yi x, y R
(x 1)2 y 2 (1 x)2
y 0
.
(x 1)2 y 2 1 x

1
1

z y 0 x 1.
20

1.

(z 3 i)(z 4 2i).

2.

z 2 (1 3i)z 14 2i 0 (1).

3.

z1 ,z 2 (1) Re(z1 ) 0 A,B,


z1 ,z 2 z 3 3 i . AB
.
M(z)
z
(MA)2 2(MB)2 2(M)2 30.

4.

1.
,
z 3 i z 4 2i z 2 4z 2iz 3z 12 6i iz 4i 2

z 3 i z 4 2i z 2 1 3i z 14 2i.
2.

z 4 2i
z 2 1 3i z 14 2i 0 z 3 i z 4 2i 0 1
z 2 3 i
3.
z1 ,z 2 z 3 3 i
A 4, 2 , B 3, 1 3,1 .

AB z1 z 2

4 2i 3 i 7 i 50 ,

mathematica -40

A z1 z 3 4 2i 3 i 1 3i 10
B z 2 z 3 3 i 3 i 6 2i 40 .
2
2
2
AB A B
AB .


z1 ,z 2 z 3 3 i A 4, 2 ,
B 3, 1 3,1 .
3 4, 1 2 7,1
3 4,1 2 1,3

3 3,1 1 6,2

7 1
21 1 20 0
1 3
,,
1,3 6,2 6 6 0
.

4.

z x iy,x,y R M x,y .

det ,

MA 2 MB 2 M 30
2

xM x A

yM y A

xM x

yM y

xM xB

yM yB

30

x 4 y 2 2 x 3 y 1
2

2 x 3 y 1 30
2

x2 y 2 16x 12y 10 0.
x2 y 2 Ax By 0 A 16, B 12, 10
A B
A2 B2 4 440 0 . K , 8, 6
2 2

A 2 B2 4
440

110.

2
2

21
z1 , z 2

z1
z
z2

1
2,Im(z) 0 .
z
1.
z .

mathematica -41

2.

N * z12 z 22 .

3.
4.

z 95 z 94 ... z 1 0 .
z 2 y 2x 1 ,
z 1 ,
.
OAB , O, A,B
0, z1 , z 2 .

5.
6.

OAB (5) .
:

1
2,Im(z) 0
z
2
(1 i) Im(z) 0 .
z 2 2z 1 0 z
2

1.

2.

z1
2
z
(1 i)
z2
2
2

2
z
2
(z1 )2 (z 2 )2 1
(1 i) 1 4k,k Z .
z2
2
2

3.
1 z ... z 94 z 95
1 1 , z 96 .

z 961
0
z 1
z 1
z 96 (z 2 )48 i 48 i 410 i 0 1 .

4.

z 2 i,z1 x yi

z1
2
z x yi
(1 i)( i) 2 1
2
z2
y 3x 2 z 1 .
5.

z1
2
z
(1 i)
z2
2

| z1 |
2

(1 i) 1 | z1 || z 2 | , .
| z2 |
2

6.

mathematica -42

A y 3x 2 B y 2x 1 z1 , z 2
2
2
) y A
(3 1)
2
2
OA OB

xB ,y B 2 1 R . , t
OA OB

x A ( 1)(

2
B

t 45 A
2

180 45 135

67o 30 .

2
2

22

z 3 8i
z C {2i} f (z)
.
z 2i
1.
z 2i , f (z) z 2 2iz 4 .
2.

f (1 i) .

3.

f (z) z 2 2iz 4 .

4.

f (z) 2iz z 6 .

5.

z 1 , f (z)
7 .
:

1.

z 3 8i z 3 (2i)3 (z 2i)(z 2 2iz 4)

z 2 2iz 4 .
f (z)
z 2i
z 2i
z 2i

2.

| f (1 i) || (1 i)2 2i(1 i) 4 || 4i 6 | 42 ( 6)2 2 13 .

3.

f (z) | z 2 | 2iz 4 z 2 2iz 4 | z 2 | 2iz 4 z 2 | z 2 |


z 2 | z 2 | 0 z 2 zz 0 z(z z) 0 .
, z 0 z z 0 z R ,
.
4.
f (z) 2iz z 6 z 2 2iz 4 2iz z 6 z 2 z 2 0 .
(1) z x iy, x,y R (1)

x iy

x iy 2 0 x2 y 2 x 2 2xy y i 0 .

x2 y 2 x 2 0 (2) y(2x 1) 0 (3) .


(3)
y 0 x2 x 2 0 R
mathematica -43

1
11
11
x y
y
2
2
2
1
11
1
11
i,z 2
i.
z1
2
2
2
2
5.

| z | 1 .

| f(z) || 2i || z | | 4 | | z |2 | f(z) | 7 ,
f (z)
O(0,0) 7 .

-7

-7

23

z z
1.

z .

2.
3.

z z 2 .
(1) .

4.

2005

z 2008 1 1 .

z Im z 0 , (1)
z
R .
w
z
. w .
. , w .
:

1.

: z

2.

z 1 0 z 0 , z 1 zz 1 z

2005

3.

z 2008

2005

.z

2008

1 z

4013

1 z 1 .

1
z
2005
1
1
1 z 2008 1 z 3 1 z 2 z 1 z 2 z 2 z .
z
z

2005

1 z 3 1 (z 1)(z 2 z 1) 0 .
1
3
1
3
i,z 3
i.
z1 1,z 2
2 2
2 2
4.

1
3
i.
, z
2 2

mathematica -44

z 2008 1 z 2005 z 2005 z 3 1 (zz)2005 z 3 1 ( z )2005 z 3 1

1
3

i
2 1
2
2
w 2
. w
1
1
3

i
2 2
.
x -
-1
1
+

2
+ 0 0 +

1

+
+
+
(2 1)2
2 1
f () 2
, R .
f ()
+
+
1

lim f (x) 1
.
f()
2(2 1)
9
0
9
.
f
(

1)

3
,
f () 2
lim f (x) 1
1
( 1)2
f (1)

f () 0 1 1.

2 1
2 1
lim f () lim 2

1
lim
f
()

lim

1

1

2 1

1
f ( 1) 3 f (1) .
3
f f
1
f ( 1) 3 , 1

3
1
. w 3
.
3
3

24
z1 , z 2 Im(z1 ) 0 z1 | z 2 | z 2 | z1 | 40(1)
z1z 2 25(2) .
f (1)

1.

z 1 z 2 .

2.

w z1 i , .

3.

N * z z1 z 2 .
z1 , z 2 z .
:

25
(1)
z1
z
z
z
z
2
25 25
40
8
8
z1

z1 40 1 1
1 1 z12 z1 z1 z1 (3)
z1 z1
z1 z1 25
z1 z1 5
5
z1 x yi,x R, y 0 (3)
2
8
x yi x 2 y 2 x yi x 2 y 2
5
8
x 2 2xyi y 2 x 2 y 2 x yi x 2 y 2
5

1.

z1z 2 25 z 2

mathematica -45

2 8
2 4
2
2
2
2
2x

x
x

y
x

x
x

y
y

5
5

2xy 8 y x 2 y 2
x 4 x2 y2
5
5

x 0,y 0
4 2
9x 2
3
x
x y 2 25x 2 16(x 2 y 2 ) 9x 2 16y 2 y 2
y x,x 0
5
16
4
3
z1 y x x 0
4
z 2 i,, R
3
y x

4
25
25
25
100
z1z 2 25 z 2
i
i
i

3
z1
x yi
x(4

3i)
x xi
4
100(4 3i)
4(4 3i)
i
i

25x
x
16

16

12
3
x 0 16

12
x 12

x
3
z 2 y x x 0
4

2.

w z1 i z1 0 i MA A z 1

M 0,1 . w , z 1 K
3
M y x .
4
y
4
MK

y x 1
z : y 43 x
3
4
y x 1 M 0,1
4

3
y x1

3

12 9
K ,
3
y x
25 25 x

4
12 9
K , .
25 25
12 9
12 9
12 16
z1

i w z1 i
ii
i
25 25
25 25
25 25
.
1

mathematica -46

z1 z1 i 4 3i (2)
4
4
4
z 2 z 2 4 3i 0 .

z z1 z 2 N* z1 z 2 1
.
2 16 3 48
z

i 4 .
1 2

4
z1 4 3i z 2 4 3i

3.

z z1 z 2 4 3i 4 3i ( ) .

25


2
z 2 z 0,, R z1 z 2 .
i
1.
, R z 2 .
2.

v R , z1v z 2v 16i .

3.

z

2

z z1 z z 2 16 (1) .
4.

z (1) ,
z 4 4i .
:

2
z1 2i z 2 z1 2i .
i
Vieta : z1 z 2 0 z1z 2 4 .

1.

2.
d z1v z 2v (2i)v ( 2i)v i v[2v ( 2) v ] .
v : , d 0 () .
, v : d 16i i v22v 16i i v2v1 16i .
, : 2v1 16 2v1 24 v 3 .
3.

z x yi, x,y R . , :

| x (y 2)i |2 | x (y 2)i |2 16
x2 y 2 4y 4 x2 y 2 4y 4 16 x2 y 2 4
O(0,0) 2 .

mathematica -47

-7

4.

M(z) M(x,y) z 2 ,

(4,4)

M C : x2 y 2 4 N(4,4)

|z-(4+zi)|

(x,y)

ON 4 2 2 .

z 4 4i z 4 4i MN

C
N(4,4) .
z 4 4i min () (ON) 4 2 2
N C N


26
z,w 0 zw zw 0 .
1.
2.
3.
4.

2010

z

w
.
z,w
.
z w z w .
z w

2i .
w z
z
.

w
1,0 .
z
.
w

2012

:
:

1.

zw zw 0

z
z
z
z
z
.
w
w
w
w
w
z
ki .
. k R
w
zw zw 0 zw z w

z

w

2010

ki

2010

k 2010i 2010 k 2010i 2 k 2010 0 .

2.
zw zw 0 zw zw 0 zw zw .
zw m R
zw mi . z i w i ,, , .

mathematica -48

zw i i i . zw

Re zw 0 0 . , M , ,
z w ,
OM , ON , .
OM ON , , 0 ,
.

3.

zw

zw
zw
zw
z

w w 1 w
w
zw .
w
w
w
w

z
z w
z

u .
2i
w
w
w z
w w 1
1 , u u .

z z u
z w
1
1
2
2i u 2i u 2i u 2 2iu 1 0 u i 0 .
w z
u
u
u i B 0,1 . AB 2
.
4.

z
.
w

2012

u 2012 i 2012 i 4503 i 4

503

1503 1 .

27

z : 1 2 | z |2 | z 2 1|2 2 | z 1|2 .
1.
2.

z .

3.
4.
5.

z 2 z 1 0 .
z
.
A z 2012 z 2014 2013 .

1.

z R . z x R .

(z z 1)2 (zz 1)2 0 .

1 2 | z |2 | z 2 1|2 2 | z 1|2 1 2x2 x2 1 2 x 1


2

1 2x2 x4 2x2 1 2 x 1 x4 2 x 1 0 R .
z .
2

mathematica -49

2.

1 2 | z |2 | z 2 1|2 2 | z 1|2 :

1 2z(z) (z 2 1)(z 2 1) 2(z 1)(z 1)


1 2z(z) (zz)2 z 2 (z)2 1 2z(z) 2z 2(z) 2
1 2z(z) (zz)2 z 2 (z)2 1 2z(z) 2z 2(z) 2

(z)2 1 2zz 2z 2z (zz)2 2zz 1 0

(z z 1)2 (zz 1)2 0 .


3.

0 , :
1
z z 1 0 | z |2 1 0 . | z |2 1 0 | z |2 1 zz 1 z ,
z
1
z z 1 0 z 1 0 z2 z 1 0 .
z
4.

z z 1 0
1
z z 1 0 2Re z 1 Re z . | z | 1
2
1
, z x yi , x x2 y 2 1 ,
2
1
3
1
3
: z
z
.
2 2
2 2
5.
z 2 z 1 0 z 2 z 1
z 3 zz 2 z z 1 z 2 z ( z 1) z z 1 z 1 z 3 1 .
:
z 2012 z 2014 2013 (z 3 )674 (z 3 )674 z 2 2013 z z 2 1 2012 2012 .
28

z z 2i f (z)

z2 4
(1) .
z 2i

1.

Im(f (1 i)) .

2.

z ,
f (z) R .

3.

f (z) z 2i .

4.

z ,
f (z 5i) f (z i) 10 (2) .

5.

z (2) ,
.

mathematica -50

6.

z 1 z 2 (2) ,
z1 z 2 10.
:

1.

:
(1 i)2 4 2i 4
f (1 i)

2(2 i) Im(f (1 i)) 2 .


| (1 i) 2i |
2
2.

f (z) R f (z) f (z)

(z)2 4 (z 2 4)

.
| z 2i | | z 2i |

(z)2 z 2 (z z)(z z) 0 z R z C 2i .
3.

| f (z) |

| (z 2i)(z 2i) |
| z 2i |

| f (z) || z 2i | .
4.
E3
f z 5i f z i 10 z 5i 2i z i 2i 10 z 3i z 3i 10
M z E 0,3 , E 0, 3
z1 3i, z 2 3i ,
z 3i z 3i 10 ME ME 10 EE 6 . z
E 0,3 , E 0, 3 5, 4, 3 .
5.

,

, A 0, 5 A 0,5 .
z 5i z 5i
.

A(0,5)

E(0,3) M1 (Z1 )

x
(4,0)

(-4,0)

E'(0,-3)
M2(z2)

A'(0,-5)

6.

AA . z1 z2 AA z1 z2 10.

29
z1 , z 2 z 2 z+9=0 , R z1 , z 2 R .
1.

.
mathematica -51

2.

17
z17
R .
1 z2

3.

z1 , z 2 .
z z
1 2 2 .
z 2 z1

4.

=0 Im z1 0
z
z z1 4 z z 2 .

5.

1.
z1 , z 2 ,
0 . ()2 419 0 2 36 6 6 6 .
2.

17
u z17
1 z2 u .

17
, z 2 z1 z 2 z1 . u z17

1 z2

17
17
17
u z17
1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1

17

z2

17

17
17
17
z17
2 z1 u . z1 z 2 R .


z 2 z1

z117 z 217 z117 z1

3.

17

z117 z117 2Re z117 R


z1 z 2

P z1z 2 9 z1z 2 z1z 2 9 z1 z 2 9 z 2 9 z 2 3 .

z1 z 2 3 .
4.

z1,2

i 36 2
2

z1 z 2
2 z12 z 22 2z1z 2 z12 2z1z 2 z 22 0 (z1 z 2 )2 0 z1 z 2
z 2 z1
i 36 2
i 36 2

i 36 2 i 36 2 2 0 0
2
2

z1 z 2
2
2 z12 z 2 2 2z1z 2 0 z1 z 2 0 z1 z 2 0
z 2 z1
( )
S z1 z 2
0
1

mathematica -52

5.

0 z1,2 3i ,
Im(z1 ) 0 z1 3i z 2 3i .
z z1 4 z z 2

-4

-3

-2

-1

x
1

-1

z z1 z z 2 4 z 3i z 3i 4 (1).

-2

-3
M z E 0,3 , E 0, 3
E(0,-3)
z1 3i, z 2 3i ,
-4

z 3i z 3i 4 ME ME 4 EE 6 . z

E 0,3 , E 0, 3

3 , 2 4 2 2 2 9 4 5. (1) ,

y 2 x2
1 y 2 .

4 5
30
1.
2.

, , :
z 3 3z 2 4z 2 0 .
,
: z 3 4z 3z 2 2 z10 32z 32 0 .
:

1.
Horner
2
z 1 z 2z 2 0 z 1 z 2 2z 2 0 (1) .

(1) 4 8 4 0 , :
z 1 i
2 2i
z1,2
1
z2 1 i
2
2.
z 3 4z 3z 2 2 z 3 3z 2 4z 2 0
.
z 1 .
z1 1 i 1 2i 1 2i
2

z2

1 i 1 2i 1 2i
z 1 , :
2

2
z10
1 32z1 32 0 z1 32z 1 32 0 2i 32 1 i 32 0
5

32i 5 32 32i 32 0 32i 32i 0 .


z 1 .

, z 2 , :

2
z10
2 32z 2 32 0 z 2 32z 2 32 0 2i 32 1 i 32 0
5

mathematica -53

32i 5 32 32i 32 0 32i 32i 0 .


z 2 .

1 i 1 i .

z 1 z10 32z 32 0 .
w2 2w 2 0 w 2 2w 2
w 2 2w 2
2

w 2w 2
2

w 4 4w 2 8w 4 4 2w 2 8w 4 8w 8 8w 4 4 .

w 32w 32 w
10

w 32w 32
2

w 4 4

4 2w 2 32w 32
w 2w 2
2

16 2w 2 32w 32 32w 32 32w 32 0 .


z 2 2z 2 0 , 1 i 1 i ,
z10 32z 32 0 .
31

f , , , 0
, .

: z1 if z 2 if .
1.

z1 z 2 z1 z 2 , x1 , ,

2.

A B , A B , :
Az1 z 2 Bz1z 2 100 . :

f x1 0 .

. z1 z 2 .
f f
.
.

f xo
. xo , , f xo
.
xo
. Cf .
:

1.

z1 z 2 z1 z 2 f f i f f i

f f
2 2 2 f 2 2f f f 2 2 2 2 f 2 2f f f 2
4f f 4 f f .
f , f f 0 0 .

f f

mathematica -54

Bolzano , x1 ,
f (x1 ) 0 .

2
2
z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z 2

z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z 2
z1 z1 z1 z 2 z 2 z1 z 2 z 2 z1 z1 z1 z 2 z 2 z1 z 2 z 2

2z1 z 2 2z 2 z1 0 z1 z 2 z 2 z1 0 2Re z1 z 2 0 Re z1 z 2 0
z1 z 2 f ()i f ()i f ()f () f () f () i

Re z1 z 2 f ()f () 0 f ()f ()

f , f f 0 0 .

Bolzano , x1 ,
f (x1 ) 0 .
2.

. Az1 z 2 Bz1z 2 100 (1) .

Az1 z 2 Bz1z 2 100 Az1 z 2 Bz1z 2 100 Az1z 2 Bz1 z 2 100 (2)
(1) , (2)
Az1 z 2 Bz1z 2 Az1z 2 Bz1 z 2 A B z1 z 2 A B z1z 2 0

A B z1 z 2 z1z 2 0 . A B z1 z 2 z1z 2 0 .
z1 z 2 z1z 2 z1 z 2 R .

. z1 z 2 z1z 2 i f f i i f f i
f f i f i f f f i f i f
2f i 2f i

f f

f x
,x , ( x 0 0 x ) .
x
g , .
g (,)
xf (x) f (x)
g(x)
.
x2

f ()
f ()
g()
, g g Rolle
g()

x0 (,) :

. g x

g' x0 0

x0f ' x0 f x0
f x0
.
0 x0f ' x0 f x0 0 f ' x0
2
x0
x0

mathematica -55

. Cf x 0
f (x0 )
y f (x0 ) f (x0 )(x x0 ) y f (x0 )
(x x0 ) (3) .
x0
f (x0 )
x y 0 (3) , f (x0 )
( x0 ) f (x0 ) f (x0 ) .
x0
O(0,0)
Cf x 0 ,
.

32
f : [,] R f () 0 ,
if ()
z
. :
if ()
1.

f (x) x (,) .

2.

x0 (,) f (x0 ) 1 .

3.

f (x) x (,)
x1 , x 2 x1 x2 , Cf
.
:

if if if if if f f

if
2 f 2
2 f 2
z :
f

f f 0 f f

(1)

f
1.

f 0

f f 0 f f 0 f 0

f
1.

(1)
1 f f 0
f
f

g x f x x ,
. ( f )
g f 0 g f 0 . g g 0
Bolzano x1 ,

g x1 0 f x1 x1 .

z I z z

f ()i
f ()i
f ()i f ()i

f ()i
f ()i f ()i
f ()i

mathematica -56

f ()i f ()i f ()f ()i 2 f ()i f ()i f ()f ()i 2

2 2f ()f () f ()f () f ()

f ()

g x f x x ,
. ( f )

f ()
g f 0 g f

0.
f ()
f ()
f 0 f 0 0 .

g g 0

Bolzano x1 ,

g x1 0 f x1 x1 .
:

z z ki

f ()
if ()
ki if () ki f ()
if ()
f () k

g x f x x ,
. ( f )
g f 0 ( )
f

g f f () ( f ()) 0 , 0 f ()
f ()

f () 0 0 .
g g 0

Bolzano x1 ,
g x1 0 f x1 x1 .

2.

g , ,

g x f x 1 . .M.T. x0 ,

g g
f f 0
f x0 1

.
f x0 1 0 f x0 1 .
g x0

3.

Cf A x3 ,f x3

y f x3 f x3 x x3 (3) .

(3)
x y 0 : f x3 f x3 x3 f x3 x3 f x 3 0 .
h x

f x
( x 0 0 x )
x

mathematica -57

x1 ,x2
xf x f x
.
x1 ,x2 h x
x2
f x1
f x2
h x1
1 h x 2
1 x1 , x2
x1
x2
f x x .

Rolle x3 x1 ,x2
h x3 0 x3f x3 f x3 0 .

A x3 ,f x3 Cf
.
33

f x z x 2

3
, z 0 z .
3
1.
.
f
z ,
. .
2.

Bolzano f 3, 3 .

3
w .

3.

w f

2 z 1 i ,

1.

. z , 0
O(0,0) .

y
3
3
z x y 2
0
3
3

f (x) z x 2

3

3
3
3
z xy2
0 (1) .
:
3
3

x2 y2 2

(1) O(0,0)
z
2
2 3 2 2 ( 2 3) 4 4 3 2 4 0
d ,
2
z 3
2

z 0

( 1)( 4) 0 1 0 z 1 z 1 .
2

. z 1 f (x) (x 2)
mathematica -58

3
.
3

,
.
2

2
2 1
2
2
2
x
x y 1
x x 2 1
x

3
x 2
y
y 3 x 2
3
3

3x 2 x 2 2 3 4x 2 4x 1 0 x 1

3
3
x 2 y 3
y
y
x 2
3

1 3
A ,
.
2
2




.
3
3
2 3
3

: y x 2 x
3
3
3
3
1
1
1
3
3 3

3
3 3 3 3 3 3

: y y o x xo

xo ,yo 0,0

y 0 3 x 0 y 3x

x2

x 2
3x
1
: y 3

x 2 3x 4x 2 x

2
:y 3x
y 3x

1 3
3
1
y 3x 3
x,y ,

2 2
2 2
1 3
A ,
.
2
2

3
2.
f (x) z x 2
.
3
f 3, 3

f 3 z 32

3
f
3

3 z

32

3
3

mathematica -59

f R ,

3z
3

0 , Bolzano
3
3

3
f 3 f 3 0 f 3 0 f 3
3
f 3 0 z 3 2
0 z 3 2 0 z 0
3
3
2 3
f 3 0 z 3 2
0 z 3 2 0 z
3
3
f

3, 3 , 3 3 f 3 f

z
3.

2 3
.
3

3 z

32

w x yi,x,y R
2
wf 3
2 z 1 i
3

2 3 2 3
w z

3
3

3
2 3
z
3
3

2 z 1 i

x z 0
x yi z ( 2 z 1)i

y 2 z 1 0
y 2 2x 1,x 0,y 0 .

-2 -1
-1

1 2 3 4 5

6 7

-2

34


2012Im(z) 1
2012 2012i 3 0 , :
z x yi ,
2
2
z 1
1.
2.
3.

M(x,y) z
.
z
;
z ,
Im z 0 .
:

1.
z x yi,x,y R
2012Im(z) 1
2012y 1
2012 2012i 3 0

20122 20122 3 0
2
2
2
2
z 1
z 1

mathematica -60

2012y
z 1

1
2
2
2 2012 0 z 1 y x yi 1 y
2
2

1 1

x 1 y y 0 x 1 y .
2 4

M(x,y) z
1
1

K 1, ,
,
2
2

A 1,0 z 1
.
2

A(1,0)
x
1

M(x, y)

K 1,
2

-1

1 1
2

0 y x 1 ,
2.
2 4

1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
2
x 1 0 x 1 x 1 x 1 x .
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
3
1
x y z
2
2
3 1
z i .
2 2
3.

0 x 1
2

1
1
y ,
4
2

1
1
1 1
1 1
1
1 1

0 y y y y
4
2
2 4
2 2
2
2 2

1 y 0 1 Im( z) 0 .
35

f R , f x 0 x R
1.

f (x) 0 .

2.

z .
z z 3 x3 x

lim
.
x z z 3 x 2 x

3.
4.

f (x)dx 0 f 1 1

f
x'x , x 0 x 1 ,
z 2z ,

f (t)dt 3x 2 6x 6

(0,1) .
:
mathematica -61

1.
f x R
R . f 1 1 0 , f x 0 x R .
2.

f x dx 0 x R f x 0
1

x R . z 0 f x 0 :
z

z 1

f x dx 0

z 1

f x dx 0

f x dx 0

0 0 , .

f x dx 0

0 0 , .

z 1 . z .
3.

z i,, R z z 2 z z 2 .

z z 3 x

lim
z z 3 x

3
2

2 3 x
lim
2 3 x
x
x

3
2

2 3 x
lim
x
2 3 x
x

3
2

2 3
lim
x .
x 2 3

: z 1

3
,
2

2 3 0 . 2 3 0 .

4.

Cf ,
1

x 0, x 1 f x dx , (1) f x 0
0

x R .

f x dx z 2z z 2 z z 2 z 3 z 3 .
0

f x dx 3 0 (1) .
0
x

h x f t dt 3x 2 6x 6 x 0,1 .
0
x

h x 0,1 f t dt ( f x
0
x

f t dt ) 3x2 6x 6 ( ) .
0

mathematica -62

h 0 6 0 h 1 f x dx 3 0 (1) .
0

Bolzano , xo 0,1
xo

h xo 0 f t dt 3t 2 6t 6 0 .
0

36

, f

z 2 if w 2 if 0 f f 0 .
w z w z f f f . :

1. xo , f x0 0 .
2. x1 , f x1 f .
:

1.

w z w z 2 if 2 if 2 if 2 if

2 2 i f f 2 2 i f f

2 f f
2

2 f f
2

2 22 2f f 2 22 2f f f f 2 2 0

wz wz wz wz

wz wz wz wz wz wz wz wz

ww wz zw zz ww wz zw zz
:
,
.
2wz 2zw 0 zw zw 0 2Re zw 0 Re zw 0
zw 2 f ()i 2 f ()i 22 f ()f () 2f () 2f () i

Re zw 22 f ()f () 0 f ()f () 2 2 0

f , f f 0 . Bolzano
xo , f x0 0 .
2.

f , f f f f .
mathematica -63

f f f , ,
x1 , f x1 f .


g(x) f (x) f () x , .

g(x) ,
:
g() f () f () 0 f () f ()
g() f () f () 0 f () f ()
g()g() 0 .

Bolzano x1 ,
g(x1 ) 0 f (x1 ) f () .
37
1.

2.

3.

z1 , z 2 z1 z2 z1 z 2 .

w z1z 2 .

z1 1 if x , 0 , z 2 1 f x i
1 f
R f 0 0 f 0 0 .
2 3 .
g g x Im(z1z 2 ) , z1 , z 2
2,
f
e 1 f
Rolle , f
,
1 f
e
f 1 .

1.

z1 z 2

z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z 2 z1 z 2

z 2 z1 z 2

z 2 z1 z 2

z 2 z1 z 2

z2

z1 z1 z1z 2 z 2 z1 z 2z 2 z1z1 z1 z 2 z 2z1 z 2 z 2

:
,
.

2z1z 2 2z1 z 2 0 2 z1z 2 z1 z 2 0 4Re z1z 2 0 .


z1z 2 x 0 .

mathematica -64

2.

z1 1 if x z 2 1 f x i

1 Re z1z 2 0 .

f x
f x
f x
f x
1 f x i 1 f x i i i f x
z1z 2 1 i

z 1z 2 1 f x

f x

1 f x i .
f x

f x

Re z1z 2 0 1 f x 0 .
f x

h x 1 f x x R .
f x

h x 0 h x h 0 .

h x xo 0 .
h x R

f x
f x
h x f x lnf x h x f x 1 ln ,

xo 0 . Fermat

f 0
h 0 0 f 0 1 a ln 0 . f 0 0 ,
f 0
1 ln 0 1 ln 0 e . 2 3 .

3.

g x : g x Im z1z 2 g x 1 e e f x .
f x

f x

g x Rolle ,
g x , ,
g g . g g 1 e e f 1 e e f
f

1 f e

f
e 1 f
1 f ef 1 f f 1


38
f : R R
A(0, 2) . z f (x) f (x)i

w f (x) f 2 (x)i z 2(ex 1)


1.
2.

f .
z
xR .

3.

g(x) Re(zw) .
:

1.

z f x f x i z f 2 x f 2 x 2 e x 1 2 f x
f x e x 1.(1).

mathematica -65

f (x) 0 x R .
R . A(0, 2) Cf f 0 2 0 , f x 0 x R
(1) f (x) e x 1
2.
z f x f x i , f x 0 , Re z Im z 0
z ,
y x x,y 0 .
3.

zw f x f x i f x f 2 x i f x 1 i f x f 2 x i
f x 1 i f x 1 f x i f 2 x 1 i 1 f x i

f 2 x 1 f x i i f x f 2 x 1 f x 1 f x i
f 2 x 1 f x f 2 x 1 f x i

g x Re zw f 2 x 1 f x x R .
g R R

g x 2f x f x 1 f x f 2 x f x

2f x f x 1 f x f 2 x f x f x f x 2 1 f x f x

f x f x 2 3f x ex 1 ex 1 2 3 ex 1

ex 1 ex 5 3ex 0 x R . g

R .
39

1
f : R R z C
2
f (x)
|z 2|
f 2 (x) 2x 2xf (x) x lim
m, m
.
x0 x
| 2z 1|

1.

2.
3.
4.

:
. | z 2 || 2z 1| .
. z .
f (x)
lim 2
.
x0 x x
g(x) f (x) x
( ,0) (0, )
f .

mathematica -66

5.

(| z 3 4i | 5)x x3 10
1,2

:
2

f (x) x 2f (x)
1.
. x 0
,

x
x x
f (x) 2 x
2f (x)
lim

lim
m 2 1 2m (m 1)2 0 m 1 .

x0 x
x0
x x
z2
1 2z 1 z 2 .
m 1
2z 1
2

. 2z 1 z 2 2z 1 z 2 (2z 1)(2z 1) (z 2)(z 2)


2

4zz 2z 2z 1 zz 2z 2z 4 3zz 3 z 1 z 1 .

z x yi x,y R .

2z 1 z 2 2 x yi 1 x yi 2
(2x 1) 2yi (x 2) yi (2x 1)2 (2y)2 (x 2)2 y 2
2

4x2 4x 1 4y 2 x2 4x 4 y 2

4x2 4x 1 4y 2 x2 4x 4 y 2 3x2 3y 2 3

x2 y 2 1 z 1 .

f (x)
f (x)
x 1

f (x)
x
f (x)

lim
lim 2
1
lim

lim
x0
x 0 x(x 1)
x 0 x(x 1)
x 0
(x

1)
x

x
x 1

x
x u . lim x 0 0.
x 0

f (x)
f (u)

lim
lim

1.

x 0
x u0 u

f 2 (x) 2x 2xf(x) f 2 (x) 2xf(x) x 2 x 2 2x


2.
(f (x) x)2 x2 2x g 2 (x) x2 2x .
| x | | x | , x R x 0
x 0 x 2 2x 0 , g 2 (x) 0 .
g ( ,0) (0, ) ,
. .
mathematica -67

3.
4 f
: f(x) x x 2 2x f(x) x x 2 2x,x R

2 :[ f (x) x x2 2x f (x) x x2 2x,x R


3 : f
2
2

x x x,x 0
f (x)
2
2

x x x,x 0
4 : f
2
2

x x x,x 0
f (x)
2
2

x x x,x 0
4.
h(x) ( z 3 4i 5)x x3 10,x [1,2]
h [1,2]
h(1) z 3 4i 5 11 z 3 4i 6 0 z 3 4i z 3 4i 6
h(2) 2 z 3 4i 10 8 10 2( z 3 4i 4) 0 ,

z 3 4i z 3 4i 4
h(1)h(2) 0
h(1)h(2) 0 Bolzano
x0 (1,2) h(x0 ) 0 .
( z 3 4i 5)x x3 10 (1,2)
h(1)h(2) 0 , x 1 x 2 .
( z 3 4i 5)x x3 10 [1,2]

40
z 1 3x

3 3x i , x 0,2 .

1.

M z C
.

2.

x z
. z .

3.

x1 ,x2 x z
M1 ,M 2 z .
f : R R
M1 ,M 2 .

mathematica -68

f x'x
C .

1.

z i,, R 1 3x, 3 3x .

1
3
x
.
3
3
2x 2x 1

1 3
2

9 .

2.

z 1

5 5 3
M2 ,

2 2

K 1, 3
3.

z
z
0,0 .

(K) 1 3 4 2 3
.
z min OM1 (OK) 3 2 1

K 1, 3

N 1 6,0

1
3
M1 ,

2
2

M(x, y)

1 6,0

A(1,0)

z max OM2 (OK) 3 2 5


K (,) .

y x
30

3
x x
1 0
3

OK : y y o x xo x ,y 0,0 y 0
o

(x 1)2 y 3

y 3x

3 x 0 y 3x

(x 1)2 3 2 x 1 2 9

y 3x

1
3
M

3
1

2
(x 1)2 1 3 9 x 1
2
2

5 5 3
y

3x
y 3x

M
2 2 , 2

mathematica -69

2
2
3
1
1 3
(OM1 ) 1
5 5
(OM 2 )
2
2
2
2


1
5 5 3
3
M1 ,
,M 2 ,
.
2
2
2
2

1
3
1

1 3x
3x
x x0,2

4
2
2
2

3
3 3x 3
3x 3 3
x 3


5
3
1

1 3x
3x
x x 0,2

2
2
2

3
3 3x 5 3
3x 3 3
x 3

1
5 5 3
3
1 ,
2 ,
f
2
2
2 2
35 3
1 5
1 5
,

,
f

0 , Bolzano

2 2
2 2

2 2
1 5
xo , f xo 0 ,
2 2
f x'x
2
2
1 5
x

3
9 x'x
.

xo ,

2
2

1 5
N 1 6,0 1 6,0 . xo , ,
2 2
3.

xo 1 6,1

6 . f

x'x , .

mathematica -70



30

mathematica -71

+ : 29/01/2012 17/02/2012

- :- 30 .
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=52&t=22127

:






















parmenides51

mathematica.gr.

mathematica -72

41

f [0, 1] x0 (0,1)
1
1
f (x0 )
.
1 x0 x0

1.

2.
f R
1 x f (x) ex , x R . :
. f x 0 0 .
. f R ,
f (x 0 )
x0 ( 1,1) ,
x0 .
2004
. lim f (x) .
x

:
1.
g(x) f (x)x(1 x) x (1 x)
: g(x) [0,1]
g(0) 1 0, g(1) 1 0 g(0)g(1) 0
Bolzano x0 (0,1) : g(x 0 ) 0 f(x 0)x 0(1 x 0) x 0 (1 x 0) 0
x0 (1 x0 ) 0 x0 (0, 1), x0 0,1
1
1
f (x 0 )

.
1 x0 x0

2.

. x 0
1 0 f (0) e0 1 f (0) 1 f (0) 1 lim(1 x) lime x 1
x0

x0

limf (x) 1 f (0) , f


x0

.
. o h(x) f (x) 2004x [1,1]
h( 1) f ( 1) 2004 0 x 1
1
0 f ( 1) h(1) f (1) 2004 0 2 f (1) e 2004
e
h( 1)h(1) 0 Bolzano x0 ( 1, 1)
f (x 0 )
h(x0 ) f (x 0 ) 2004x 0 0
x0 .
2004
. x 0 1 x f (x) e x 0

1
1

f (x) 1 x

1
lim 0 0 lim f (x) 0 .
x
x x 1
x
lim

mathematica -73

42

f : f (x) 2x 5 z x 3 2 z x R z C* .
5

1. f .
2. f .
3. f (x) 0
(0, z ) .
4.

lim

f (x) 2 z

x 0

3 x

1 ,

z .
http://www.study4exams.gr
1.

:
Af R . x1 ,x2 R

x1 x2 x15 x52 2x15 2x52 (1)


x1 x2 x13 x23 | z | x13 | z | x23 (2) .
(1), (2) 2 | z |5

2x15 | z | x13 2 | z |5 2x52 | z | x 32 2 | z |5 f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) , f


R .
2.

lim f (x) lim ( 2x 5 )


x
5

lim f (x) lim ( 2x ) , f R

f (R) ( lim f (x), lim f (x)) ( , ) R .


x

3.

[0, z ]

f (0) 2 | z |5 0, f (| z |) | z |4 0 ( z 0 ) , f (0)f (| z |) 0
Bolzano f (x) 0 (0, z )
f R (1).

2 | z |5 f (x)
2x 5 | z | x 3
2x 2
|z|

lim
lim

| z |
4. lim
3
3
x0
x0
x0

3 x
3 x


x
| z | 1 z .

43

R f g : R R
g(x)f 2 (x) e xg(x) 1 x R | f (0) | 1 .

mathematica -74

1.

lim f (x) .

2.

lim g(x) .

3.

g(0) 1 .

4.
(x 1)(ex x)[g(x) ex ] x[f (x 1) x]
[0,1) .
:

1.
g(x)(f 2 (x) ex ) 1 0 f 2 (x) e x 0
R
. f 2 (x) ex 0 f 2 (x) e x , x R x 0
f 2 (0) 1 , f (0) 1

f 2 (x) ex 0 f 2 (x) e x , x R
f (x) e x e x f (x) e x lim e x 0
x

lim f (x) 0 .

2.

g(x)(f 2 (x) e x ) 1
1
(1) lim (f 2 (x) e x ) 0 f 2 (x) e x 0 .
g(x) 2
x
x
f (x) e
1
lim g(x) lim 2
.
x
x f (x) e x
3.

(1)

1
1 . f (0) 1
f (0) 1
2

1 f 2 (0) 1 f 2 (0) 0 .
4.
h(x) (x 1)(ex x)(g(x) e x ) x(f (x 1) x) .
g R , f (x 1)
R f (x), x 1 , h
R .
h(1) (f (0) 1) 0 f (0) 1 h(0) (g(0) 1) 0 (3)
h(0)h(1) 0 .
g(0) 1 h(0) 0 h(x) 0 0 .
g(0) 1 h(0)h(1) 0 Bolzano h(x) 0
(0,1) h(x) 0
[0,1) .
( ,0] h(x) .
lim (x 1) , lim (ex x)
lim (g(x) ex ) , lim x
x
x
x
, x
mathematica -75


x 1 y

lim f (x 1) lim f (y) 0 , lim[f (x 1) x] 0

lim h(x) xo 0 h(xo ) 0


x

h(0) 0 h 0 .
h(0) 0 h(0) 0
xo ,0 h h(xo )h(0) 0
Bolzano h xo ,0 , 0
h ,0
h .

44

f : R R f 1

1
:
2

3
3
f xy f x f f y f x,y R
x
y
1.
:
1
. f 3
2
3
. f f x , x
x
1
. f xy 2f x f y f 2 x x R
4
2.
f
:

1.

x y 1 f (1) 2f (1)f (3) f (1)

f (3)

1
.
2

1
1 3
3
. y 1 f (x) f (x)f (3) f (1)f f (x) f (x) f
2
2 x
x
3
f ( ) f (x), x R* .
x

. () f (xy) f (x)f (y) f (y)f (x) f (xy) 2f (x)f (y)


1
1
3
3
f (3) 2f (x)f ( ) () () 2f 2 (x) f 2 (x) ,x 0.
y
2
4
x
x
2.

f 2 (x)

mathematica -76

1
1
f (x) 0 f (x) 0
4
2

x (, 0) (0, ) f R

( ,0) (0, ) . f (3)

1
0
2

1
1
, x ( , 0) f (x) , x ( , 0)
2
2
1
x 0 0 limf
(x) limf
(x)

x0
2 x0
1
f (x) , x R .
2
f (x) 0, x (0, ) f (x)

45

f : R R g : R R
x R f (f (x)) 2g(x) x .
1.
g R .
2.

h(x) f (x) g(x) .

3.

x0 R f (x0 ) x0 .
. Cf Cg .

. f (f (x x0 2)) x x0 2f (x x0 2) 2
. f (f (lnx x0 1)) lnx 1 x0 .
: . ( )
:
f (f (x)) x
1.
g(x)
.
2
x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 (1) f

f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f (f (x1 ) f (f (x2 ))

(2)

(1), (2) 2

g(x1 ) g(x2 ) , g R .

2.
x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) (1)
x1 x2 g(x1 ) g(x1 ) g(x1 ) g(x2 )(2)
(1) (2) h(x1 ) h(x2 ) h
R .
3.
. f (xo ) xo f (f (xo )) f (xo ) 2g(xo ) xo x0
2g(xo ) 2xo g(xo ) xo f (x0 ) .

mathematica -77

Cf ,Cg xo . xo
f (x) g(x) f (x) g(x) 0 h(x) f (x) g(x)
R .
. f (f (x xo 2)) x xo 2f (x xo 2) 2
2g(x xo 2) x xo 2 x xo 2f (x xo 2) 2
g(x xo 2) f (x xo 2) (1) 3.
x xo 2 xo x 2 .
. f (f (lnx xo 1)) lnx 1 xo
2g(lnx xo 1) lnx xo 1 lnx 1 xo g(x0 ) x0

1
2g(lnx xo 1) 2g(xo ) lnx xo 1 xo lnx 1 0 x .
e

46

f : (0, ) R x,y 0

x
f (x) f (y) f f (x) 0 .
y
1.

f (1).

2.
3.

f .
f (x2 2) f (x) f (5x 6).

4.
f (x) 0 x 1 , f
(0, ).
:
1.
x y f (1) 0 f (x) 0
1 .

2.

x1 ,x2 0 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) . x x1

x
x
y x2 f 1 f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) f 1 0 1
x2
x2
x
f (x) 0 1 1 ' x1 x2 .
x2
f '1 1' .
3.

o f (5x 6), f (x) f (x2 2)

5x 6 0, x 0 x2 2 0 x 2 .
f (x2 2) f (5x 6) f (x) x 0 ,
mathematica -78

5x 6
: f (x2 2) f
f
x
'1 1' x(x2 2) 5x 6
x 1 x 2 x 3 ' x 2 .
4.

x1 ,x2 0 0 x1 x2 . x x2 y x1

x
x
f (x 2 ) f (x1 ) f 2 0 2 1 . f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f
x1
x1
.

47

f (x) 2 ln( x 2 1).


1.
2.
3.
4.

.
f .
f f 1 .
f 1 (x) 2 .

5.

Cf y x .
: . ( )
:
1.
f x 2 0 x 2
x 2 1 0 , x 2 f
Af [2, ) .
2.

x1 ,x2 [2, ) 2 x1 x2 0 x1 2 x2 2

x1 2 x2 2 x1 2 1 x2 2 1 lnx

ln( x1 2 1) ln( x2 2 1)
2 ln( x1 2 1) 2 ln( x2 2 1) f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f
[2, ) .

3.
f 1 1 .
f (x) y, y R ,

y 2 ln( x 2 1) ln( x 2 1) 2 y

x 2 1 e2y x 2 e2y 1 (1) x 2 0


e2y 1 0 e2y 1 2 y 0 y 2 (1)
x 2 (e2y 1)2 x 2 (e2y 1)2 (2) Af [2, ).
f 1 (x) (e2x 1)2 2,

x2 .

mathematica -79

4.

f 1 (x) 2 f (f 1 (x)) f (2) x f (2) 2.

5.
f (2) 2 2 h(x) f (x) x, x [2, )
(2,2) Cf y x .
h(x) f (x) x 2 x1 x2 f
f (x1 ) f (x2 ) x1 x2
f (x1 ) x1 f (x2 ) x2 h(x1 ) h(x2 ) h
, [2, ) 2 .

48

f : R R : f (x f (x y)) f (2x) y
x,y R :
1.

f (0) 0.

2.

(f f )(x) x, x R.

3.
4.
5.

f 1 1.
f R.
f (x) x, x R.

:
1.
x 0 f (f (y)) f (0) y f (f (x)) f (0) x, x R (1)
x y f (x f (2x)) f (2x) x .

g(x) f (2x) x f (g(x)) g(x) (2) f (f (g(x))) f (g(x))


(1),(2) f (0) g(x) g(x) f (0) 0.
2.

(1) f (0) 0 f (f (x)) x, x R.

3.
x1 , x2 Af f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f (f (x1 )) f (f (x2 ))
(2) x1 x2 f '1 1' .
4.
f (x) y, y R
f () y f (f ()) f (y) (2)

f (y) f (f (x)) x, x R f (f (f (y))) f (y)


f '1 1' f (f (y)) y f (y)
f (x) y, y R f R .
.
f R ,
mathematica -80

f x y x y .
y 0 R x0 R f x0 y 0
f x0

x0 f 2 y 0

f f 2 y0 2 2 y0 y0 .

f R .

5.
f (x f (x y)) f (2x) y y 0
f (x f (x)) f (2x) f 1-1
x f (x) 2x f (x) x,x R.

49

f (x) ln(1 ex ) ln(1 ex ) .


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

f .
f .
f .
f .
m<0 f (m) m .

6.

g(x) f (x) x, x 0 , g(x) .

7.

f (x) f (1) x 1 .

8.
h(x) ln( x) , c R
f (c) h(c) .
9.

f ( 1)x 3 x 2 6

x f ( 3)x 2 x 2

: A lim

B lim (ef (x) ef


x

(x)

).

:
1.
f 1 ex 0 x 0 ,
1 ex 0, x R . f A (,0).

1 ex
1 ex
1, x ( ,0) .
2.
f (x) ln

x
x
1

e
1

x ( ,0) f (x) 0 .
3.

x1 x2 0 ex1 ex2 1 ex1 1 ex2 , 1 ex1 1 ex2


mathematica -81

ln(1 ex1 ) ln(1 ex2 )

ln(1 ex1 ) ln(1 ex2 ) ln(1 ex1 ) ln(1 ex2 ).


ln(1 ex1 ) ln(1 ex1 ) ln(1 ex2 ) ln(1 ex2 )

f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f ( ,0) .


4.

f ( ,0) '1 1'

f 1 : f (A) A f
1 ex , 1 ex lnx
f (A) ( lim f (x),limf (x)) .
x

x 0
x

1 e
1 ex
u
lim u lim
1 . limlnu 0
x
x 1 e x
u1
1 ex
x
1 e
0.
lim f (x) 0 limu lim
x 0
x 0 1 e x
x
limlnu limf
(x) f (A) ( ,0) y ( ,0)

u 0

x0

1 ex
1 ex
y
y ln
e
ey eyex 1 e x
x
x
1 e
1 e

1 ey
1 ey
1 ey
e e e 1 e e
x ln(
)
0, y 0
1 ey
1 ey
1 ey
1 ex
f 1 (x) ln
0, x 0 .
1 ex
y x

5.

1 ex
ln
x,x ( ,0)
x
1

1 ex
ex 1 ex ex e2x (ex 1)2 2 x ln( 2 1).
x
1 e
6.
x1 x2 0 x1 x2 f
f (x1 ) f (x2 )
g(x1 ) g(x2 ) g ( ,0) .
7.
f(x) f( 1) x 1 f(x) x f( 1) ( 1) g(x) g( 1)
g ( ,0) x 1 .
8.

t(x) f (x) h(x) f (x) ln( x) ( ,0) .

ln( x) ,0
lnx , x h ,0
mathematica -82

f ,0 , t(x)
, ,
lim f (x) 0 lim ln( x) lim t(x)
x

limf
(x) limln(
x) limt(x)

x0

x 0

x 0

t(x) f (x) ln( x) R


( ,0) .
9.

f ( 1)x 3 f ( 1)
A lim

lim x f (A) ( ,0)


x f ( 3)x 2
f ( 3) x

1
f ( 1)
0 . B lim (ef (x) ef (x) ) 0 (4)
x
f ( 3)

50

f : f (x) x lnx .
1.
2.

f .
f (x) 1 .

3.
f
f (x) 0 .
4.
f
f .
5.
f 1 (x) x.
6.

f 1 (x) x 1.

1.

:
H f (0, )

. x1 , x 2 0 x1 x 2 , lnx1 lnx 2 ,

x1 lnx1 x 2 lnx 2 f(x1 ) f(x 2 ) , f


(0, ) .

2.
H f (x) 1 x 1
f (1) 1 ln1 1 0 1 , f
(0, ) .
3.

f (0, ) ,

: f (A) (lim f (x), lim f (x)) R .


x 0

0 f (A) , f (x) 0 f
(0, ) , .
mathematica -83

4.
f (0, ) , 1 1
. f f (A) R
f 1 f 1 f(A) R f 1 : R (0, ).
5.
f 1 : R (0, ) f 1 (x) 0 f 1 (x) x x 0
:

f 1 (x) x f (f 1 (x)) f (x) x f (x) x lnx x lnx 0 x 1 , .


6.

f 1 : R (0, ) f 1 (x) 0

x 1 x 1 0 f 1 (x) x 1
.
x 1, f (0, )
f (f 1 (x)) f (x 1) x x 1 ln(x 1)
ln(x 1) 1 x 1 e x e 1 . 1 x e 1 .
x ,e 1 .

51

f 2f (x) (f (x)) x x
.
1.
2f (x) x f (x) .
2.
3.
4.
1.

f (x) x .
(f (x))
lim
.
x0
f (x)
f (x)
.
lim
x0 x
:
(f (x)) 2f (x) x (f (x) f (x)

2f (x) x f (x) .
2.

2f (x) (f (x) 2f (x) (f (x) x

x 2f (x) (f (x) x

2 f (x) x (f (x) x f (x) f (x) x

2f (x) (f (x)) x

2f (x) (f (x)) x f (x) x f (x) x f (x) x .


mathematica -84

3.

f (x) x x f (x) x lim( x ) lim x 0


x0

x0

limf (x) 0 u f (x)


x 0

(f (x))
u
lim
1.
x0
x 0 u
f (x)

limf (x) 0 x 0 u 0 lim


x 0

4.
2f (x) f (x) x x 0
f (x) 1
f (x) f (x) (f (x))
2
(f (x)) 1 2

1
x
x
x
x
f (x)
f (x)
(f (x))
(f (x))
(2
) 1 lim
1
x0
x
f (x)
f (x)
(f (x))
lim(2
) 1 0 0
x0
f (x)
f (x)
f (x)
1
1.
lim

x0 x
(f (x))
x
2
f (x)

52

g(x)

3x2 30x 95 (3x 5),x R, R


4
4

4x 5
,x R .
3
1.
f goh x R

h(x)

f (x) (goh)(x) x2 5x 10 x .
2.

R lim f (x) .

3.

R lim f (x)

f (x) 2x
.
x2 x 4 x 14

lim
4.

3 x
R lim
.
x f (x) x
:

1.

g h x Dh h(x) Dg x R
h(x) R . g h x R
f x g h x

3h 2 x 30h x 95 3h x 5
4
4
mathematica -85

4x 5 30 4x 5 95 3 4x 5 5
3

4
9
3
4
3

3 16x2 40x 25 120x 150 285

x
4
3
3
3

f (x)

3 16x2 80x 160


x x2 5x 10 x .
4
3

2.

f (x) x2 5x 10 x x 0

5 10
5 10
2 x x 1 2
x x
x x

5 10
lim x lim 1 2 1 :
x
x
x x

1 0 1
1 0 1 lim f (x)
f (x) x 1

1 0 1 lim f (x)
x

1 0 1 f (x) x2 5x 10 x

lim f (x) lim

lim

x 2 5x 10 x

x 2 5x 10 x

lim

x 2 5x 10 x

x 2 5x 10 x

10

x 5
5x 10
5
x

lim

2
5 10
x 2 5x 10 x x
x 1 2 1
x x

3.
1
f x 2x
x2 5x 10 x 2x
x 2 5x 10 x
lim
lim
lim
x2 x 4 x 14
x2
x2
x4 x 14
x4 x 14

lim

x 2 5x 10 x

x2

lim

x2

x 14

x 2 5x 10 x

x 2 5x 10 x

5x 10

x 14

mathematica -86

x 2 5x 10 x

lim

x2

lim

x2

5 x 2

x 2 x3 2x2 4x 7

x 2 5x 10 x

2x2 4x 7

x 2 5x 10 x

5
124

4. 1

3 x
3 x
1
lim
lim
lim
3 x
x f x x
x
x2 5x 10 x x x x 2 5x 10

1
x2 5x 10
1
x2 5x 10

lim
x

x 2 5x 10

1
x 2 5x 10

lim x2 5x 10 , lim

3 x

lim

x2 5x 10 x
1

3 x

x 2 5x 10

x2 5x 10

0.
x 2 5x 10
1

1
lim
3 x 0.
2
x
x 5x 10

53

f : R R f x f y f x y 1
x,y R R . :
1.
2.

f .
f 2x f x f 1 (x) 1 x R .

3.
4.

f .
f (1) 0.

:
1.
x 0 , f (f (y)) f (0) y 1
y1 ,y 2 R f (y1 ) f (y 2 ) f (0) y1 1 f (0) y 2 1 y1 y 2
y1 ,y 2 R . f '1 1' .

2.

y f 1 (x) :

f (x f (f 1 (x)) f (x) f 1 (x) 1 f (x x) f (x) f 1 (x) 1


f (2x) f (x) f 1 (x) 1
3.

f R f (0) 0 .

mathematica -87

x y 0 : f (f (0)) f (0) 1 f (0) 0 1


0 1 . f .
4.
(2) , x 0 :
f (0) f (0) f 1 (0) 1 f 1 (0) 1 f ( 1) 0 .

54

f : R R , : f 2 , f 2 f (x) 2012
xR .
1.
2x f x f
0,

2.

f , :
) (,)

f .
) Cf f y 2x

xo ,

xf (x)4x
x
x2 1
4.
h : R R
f (x) h(x) 2004x , x R .

3.

lim

f x 0 1 ,2 .

h x 0 1 ,2 .

:
1.
g(x) 2x f ()x f () 2x 2x 2
' :
g(x) [, ] g(0) 2 0
g( ) 2( ) 2( ) 2 2(1 ( )) 0 0
( ) 1 . g(0)g( ) 0 2 :

1 : ( ) 1 g( ) 0
g(x) 0.
2 : ( ) 1 g( ) 0 g(0)g( ) 0
Bolzano xo (0, ) g(xo) 0 .
xo (0, ]
g(xo) 0 2xo f ()x0 f () 0.
mathematica -88

2.
)
0 f 2 2
f () f () f .
f () f ()
(, )

f ()
2
. f
f () f ()
f ()
f () . .
2

g x f x x [,]
f

[,]

x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x 2 )
f (x1 ) f (x2 ) g(x1 ) g(x2 )
g [,]
g [,] .

g f 2 0

g f 2 0

g g 0
Bolzano (,)
g 0 f g ,
.
) (x) f (x) 2x [, ]
[, ] () f () 2 2( ) 0
() f () 2 2( ) 0 ()() 0
Bolzano x0 (, ) (x0 ) f (x0 ) 2x0 .
x1 x2 f [, ] f (x1 ) f (x2 )
x1 x2 f (x1 ) x1 f (x2 ) x2 h(x1 ) h(x2 )
x0 (, ) .
3.

x 0

xf (x)x xf (x)x x f (x) 2012x

x2 1
x 1 x2 1
x2 1

xf (x)x 2012x
2012x xf (x)x 2012x
2
2

2
2
x 1
x 1
x 1
x2 1
x 1
2012x
2012x
2012x
2012x
lim 2

lim

0
lim

lim

x
0
2
x
x x 2 1
x2
x 1 x

x
xf (x)x
lim
0.
2
x
x

mathematica -89

4.
f 1 0 2
f (1 ) f (2 ) 0.
h(x) f (x) 2004x,x [1 ,2 ]
h [1 ,2 ]
h(1 ) f (1 ) 20041 20041 0
h(2 ) f (2 ) 20042 20042 0
Bolzano (1 ,2 )
h() 0.

55

'1 1' f , g : R R f (R) g(R) R


:
f (x) (fog 1 )(x) 8 3(fog)(x) 2(fog 1 )(x) 10x 7 x R
1.

f (x),g(x)

2.
:

h : R R h(g(f (x))) e2x 4x 2, x R

3.

. h(x)
. h(x)
e
e
. x2 3x 2x 2 6x
e
e
h(x)
h(x2 1)
h 1 (e)x 3 2x 2 3
lim
. : lim
, lim x
x e
x x
1 x
x2 5x
h(x) ln(x)

1.

:
f (x) (f g 1 )(x) 8.. 1

3(f g)(x) 2(f g 1 )(x) 10x 7, x R.. 2 (f g 1 )(x) f (x) 8


(2) 3(f g)(x) 2f (x) 16 10x 7
3(f g)(x) 2f (x) 10x 9, x R (3) x g(x) (1)
f (g(x)) (f g 1 )(g(x)) 8 (f g)(x) f (x) 8 (f g)(x) f (x) 8
(3)
3(f(x) 8) 2f(x) 10x 9, x R 5f(x) 10x 15 f(x) 2x 3 .
(3)
3f(g(x)) 2f(x) 10x 9 3(2g(x) 3) 2(2x 3) 10x 9
g(x) x 4 .
2.

. g(f (x)) f (x) 4 2x 3 4 2x 1

mathematica -90

h(2x 1)

h(x)

1
e
2(2x) 2 2x1 2(2x 1)
2x
e
e

e
2x.
ex

e
e
x2
x1
e
e
h(x1 ) h(x2 ) h
R 1-1 .

. x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 2x1 2x2 ex1 ex2

e
2(3x) h(x 2 ) h(3x)
3x
e
e
2
h x 3x x2 3x 0 0 x 3 .

. H

x2

2x2

h(x)
e
h(x)
x 2 lim (xex ) lim
2
x x
x
x
xe
h(x2 1) h(x 2 1) x 2 1
x2 1
2

lim x
x e
e x 1
x 1 e x 1
1
h(x2 1)
h(u)
h(x2 1)
lim
lim
2 lim x
.
x x 2 1
u u
x e
1
h(0) e h1 (e) 0

h 1 (e)x 3 2x 2 3
2x 2 3
2x 2

lim

lim
2.
x
x x 2 5x
x x 2
x2 5x
lim

3.
t(x) h(x) lnx, x (0, )
limln x limh(x) h(0) e 2
x 0

x 0

h(x)
2
x x

limt(x) . lim
x 0

h(x)
lim h(x) lim
x lim ln x lim t(x)
x
x
x
x
x
t(x) h(x) lnx R .
(0, ).

56

f : 0, 0,

f 2 x lnf x lnx 1 0 .
1.

f (1).

2.

f x
f 1 .
x
:
mathematica -91

1.
x 1
2
f (1) ln(f (1)) ln1 1 0 f (1)2 ln(f (1)) 1 0 o f (1)
g(x) x2 lnx 1 , x (0, ) .

x0 1.

x12 x12
x12 ln x1 x 2 2 ln x 2
0 x1 x2
ln x1 ln x 2
x12 lnx1 1 x22 lnx2 1 g(x1 ) g(x2 )

g 0, x0 1
f (1) 1 .
f x
f 1 x0 1 .
x
x1 (0, ), x1 1 f (x1 ) x1 x x1

2.

f 2 x1 lnf x1 lnx1 1 0 x12 lnx1 lnx1 1 0 .

x12 1, x1 0 x1 1 . x0 1.

57

f : R R f (x) 1
(f (x) )(f (y) 3) x, y R R .
1.
.
2.
f
.
:
1.
x,y R :
(f (x) )(f (y) 3) (f (y) )(f (x) 3) .
(f (x) f (y)) 0 .
x,y f (x) f (y) , 0
f (x) 0 , f (x) 1 .
x,y f (x) f (y) c 1 () :

3 2 (1 2c) c2 0 .
:

mathematica -92

2c 1 (1 2c)2 12c2
2c 1 (1 2c)2 12c 2

,
6
6

2c 1 (1 2c)2 12c2 1
1
1

16c2 4c 1 c , c 1 .
6
6
3
6
1
1
1
16c2 4c 1 c , c 1
6
3
6
1
8c 1
1
g(c)
0, c 1
3 16c2 4c 1 3

g(c)

g(1)

1
1 1
13 1

16 4 1
6
3 6
6

1 13
.
6

c 1

1 13
.
6

1 13
1
6
3 2 (1 2c) c2 0 3 (1 2c) c2 0 c2 2c 4 0

2.

c 5 1, c 1 (1) f (x) 5 1
.
.
(1) f R f
.

58

f : R (0, ) f (x)f (y) f (x y)


x0 0 f (1) e .
1.

: f (0) 1,f ( 1) e1 .

2.
3.

N R .
f :
.
. lim f (x) lim f (x) .
x

4.
5.

x0 (0,1) : 3f (x0 ) f (21 ) f (31 ) f (41 ) .


f (1 x)
: . lim f 1 (x) . lim f 1 (x) . lim
x
x 0
x0
f (x)
mathematica -93

6.
7.
8.

, 0 , f 1 () f 1 () f 1 () .

f 1 (x 2 )
lim 1
.
x f (x)
x1 0

f 1 (x1 ) x11 .
9.

f 1 (f (x))
lim
.
x
f (x)
:

1.
f (x y) f (x)f (y) .
x y 0 , f (0) f 2 (0) f (0)(f (0) 1) 0 f (0) 0 f(0) 1 .
f (0) 0 (0, ) , . f (0) 1 . x 1,y 1
1
f (0) f (1)f ( 1) 1 ef ( 1) f ( 1) e1 .
e
2.

lim f (x) limf (x0 h) lim(f (x0 )f (h))


x x0

h 0

h 0

f (x0 )lim(f (h)) f (x0 )f (0) f (x0 )


h 0

3.
. f 1 1
f ( 1) e1 f (1) e f R .
. To , ,
( lim f (x), lim f (x)) . lim f (x) , . ,
x

e 1 1 . , f () 1 ,
f (2) f 2 () ( 1)2 , f (2)
, . .
f ( x)f (x) 1 ,
: (limf (x))( lim f (x)) 1 .
x

4.
f [0,1]
f (0) f (x) f (1), x (0,1)
1
1
x [0,1] f (0) f f (1) .
2
2
1
1
x [0,1] f (0) f (1) .
3
3
1
1
x [0,1] f (0) f f (1) .
4
2

mathematica -94

1 1 1
3f (0) f f f 3f (1)
2 3 4
1 1 1
f f f
2
3
4
f (0) f (1) .
3
,.., x0 (0,1)
1 1 1
f f f
2
3
4
1 1 1
f (x0 ) 3f (x 0 ) f f f .
3
2 3 4
5.
.. f R , 1 1 ,
. f 1 (0, ) R .,
f 1 f . f 1
(0, ) . lim f 1 (x) lim f 1 (x) .
x

x0

. y x f (0) f (x)f ( x) f ( x)

1
.
f (x)

1
f (1 x)
f (1)f ( x)
e
e
f (x)
lim
lim
lim
lim 2
2 e.
x0
x0
x0 f (x)
x0 f (x)
f (x)
f (x)
1
e

6.
, 0 , f 1 () x f (x) f 1 () y f (y) .
,
f (x)f (y) f (x y) x y f 1 () f 1 () f 1 () f 1 () .
7.

f 1 (x2 )
f 1 (xx)
f 1 (x) f 1 (x)

lim

lim
11 2 .
x f 1 (x)
x f 1 (x)
x
f 1 (x)

lim

1
lim g(x)
x0
x
e1
0 ,
0 g() 0 g(e)
e
Bolzano x0 (, e) g(x0 ) 0 .
8.

g(x) f 1 (x)

9.

f 1 (f (x))
x
1
lim
lim
lim (x
) .
x
x f (x)
x
f (x)
f (x)

59

f x x3 7x 5 .
1.

. f 1 1 .
mathematica -95

. f x 0 0,1 .

f x 3
,x 1

2.
g x x 1
, R , g x
2 3 ,x 1

xo 1 .

3.

lim f x

lim f x .

. xo R
f xo 7.

. , 1 ,
xo R , .
4.

f x x
.
x
x4
. , f 3 5 f 2 6 .

. lim

:
. x1 ,x2 R x1 x2

1.

x x32 x13 7x1 5 x23 7x2 5 f (x1 ) f (x 2 ), f


R 1 1 .
3
1

. f [0, 1] f (0) 5 f (1) 3 f (0)f (1) 0


Bolzano x0 (0,1) f (x0 ) 0
f '1 1' x 0 .

x3 7x 8

2.
limg(x) lim
x1
x1
x1
(x 1)(x 2 x 8)
lim
lim x2 x 8 10 .
x1
x1
x1
g x 1
2 3 10 2 3 10 0 ( 2)( 5) 0 2 5 .
3.

. lim f (x) lim x3 lim f (x) lim x3 .


x

. f R
f (R) ( lim f (x), lim f (x)) ( , ) R 7 R x0 R
x

f (x0 ) 7 .
. h(x) f (x) 7 [1, 2]
mathematica -96

h(1) f (1) 7 4 0 h(2) f (2) 7 10 0 h(1)h(2) 0


Bolzano x0 (1, 2) h(x0 ) 0 .
f (x)x
(x3 7x 5)x
4.
. lim
lim

x oo
x oo
x4
x4
(x3 7x 5) x
lim
0
x oo
x3
x
. f (3 5) f (2 6) f '1 1'
3 5 2 6 3 7 6 0 2 3 .

60

f [0, 1]
f 2 (0) f 2 (1) 13 6f (0) 4f (1) .
N :
1.
f .
2.
x1 x 2 (0,1) :
. f y 3x
x1 .
1
1
1
. 12f (x 2 ) 3f 4f 5f .
e

2
3.
f (f 1 (lnx 4) 1) 3 .
4.

z f (x) if (x) x [0,1] .


. z .
. | z 5 | .
:

1.
,
f (1) 13 6f (0) 4f (1) f 2 (0) 6f (0) 9 f 2 (1) 4f (1) 4 0
2

f (0) 3
f (0) 3 f (1) 2 0
f (1) 2

f , 0 1 f (0) f (1) ,
f [0,1].
2

2.
. g(x) f (x) 3x,x [0,1] . g
[0,1] g(0) f (0) 3 0

g(1) f (1) 3 2 3 1 0 Bolzano


x1 (0,1) g(x1 ) 0 f (x1 ) 3x1 .
, [0,1] f () f () 3 3
f () 3 f () 3 g() g() , g
mathematica -97

[0,1] . x1 g(x) 0 .
f y 3x .
. f [0,1]
0 x 1 f (0) f (x) f (1) 3 f (x) 2 2 f (x) 3
1
1
1
x [0,1] 2 f 3 6 3f 9 .
e
e
e
1
1
1
x [0,1] 2 f 3 8 4f 12.



1
1
1
x [0,1] 2 f 3 10 5f 15.
2
2
2
1
1
1
, 24 3f 4f 5f 36 ,
e

2
1
1
1
3f 4f 5f
e

2 3 . ,
2
12
1
1
1
3f 4f 5f
e

2
, x2 (0,1) f (x 2 )
12
1
1
1
12f (x2 ) 3f 4f 5f . f
e

2
[0,1] , x 2 .

3.

f (f 1 (lnx 4) 1) 4 x 0

2 lnx 4 3 2 lnx 1 x [e2 ,e1 ]


0 f 1 (lnx 4) 1 1 1 f 1 (lnx 4) 2 . f 1
[0,1] , f 1 (lnx 4) 1 f (f 1 (lnx 4)) f (1)
lnx 4 2 lnx 2 x e2 x e2 .
.
:
2. 2 f (x) 3 x [0,1] ,
f , f (f 1 (lnx 4) 1) 3 x
, .
4.

. z i, , R

f (x)

z f (x) f (x)i i f (x) f (x)i


f (x)

z
y x 2 f (x) 3 , , [2, 3]
mathematica -98

z AB y x A(2,2)
B(3,3) .
. z 5 z 5 0i

z
(5,0) 5 0i .

y
B(3,3)

A(2,2)

(A) (B) 13
d(,)

15 10
12 ( 1)2

5 2
2

:xy 0

x
(5,0)

z 5 max (A) (B) 13 z 5 min d(,)

15 10
12 ( 1)2

5 2
.
2

:
z
y x x [2,3] z x yi x xi x [2,3] .
z x xi

z 5 x xi 5 (x 5) xi (x 5)2 x 2

x2 10x 25 x2 2x2 10x 25


2
2
2
2
2
5
5
25
5 25
5 5

2 x 2 x 25 2 x 25
2 x

2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2x2 10x 25 x [2,3]


x g x 2x2 10x 25 .
2
2
2
5
5 5
g x 2x 10x 25 2 x 2 x 25 .

2
2 2

2
2
5
25
5 25

g x 2 x 25
2 x
2
2
2
2

x
5
g x x
2
g(x)
5 25
.
g
2 2
2

5
2

..

..

..

g x x1 2 x2 3

g 2 2 22 10 2 25 13 g 2 2 32 10 3 25 13 ,

x1 2 x2 3 g 2 g 3 13 .

5
z 5 min g(x)min g
2

25 5 2

2
2
mathematica -99

z 5 max g(x)max g(2) g(3) 13

61


x
y e xy x 2 1

g y 0 g(x) lim
:

x y
x 0 g(x) 0 . x 0 ex 1 lim (e )
y

x
0 g(x) 0 .
y
y (e ) x 2 1
x y
x y
2
2
x 0 ex 1 lim ((e ) 0 , lim ((e ) x 1) x 1
x y
2
lim ((e ) x 1) , lim

x y

x
x
x
2
g(x) 2
.
2
y (e ) x 1
x 1
x 1
x
g(x) 2
, xR .
x 1

lim

x y

62

f 1,4 :

f (x) 0 x [1,4]

f (1) 0

f (1)f (2) f (3)f (4)


:
f (x) 0 x [1,4] .
1.
2.
g(x) f 2 (x) f (1)f (2)
(1,2) .
3.

f .
:
1.
f (x) 0, x [1,4] , f
[1,4] . f (1) 0 f (x) 0,x [1,4] .
2.
g(x) f 2(x) f(1)f(2) [1,2] , f
[1,4] g(1) f 2 (1) f (1)f (2) f (1)(f (1) f (2))
g(2) f 2 (2) f (1)f (2) f (2)(f (2) f (1)) .
g(1)g(2) f (1)f (2)(f (2) f (1))2 0 (1) .
f (1) f (2) 0 g(x) 0 1 2 .
f (1) f (2) (1) g(1)g(2) 0 Bolzano
g(x) 0 (1,2) . g(x) 0 ,
x1 [1,2] .

mathematica -100

3.
h(x) f 2 (x) f (3)f (4) ,
x2 [3,4] , h(x2 ) 0
f 2 (x2 ) f (3)f (4) (2) f 2 (x1 ) f (1)f (2) .
f (1)f (2) f (3)f (4) f 2 (x1 ) f 2 (x2 ) f (x1 ) f (x 2 )
f (x) 0,x [1,4] . f '1 1' x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ).
:
f 1,4 , f x 0 (1)

1 , 2 1,2 f 1 m,f 2 ,
0 m f x M x 1,2
x 1

0 m f 1 M ( )

x 2
0 m f 2 M

0 m 2 f 1 f 2 M 2

16 x 9 0,

0 m f 1 f 2 M

f 1 m ,f 2

m,M 0

0 m 2 f 1 f 2 M 2

0 f 1 f 1 f 2 f 2

f 1 f 2 f 1 , f 2 .

1 2 f (1 ) f ( 2 ) m M f 1,2
f 1 1
1 2

f 1,2 f 1 , 2 1,2 .
,..,
f 1 , 2 ,
x1 1 , 2 f x1 f 1 f 2

1 , 2 1,2

x1 1,2 f x1 f 1 f 2
x2 3,4 f x2 f 3 f 4
f 1 f 2 f 3 f 4 f 1 f 2 f 3 f 4

f x1 f x2 x1 x2 1 x1 2 3 x2 4 .
f 1 1 .

63
1.

x0 0 , lim f x limf xo h
x xo

h1

mathematica -101

f : 0, R

2.

f xy f x f y , x,y R . :

. A f xo 1 , f 0,

. A f xo , 0,1 1, , f
0,

f x
1 ,
x1 x 1

. A f xo 1 lim

f x f 1
, 0,1 1, .
x
x

:
x
1.

h x xoh . x x0 h 1 .
xo
lim f (x) limf (xoh) .
lim

x x0

h1

2.
. x 1 f (1) f (1) f (1) 2f (1) 0 f (1) 0 .
limf (x) f (1) 0 , f 1
x1

lim f (x) limf (x0h) lim[f (xo ) f (h)] f (xo ) limf (h) f (xo ) f (1) f (xo )

x x0

h1

h1

h1

xo 0 . (0, ) .
. xo , 0,1 1, .
limf x f .
x

(2) , f xo 1 .

1
1
limf x limf x lim f x f lim f u f
x1
x1
x1

u

1
1
f f f f 1 .


x
f f
f x f

. f xo 0 lim
lim
L
x
x
x
x

x
h x h 1

f h f
f f h f 1
L lim
lim
.
h1
h 1
h
h 1

64
mathematica -102

f : R R : f x y f x f y ,
x,y R , R () .
1.
2.
3.
4.

f 0 .

f x y f x f y x,y R .

f x f x 1 x R , N* .

f x R ,

f 1 1 f 1 x y f 1 x f 1 y x,y f R .

5.
. x 0 f x , f
R .
. f 1 2f (x2 ) f 1 f (3x 1) .
6.

f xo 0 limf (x) .
x

:
1.

:
x y 0 f (0) 2f (0) f (0) .

2.
x y
f (0) f (y) f (y) f ( y) 2 f (y) (1) .
y y
f (x y) f (x) f ( y) f (x y) f (x) 2 f (y)
f (x y) f (x) f (y) ( (1) ) .
3.
1 f (x) f (x) 0 0 0 , .
f (x) f (x) ( 1)(2) ,
1 .
f[( 1)x] f(x x) f(x) f(x) f(x) f(x) ( 1)
( 1)f () ,
.
4.
f (0) , f (x) 0
xo 0 .
x1 ,x2 R f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f (x1 ) f (x2 ) 0
f (x1 x2 ) 0 f (x1 x2 ) ( 2) ,
x1 x2 0 x1 x2 , f 1 1 , .
f 1 (x y ) (x y ) f (), f 1 (x) x f ()

f 1 (y) y f ()
f ( ) f () f () f ( ) x y

f 1 (x y ) f 1 (x y ) f 1 (x) f 1 (y)
mathematica -103

. x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 x2 x1 0
f(x2 x1 ) f(x2 ) f(x1 ) f(x2 ) f(x1 ) , f
R . f 1 R .
:
' x1 ,x2 R x1 x2
f 1 (x1) f 1 (x2 ) , f f (f 1 (x1) ) f (f 1 (x2 )
5.

x1 x2 , oo .
. f 1 (2f (x2 ) f 1 (f (3x 1) )

2f (x2 ) f (3x 1) f (x2 ) f (3x 1) f (0) f (x2 )


f (x2 3x 1) f ( x2 ) 2x2 3x 1 0
1
x ( ,1)
2
6.

limf (x) f (0) , f 0 .


x 0

xo R limf (xo h) lim[f (xo ) f (h) ] f (x0 ) .


h0

h0

f R .

65

f : R R f 3 (x) 5f(x) x 0
x R .
1.
f .
2.
f .
3.
f R
f 1 .
4.
5.
6.

f R.
f R.
f (x 19) x 1.

7.

f 1 (x)
lim
.
x 0 x

.:
1.
f (x)(f 2 (x) 5) x,x R f 2 (x) 5 0
x
(1) . x 0 f (x) 0 x 0
f (x) 2
f (x) 5
f (x) 0 .
mathematica -104

2.
x1 ,x2 R f (x1 ) f (x2 )
f 3 (x1 ) f 3 (x 2 ) , 5f (x1 ) 5f (x2 )
f 3 (x1 ) 5f (x1 ) f 3 (x2 ) 5f (x 2 ) x1 x2 f '1 1' .

3.

g(x) x3 5x,x R

x1 x2 x13 x23 x13 5x1 x23 5x2


g(x1 ) g(x2 ).
lim g(x) lim (x3 5x) lim (x3 )
x

x
3

lim g(x) lim (x 5x) lim (x )


3

g g(R) R g(f (x)) x, x R g


g 1 : R R f (x) g 1 ( x),x R.
f R f 1 : R R x
f 1 (x) f 3 (f 1 (x)) 5f (f 1 (x)) f 1 (x) 0
f 1 (x) x3 5x, x R.
4.
g(f (x)) x, x R x1 x 2 , x1 x2
g(f (x1 )) g(f (x2 )) g , ,
f (x1 ) f (x2 ), f R.
5.

x x0 f 3 (x0 ) 5f (x0 ) x0

f 3 (x) f 3 (x0 ) 5(f(x) f(x0 )) x x0


(f (x) f (x0 )) f 2 (x) f (x)f (x0 ) f 2 (x0 ) 5 (x x 0 )

f (x) f (x0 )

x x0
4

3 2
f (x) 2 f (x0 ) 4 f (x 0 ) 5

x x0

f (x) f (x 0 )

x x0
5

3 2
f (x) 2 f (x 0 ) 4 f (x 0 ) 5

x x0
x x0
f (x) f (x0 )

.
5
5
x x0
lim
0 ,
x x0
5
lim(f (x) f (x0 )) 0 lim(f (x)) f (x 0 ) f R .
x x0

x x0

mathematica -105

6.

f(x 19) x 1 x 19 f 1 (x 1) (3)

x 19 (x 1)3 5(x 1) (x 1)3 6(x 1) 20 0 Horner


x 1 2 x 1 (x 1)2 2(x 1) 10 0 .

f 1 (x) x 3 5x x0 x 2 5

limh(x) 5.
7.
h(x)
x 0
x
x
x
x
ghan
66
f : R R , x R : x2 f (x) x2 1 .
1.

Cf y 2x
x0 0,1 .

2.

f :
1
1
x 1 , x R
. g(x)
f (x) e
. ex f (x) exf (x) 0,2 .

3.

lim x2f ln x .
x 0
x

:
h(x) f (x) 2x x R, ,

1.
, h(0) f (0) 0, h 1 f 1 2 0

Bolzano xo 0,1 f xo 2xo .


. f x1 , x2 x1 x2 :
1
1
1
1
x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x 2 )

, ex1 ex2 x1 x2
e
e
f (x1 ) f (x 2 )
1
g(x1 ) g(x2 ) g .
2.

.
exf (x) 0

1
1
x 1 0 g(x) 0
f (x) e
g :
e f (x) e f (x)
x

(f (2)4) 1 1 3 4 3e2
1 1
1
g(0)g(2)

1
0.

f (0) f (2) e 2
f (0) e 2 4 4e 2f (0)

Bolzano g(x) 0 (0, 2)


g.
mathematica -106

1
1 1
1
f 2 1 1 x2f 1 x 2
2
x
x x
x
1
lnx 1 lnx x2f 1 x 2 lnx
x
3.

1
x2 lnx) lim lnx x2f .
lim(1

x0
x0
x

67

f : (0,1) R

f (x) 5
3 2(x 1) (x 1)f (x) x2 1 x (0,1) .
x0
x
1.
g(x) f (x) lnx 3,
x (0,1).

lim

2.
h(x) ef (x)3
,
xo 0,1 .
3.
xe 3 e
0,1 , R .
f x

1.

k(x)

f (x) 5
,x 0 , f (x) xk(x) 5 .
x

f (x) 5
limk(x) 3 .
x0
x 0
x
lim f (x) lim(xk(x)
5) 03 5 5 .

lim
x 0

x 0

2(x 1) (x 1)f (x) x2 1 , x (0,1)

2(x 1)
x2 1
f (x)
,
x1
x1
u x 1, x 1 , u 0
2(x 1)
2u
x2 1
lim(x
1) 2 .
lim
lim
2 lim
x1 x 1
x1
x1
u 0
x1
u
lim f (x) 2 .
x1

f (0,1)
A (lim f (x), lim f (x)) (2,5) .
x1

x 0

x1 ,x2 (0,1) x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) (1) ( f


) .
mathematica -107

x1 ,x2 (0,1) x1 x2 lnx1 3 lnx2 3 (2) .


(1) , (2) g(x1 ) g(x2 ) . g (0,1)
lim g(x) lim(f
(x) ln x 3) lim g(x) lim(f
(x) ln x 3) 2 3 1 .

x 0

x 0

x1

x1

g B (lim g(x), lim g(x)) ( 1, ) .


x1

x 0

2.
(x) ef (x)3 x,x (0,1) .
x1 ,x2 (0,1) x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f (x1 ) 3 f (x2 ) 3 .
ef (x1 )3 ef (x2 )3 , (0,1).
f (x) 3
u f (x) 3, x 0 , u 2 lim(e
) lim eu e2

x 0

lim (x) lim(e

x 0

f (x) 3

x 0

u2

x) e 0 u f (x) 3, x 1 , u 1
2

1
1
f (x) 3
, lim (x) lim(e
x) 1 0 .

x1
u1
x1
x1
e
e
1
(lim (x), lim (x)) ( 1,e 2 ) .
x1
x 0
e
0 , .
(0,1) . , h(x) ef (x) 3
x0 (0,1) .
f (x) 3
lim(e
) lim (eu )

3.
xe 3 ef (x) xe ef (x)3 h(x) xe 0
s(x) h(x) xe ,x (0,1) .
h (0,1) .
x1 ,x2 (0,1) x1 x2 h(x1 ) h(x2 ) x1e x2e ,
s (0,1) .
1

2
lim
s(x)

lim(h(x)

xe
)

xe
)

0
lim s(x) lim(h(x)

x1
x1
x 0
x 0
e
1
s (lim s(x), lim s(x)) ( e ,e 2 ) .
x1
x0
e
:
1
1 : e 0 ,
e
1
1
e 0 e e1 1 e 1 e0 1 .
e
e
, 0 .
1
2 : e 0
e
1
1
e 0 e e1 1 e 1 e0 1 , 0 ,
e
e
.
mathematica -108

68

ghan

f : R R f R R x,y R

1.
2.

1
x y , 0,1 . :

f .
f 1 (x) f 1 (y) x y x,y R.

3.

f 1 (x) R .

4.

f 1 (x) x R .

f (x) f (y)

:
:
1.
x x1 ,y x2 :
1
| f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) | | x1 x 2 | (1)
.

f (x1 ) f (x2 ) , (1) :


1
0 | x1 x2 || x1 x2 | 0 x1 x 2 , f 1 1 .

2.

x f 1 (x) y f 1 (y)
1
: | x y | | f 1 (x) f 1 (y) || f 1 (x) f 1 (y) | | x y | (2) .

3.

(1) y x0 :

| f 1 (x) f 1 (x0 ) | | x x0 | | x x0 | f 1 (x) f 1 (x0 ) | x x0 | (3) .


: lim | x x0 | lim | x x0 | 0 ,
x x0

x x0

(3) :

lim f 1 (x) f 1 (x0 ) 0 lim f 1 (x) f 1 (x0 ) ,

x x0

x x0

f x 0 , R .
4.
f 1 1 1 ,
, x .
.

69


mathematica -109

f ,g : R R

f 2 x g 2 x 1 2xf x 2g x , x R .
1.

f x x g x 1 x2 , x R .

2.

f g xo 0 .

f x
.
x x 2
4.
g R , g x 2x
R .
3.

lim

1.
,
2
f (x) g (x) 1 2xf (x) 2g(x) f 2 (x) 2xf (x) g 2 (x) 2g(x) 1 0
2

(f 2 (x) 2xf (x) x2 ) (g 2 (x) 2g(x) 1) x 2 (f (x) x)2 (g(x) 1) 2 x2


f (0) 0

x 0 (f (0) 0) (g(0) 1) 0
g(0) 1

2.

(f (x) x)2 (g(x) 1)2 x2 (f (x) x)2 x 2 (g(x) 1)2 x 2

(f (x) x)2 x2 f (x) x x x f (x) x x


x x f (x) x x
lim( x x) 0 lim( x x) ,
x 0

x0

limf (x) 0 .
x0

(f (x) x)2 (g(x) 1)2 x2 (g(x) 1)2 x 2 (f (x) x)2 x 2

(g(x) 1)2 x2 g(x) 1 x x g(x) 1 x

x 1 g(x) x 1
lim( x 1) 1 lim( x 1) , limg(x) 1
x 0

x 0

x0

limg(x) 1 g(0) limf (x) 0 f (0) , f ,g


x 0

x 0

x0 0 .

3.
x x f (x) x x , x 0 ,
f (x) 2x 2
2
0 2 2 . lim 0 lim 0.
x x
x
x
x
x

f (x)
0.
x x 2
h(x) g(x) 2x,x R

lim
4.

1 x g(x) 1 x
mathematica -110

x 2 1 g(2) 3
1 4 g(2) 4 3 4 5 h(2) 1 .
h [2,1]
h(1) g(1) 2 1 2 3 0 h(2) g(2) 4 0
Bolzano x0 (2,1)
h(x0 ) 0 g(x0 ) 2x0 , g(x) 2x
.

70

f ,g f x ln x2 x g x ln x 1 .
1.
h
f ,g .
2.
3.

h 1 .
h1 x 1 h x ln h1 ln2 eh e .

:
1.
f Af (,0) (1, ) g
Ag (1, ) . Ah (1, ) .

x 1 f (x) lnx ln(x 1) lnx g(x) h(x) lnx .


h(x) 0 lnx 0 x 1 . ,

x 1 0 h .
2.

y h(x) y lnx,x 1 x ey ,x 1 h 1 (x) e x ,x 0 .

3.
: ex1 lnx ln(eln2 ) elne ex1 lnx ln2 e .
x 2 0 x1 x2
x1 1 x2 1 ex1 1 ex2 1 lnx1 lnx2 lnx1 ln2 e lnx2 ln2 e
,
ex1 1 lnx1 ln2 e ex2 1 lnx2 ln2 e

P(x) ex1 lnx ln2 e (0, ) ,


.

mathematica -111

mathematica -112

50

mathematica -113

+ : 29/01/2012 17/02/2012

:- 50 .
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=53&t=22305

:
















parmenides51

mathematica.gr.

mathematica -114

71

f R , x 0
lim
h0

f x 0 2h
h

m R . f (x 0 )

m
.
2

lim

f x f (x 0 )
x x0

x x0

m
.
2

0 h 0 )
x o x xo . .
x 0 2h t h
lim
t x0

f x 0 2h
x0 t
h 0, t x 0 lim
m
h0
2
h

f t
f t
f t
m
m 2lim
m lim
1 .
t x0 x t
t x0 t x
x0 t
2
0
0
2

g(t)

g(t)

f t
t x0

f t
t x0

t x0 limg(x)
t x0

m
.
2

f t g(t) t x 0 ,

m
x 0 x 0 0.
t x 0
t x 0
2
f R, limf (t) 0 f (x 0 ) 1
limf t limg(t) t x 0

tx0

lim

t x0

f t
t x0

f t f (x 0 )
m
m
m
lim
f (x 0 ) .
t x0
2
t x0
2
2

f x0 2h f (x0 )
f x0 2h f (x0 )
f x f (x0 ) x x0 2h
lim
lim
x x0
h0
h0
x x0
2h
x0 2h x0
lim

f x 0
x x0 2h
f x0 2h
f (x0 ) lim f x limf x0 2h lim
h
x x0
h0
h0
h

mathematica -115

f x0 2h
f x0 2h
f (x0 ) lim
h lim
lim h m 0 0
h 0
h 0
h 0
h
h

f x0 2h f ( x0 ) f (x0 )0 1
f x0 2h
f x f (x0 )
m
lim
lim

x x0
h 0
x x0
2h
2 h 0
h
2

lim

f x 0 f x0

m
2


72
f : R R :
f (2) 2

lim
x0

f (x)
3
3x

f (x) 0 x (0, 2)

1. f (0) 0.
2. f (0) 9.
3. f
A(0,f (0)).
4. f (x) 0
(0, 2).
5. (0, 2) f () 2 .
6.

x1 , x 2 (0, 2) f (x1 )f (x 2 ) 1.
: . - . ( )

1.

lim
x 0

f x
3x

f x
3x

g x limg x 3 , x
x0

0.
f x 3x g x limf x lim 3x g x 03 0.
x0

x0

f x o 0 ( ) f 0 limf x 0.
x 0

2.

f ,

3x g x
f (x) f (0)
f (x) f x 3x g x
f (0) lim
lim

lim

x 0
x 0 x
x 0
1
x0
x
3x
lim
g x 3 3 9.
x 0
x

mathematica -116

u
3x
3x (*)
lim

lim
3
3lim
3 limg x 3.

x 0
x0
x0
u0 u
x
3x

(*) u 3x, limu lim3x 0 .


x 0

x 0

lim
x 0

f x
3x

f x f 0
3 lim
x 0

x0
3x
3
3x

3 (1).

u
3x
lim 3

3lim
3 ( u 3x ).

x0
u0 u
3x
f x f 0
( 1)

f x f 0
x0
lim
x 0

3.

x0
3x
3
3x

h x limh x 3
x0

3x
hx .
3x

f x f 0
x0

3x

lim 3
h x 33 9 . f 0 9.
x 0
3x

Cf A 0, f 0

y f 0 f 0 x 0 y 9x.

4.

f x 0 1 , 2

1 2 0, 2 . f 1 f 2 0 f
1 ,2 0, 2 ( f )
. Rolle ,
h 1 ,2 f h 0. . f x 0
x 0, 2 . f x 0 0, 2 .

5.

h x f x 2 x,x 0, 2 .

h x 0, 2 f
mathematica -117

h 0 f 0 2 2 0 h 2 f 2 2 2 2 0.

Bolzano , 0, 2
h 0 f 2 0 f 2 .

6.
f ...
0, , 2 , , (5)
x1 0, x 2 , 2 :

f 2 f 2 2
2

f x 2

.
2
2
2
0

2
f x1 f x 2

1.
2
f x1

f f 0

73

x3 x2

f x
x 1 e x , x R.
2
6

1.
, ,
.
2.
f .
x3 x2
x
3.
e

x 1, x R.
6
2

g x
g3 x
g x
4.
g : R R lim e
1.
x 0
6

limg x 0.
x 0

: . ( )

1. f R
2
x x3 x2

x3 x
x x
f (x) e x 1 e x 1 e .
2
6
2

mathematica -118

, f
( , 0]
[0, )
x 0 f (0) 1.

x -

x 3
ex
f (x)
f(x)

f R

1
x 2e x
2 x
3 x
f (x)
(3x e x e )
(x 3).
6
6
, f

+
+
+

0
0
0

+
+
-

9 . 0

x - 0 3 +
x3
- 0 +
+ 0+
+
x 2e x
f (x)
- 0- 0 +
4 4.3
f(x)

( , 3] [3, ) M(3,13e 3 ).

2. 1 ( , 0] f (1 ) ( lim f (x), f (0)] ( ,1] f


x

x3
1 lim ( ) , lim e x
x 6
x
2 [0, ) f (2 ) ( lim f (x), f (0)] (0,1]
x

f 2

x3 x2
x2


x 1
x 1
x 1
1
6
2
2
lim f (x) lim

lim

lim

lim
0.
x
x
DLH x
DLH x e x DLH x e x
ex
ex
f(R) f(1 ) f(2 ) ( ,1].
3. f f (0) 1
x3 x2
x3 x2
x
x
f (x) 1 (
x 1)e 1 e

x 1.
6
2
6
2
g 3 (x)
g 2 (x)
g(x)
g(x)
1 1
4. (3) : e
6
2
g x
g3 x
lim e g x
1
1 lim1
x 0
x 0
6

g 2 (x)

g 2 (x)
g 2 (x)
lim
1 1 lim
1 1 lim
0 limg 2 (x) 0 (1).
x0
x

0
x

0
x 0
2
2
2

mathematica -119

(x) g 2 (x) lim(x) 1 | g(x) | ((x), lim | g(x) | 0


x0

x 0

| g(x) | g(x) | g(x) | , limg(x) 0.


x 0

74

f R
f () f ()
x .
f (x)
2
1. x1 (,) f (x1 ) 0.
2. f () f () 0.
3. (,) f () 0 .
: . . ( )

f () f ()
, x R.
2
f () f ()
x f ()
f () f () (1).
2
f () f ()
x f ()
f () f () (2).
2
(1) , (2) f () f ().
f [,] , R,
f (,) , R,
f () f ()

1. f (x)

Rolle x1 (,) f (x1 ) 0.


f () f ()
f () f () , x R (3).
2
(3) f x x .
Fermat f () f () 0.

2. f (x)

3. f [,x1 ] f R,
f (,x1 ) f R,
f () f (x1 ) 0.
Rolle 1 (,x1 ) f (1 ) 0.

f [x1 ,] f R,
mathematica -120

f (x1 ,) f R,
f () f (x1 ) 0.
Rolle 2 (x1 ,) f ( 2 ) 0.
1 x1 2 1 2 .

f [1 , 2 ] f R,
f (1 , 2 ) f R,
f (1 ) f ( 2 ) 0.
Rolle (1 , 2 ) f () 0.

75

f R

f 3 (x) 3f (x) x x R.
1.

f .

2.
3.

f f 1 .
f .

4.

f ,
.
f () f () f ()
0 ,

5.
6.

. g(x) f (x) x.
. f (x 2 x) x x 2 .
: . - . ( )

1.

f 3 (x) 3f (x) x


f (x) 30
1
3f (x)f (x) 3f (x) 1 f (x) 2
f (x) 0
3f (x) 3
2

f R.
2.
f 1 1 , .
f .

f 3 (x) 3f (x) x x R.
mathematica -121

A(x) x 3 3x x R A(x) 3x 2 3 0 A(x)


R 1 1

A 1 (x).

lim A(x) lim x 3 3x


x

, lim A(x) lim x 3 3x .


x

A R

A R A , lim A(x), lim A(x) , R.


A9

A 1 (x) R.
f 3 (x) 3f (x) x x R.
A f (x) x f (x) A 1 (x) x R.

f A 1 (x)
A(x) R
f (x) y x f 1 (y) , f 1 (x) x 3 3x,x R.

y o R xo y o 3 3y o

f 3 (x 0 ) 3f (x 0 ) x 0 y 03 3y 0 f 3 (x 0 ) y 03 3f (x 0 ) 3y 0 0

3 0.

f (x 0 ) y 0 f 2 (x 0 ) f (x 0 )y 0 y 0 2 3 f (x 0 ) y 0 0

f (x 0 ) y 0 f 2 (x 0 ) f (x 0 )y 0 y 0 2

f(x0 ) y 0 f 2 (x0 ) f (x0 )y 0 y 0 2 3 0


3y 0 2 12 0. f(x0 ) y 0 f R .

f (x) y x f 1 (y) , f 1 (x) x 3 3x,x R.



y o R . x0 y o 3 3y o , f(xo ) y o .
, A f (x) x x R , :
x0 y o 3 3 A(f (x0 )) A(y o ) f (x0 ) y o

A 1 1. .

mathematica -122

x0 y o 3 3y o ,
f , A . f
R .
, y R , x R , f (x) y.
:

f 3 (x) 3f(x) x y 3 3y x f 1 (y) y 3 3y y R,


f 1 (x) x 3 3x, x R.
3.
x 0
f (0)(f 2 (0) 3) 0 f (0) 0, f 2 (0) 3 0.
x 0 f f (x) f (0) f (x) 0
x 0 f (x) f (0) f (x) 0 f 0.
4.

3f 2 (x)f (x) 3f (x) 1

f
6f (x)(f (x))2 3f 2 (x)f (x) 3f (x) 0 f (x)
3(f 2 (x) 1)f (x) 6f (x)(f (x)) 2 . 3(f 2 (x) 1) 0
f (x)

6f (x)(f (x))2
6f (0)(f (0))2

(1)

0
f
(0)

0
3(f 2 (x) 1)
3(f 2 (0) 1)

f (0) 0 (3) (3) x 0 f (x) 0

x 0 f (x) 0 f (x) 0, x ( , 0) f
( , 0] f (x) 0, x (0, ) f
[0, ) , O(0, 0) f .

f () f (0) f () f ()

(3).
0

f [0, ] , (0, ) ...


f () f (0)
1 (0, ), ..f (1 )
... [,]
0
f () f ()
2 (,), ..f ( 2 )
.

f 9
f () f (0) f () f ()

1 2 f (1 ) f ( 2 )
.
0

5.

mathematica -123

1
1 3f 2 (x) 3 3f 2 (x) 2

0.
3f 2 (x) 3
3f 2 (x) 3
3f 2 (x) 3
g(x) 0, x R g R.

6.

).

g (x) f (x) 1

). f (x2 x) x x2 f (x2 x) (x 2 x) 0

g(x 2 x) g(0) x 2 x 0 ( g R )
x ( ,0) (1, ).

76

f : (0, ) R

x 2x
e y f (x) 2xe y f y y x 0 y ,
e e
f (1) 6,f (1) 3.
1.

f (x) x 0.

2.

f (x) (0, ).

3.

f .

4.
f (0, )
f A(1,f (1)).
5.

,, R 1

10
,
3

2 2 2 1.
: . ( )

1. x 1, y lnx x :
1

1
6e lnx 2e lnx f lnx
e

lnx
e

e lnx e lnx

1
x

8
f (x) 2x , x 0.
x

8
x 2 8lnx f (x) x 2 8lnx c, x 0
x
f (1) 3 c 2 f (x) x 2 8lnx 2,x 0.

2. f (x) 2x

3. .

mathematica -124

2(x 2 4) 2 x 2 x 2
f (x)

,x 0
x
x

f x [2, ) f

x (0, 2] f

x 2 f (2) 6 8ln2.

x -

x -2
x +2
f (x)

-2

- 0 +
+ -

2 +
- 0 +
+
+
- 0 +
0 . 9

f(x)

8
8
4. f (x) 2x , x 0 f (x) 2 2 0,
x
x
f A(1, f (1)) y f(1) f (1)(x 1)

y 6x 9.
5. f
,
y f ( x) y f (x) 6x 9, x R x , ,

f () 6 27
f () 6 27
f () 6 27
f () f () f () 6( ) 27
2 2 2 8 ln ln ln 1 8ln() 1 1.
: 1
: 2 2 2 1.

77

f :[0, ) R ,
f (x) f (f (x)) 2x x [0, ).
1.

f (x) 0 x [0, ) f (0) 0.

2.

e f (x )
f (x)

0
f (x) f (x) 1

(0, 1). .
3.

f x 0 1

f A(1,f (1)). .
: . ( )

mathematica -125

1.

f [0, ) f (f (x))

[0, ) f (x) 0 x [0, ).


f (0) f (f (0)) 0 f (0) 0 f (f (0)) 0

f (0) 0 f (f (0)) 0 f (0) 0.


2.
ex (f (x) 1) f 2 (x) 0
(0,1).
g(x) ex (f (x) 1) f 2 (x) x [0,1]

g(0) f (0) 1 f 2 (0) 1 0 g(1) e(f (1) 1) f 2 (1).


f (1) 1 f (1) 1 f (1) 1 f (1) 1 f
f (f (1)) f (1)
f (1) f (f (1)) 2 f (f (1)) 2 f (1)
2 f (1) f (1) 2 2f (1) 1 f (1) . .
f (1) 1 f (1) 1
g(1) f 2 (1) 0. . g(0)g(1) 0 Bolzano
g(x) 0 (0,1).
3.
f 1 f (1) 1 f
f (1) h(x) f(x) f(f(x)) 1

h(1) f (1) f (f (1))f (1) f (1) f (1)f (1) f (1) (f (1))2


h(x) 2x h(x) 2 h(1) 2.
f (1) (f (1))2 2 (f (1)) 2 f (1) 2 0
f (1) 1, f (1) 2 f ,
, f (1) 1 (1,f (1))
y x.

78

f , g : 0, R , f , f 1 1
f e 0 , e
1.

f x

x ce

g x

, x 0 , c R.

x f x x x ln x
Rolle 1,e .

mathematica -126

2.

, f ln.

3.

c.
f .

4.

1.
H [1, e]
H [1, e]
1
(x) f (x) 1 lnx x f (x) lnx.
x
(1) 1 1 0 0

(e) 0 e e 0
Rolle
(1,e) : () 0 f () ln 0 f () ln.
2. (1).
3. . x 0 e
(2)

f x

x ce

g x

, c R ,

ef () ceg() eln ceg() ceg() c 0 eg( ) 0.


4. . (3) ef (x) x f (x) lnx (xlnx x) , x 0
f (x) xlnx x c, x 0 f (1) 1 c 0
f (x) xlnx x,x 0.

79


1
x

f (x) xe , x R* .
1.
f
.
2.
f .
3.
4.

f .
1
x

R.
5.

,
x

1 ln x 1
lim f
.
2
x 0
x
x

mathematica -127

: . ( )

1
x

1.

e R*
1
e x , f
x
*
R

x1
,x 0.
x
f (x) 0 x 1

x -

f (x) (xe1/x ) e1/x

x 0 f ,

f
f

x
f (x)

0
+

1
+
0 +
+
0 +

+
-

0 + O.

f(x)
- 9

0 e9

x ( ,0), f ,
x (0,1], f ,
x [1, ), f .
1
1

1 f (1) 1 e e.
1
limf (x) lim 0 limeu 1
x x
u 0
x
1
1

f (1) 1 e e
x 1 .
2.
f R*

f (x) e1/x

1
,
x3

f (x) 0 x ( ,0),
f (x) 0 x (0, ).

x -

x3
1
ex
f (x)
f(x)

0 +
- 0 +
+
+

- 0 +
4 . 3

(0, ) ( ,0).

mathematica -128

1
e1/x ( )
e
x lim e1/x
3.
A lim f (x) lim
lim
x 0
x 0 1 / x DLH x 0
x 0
1
( )
x
1
B lim f (x) 00 0 lim lim eu 0
u
x 0 x
x 0

1/x

1
0 limeu 1
x x
x
u0
1
D limf (x) lim 0 limeu 1
x x
u 0
x

C lim f (x) , lim

f 1 = ( , 0)
f(1 ) (D,B) ( ,0).
f 2 = (0,1]
f(2 ) [e, A) [e, ).
f
3 = [1, ,0) f (3 ) [e,C) [e, ).
f () f(1 ) f(2 ) f( 3 ) ( ,0) [e, ).
4.
f(x) .

1
x

x 0
x

y R .
xx' .
Cf y o f(x)

0 1 .
x

y=<0

0 .

y==0
-1

x
1

-2

mathematica -129

e .

y==e

y=<e

0 e .

y=>e

e .

5.

x
1 ln(x 1) 1 x ln(x 1) xe ln(x 1)
f

.
x
x2
x2
x2
x

xe ln(x 1)
1 ln(x 1)
lim f
lim
lim

2
x 0
x 0
x
x2
x
x 0

1
2e x xe x
(x 1) 2
lim
3 / 2.
x 0
2
x

80

(0/0)

e x xe x
2x

1
(0/0)
x 1

f R f (0) 0

f (x 0 3h) f (x 0 2h)
10x 0e f (x0 ) x0 R
h0
h
1.
f .
2.
f .
3.
.
: . ( )

lim

1.

f (x 0 h) f (x 0 )
R
h0
h

f (x 0 ) lim

mathematica -130

f (x0 3h) f (x0 ) (*)


f (x 0 u) f (x 0 )
f (x 0 u) f (x 0 )
lim
3lim
3f (x0 )
h0
u 0
u0
u
h
u
3

f (x0 2h) f (x0 ) (**)


f (x0 u) f (x 0 )
f (x 0 u) f (x 0 )
lim
lim
2lim
2f (x0 ).
h0
u 0
u 0
u
h
u
2
(*) 3h u , limu lim3h 0 .
h0
h 0
lim

(**) 2h u , limu lim( 2h) 0


h 0

h 0

,
f (x 3h) f (x0 2h)
f (x0 3h) f (x0 ) f (x0 2h) f (x0
lim 0
lim

h 0
h 0
h
h
h

3f (x0 ) ( 2f (x0 )) 5f (x0 ).


5f (x0 ) 10x0 e

f (x0 )

f (x0 ) 2x0 ef (x0 ) .

f f (x) 2xef (x) .


,
2x
f (x) 2xef (x) f (x) f (x) f (x)e f (x) 2x e f (x)
e
f (0)
x 0 e
c e0 c c 1.

x e

f (x)

x 2 c.

e f (x) x 2 1 lne f (x) ln x 2 1 f (x) ln x 2 1 f (x) ln (x 2 1)


.
2.

. f (x) ln(x 2 1),x R.


2x
f R f (x) 2
, x R.
x 1
2x
x - 0 +
f (x) 0 2
0 x 0.
x 1
2x
+ 0 f
2
+
+
x 1
( , 0]

[0, )

f (0) 0.

f (x)
f(x)

+ 0 -

9 . 0

mathematica -131

2(x 2 1)

, x R.
f R f (x)
2

f (x) 0

2(x 2 1)

x -

x2 1

x 2 1 0 x 1
f
( , 1] [1, ) .

[1,1].

f (x)

f(x)

-1
+ 0 +

1 +
0 +
+

+ 0 0 +
3 . 4 . 3

f x 0 0 f (0) 0

3.

f A( 1, ln 2) B(1, ln2).

81

f (x) (x 2)e x 2x 2 3x 2, x R.
1. f f .
2. f
.
3. f .
4. f .
5. f(x) 0 f .
6. Cf .
: .
(21/5/2008)

1. f (x) (x 2)e x 2x 2 3x 2, x R.
f R
f (x) e x (x 2)e x 4x 3 e x (3 x) 4x 3, x R.
f R

f (x) e (3 x) e
x

4x
x 4 4e x
4 e (4 x) 4 x 4
.
e
ex
x

x 4 4e x A(x)
x .
2. f (x)
ex
e
x
A(x) x 4 4e , x R x 0.
mathematica -132

A(x) 1 4ex 0, x R A(x) .


x 0 A(x)
( ,0) , (0, ).
, x 1 , A(1) 1 4 4e1 0 , x (,0)
f (x) 0. x 4 , A(4) 4 4 4e4 4e4 0

x (0, ) f (x) 0.
f ( ,0] [0, ).
O(0,f(0)) (0,0).
3.

x (0, ) f (x) 0 , f
f9

[0, ) , x 0 f (x) f (0) 0

f (x) 0, x (, 0) f ( , 0].
x (,0) f (x) 0 , f
f0

( ,0] , x 0 f (x) f (0) 0 f (x) 0, x (0, )


f [0, ) f x 0
R.
f R .
4. f R

f (R) ( lim f (x), lim f (x)).


x

lim f (x) lim (x 2)e x 2x 2 3x 2 ,


x

x2
1
lim (x 2)e x lim x lim x 0 lim 2x 2 3x 2 .
x
x
x
x e
e

lim f (x) lim (x 2)e x 2x 2 3x 2

2x 2 3x 2
lim (x 2)e 1
.
x
( x 2)e x

mathematica -133

lim (x 2)e x
x

2x 3x 2
4x 3
4x 3

lim

lim

x (x 2)e x DLH x e x (x 2)e x


x (x 1)e x DLH
2

lim

4
4

lim
0.
x e x (x 1)e x
x xe x

lim

f f (R) lim f (x) , lim f (x) ( , ).


x

5. f(0) 0 f R , x 0
f (x) 0.
f9

x 0 f (x) f (0) 0 f (x) 0, x (0, ).


f9

x 0 f (x) f (0) 0 f (x) 0, x ( , 0).


6. f R .
lim f (x) lim f (x) , Cf .
x

(x 2)e x 2x 2 3x 2
f (x)
lim
lim

x x
x

2
2

lim e x x 2x 3 .
x
ex
x

Cf


f (x)
lim

x
x

(x 2)e 2x 3x 2
lim
D
x
x

LH
x

lim (3 x)e x 4x 3
x


4x
3
lim e x (3 x) x x ,
x
e
e

mathematica -134

f (x) (x 2)e x 2x 2 3x 2

4x
4
3
lim x lim x 0, lim x 0.
x e
x e
x e

Cf .

82

f (x) e x x 1.
1.
f ,
.
2.
f
3.
ex (x 1) ex 1
.
x2
x
4.
e 1 x ,x 0.
2
5.
f (x) f (x2 ) lnx.
1.

f (x) e x x 1,x R . f R

f (x) e x 1
f (x) 0 e x 1 0 e x 1 e x e0 x 0

f (x) 0 e x 1 0 e x 1 e x e0 x 0 x 0.
f ( ,0]
[0, ).
x0 0 f (0) 0.
x R* f(x) 0 f x 0.
0
0

e 1
e x
lim
2.
lim

.

x
x D LH x 1

e x 1

x
1)
lim f (x) lim e x 1 lim x(
x
x
x
x

lim f (x) lim e x x 1 .


x

A1 ( ,0] , f ,
f (A1 ) [f (0), lim f (x)) [0, ).
x

A 2 [0, ) , f ,

f (A 2 ) [f (0), lim f (x)) [0, ).


x

mathematica -135

f f (R) f (A1 ) f (A 2 ) 0,
, :

1
x 1 e x
x
e
x
e x 1 f (x) (1).

ex (x 1) ex 1 x 1

1 : 0 , (1) .

x
y=<0

2 : 0 , (1)

x 0.

y==0

3 : 0 , (1) .

y=>0

x2
3.
h(x) e 1 x , x R.
2
h R
h(x) e x 1 x f (x) .
x

A to , x 0 f (x) 0.
x 0 h(x) 0 , h [0, ) ,
h [0, ). x 0
h(x) h(0) e x 1 x

mathematica -136

x2
x2
0 ex 1 x .
2
2

4.

f (x) f (x2 ) lnx (2) , x 0


x 1.
f9

0 x 1 0 x x f (x 2 ) f ( x ). 0 x 1
2

lnx 0 , x (0,1) f (x 2 ) lnx f (x).


f9

x 1 , 1 x x 2 f (x) f (x 2 ). x 1 lnx 0 ,
x 1 f (x) f (x 2 ) lnx.
(2) , x 1.

f (x) f (x2 ) lnx f (x) lnx f (x 2 ) 2lnx
f (x) lnx f (x2 ) lnx2 g(x) g(x2 )

g(x) f (x) lnx x (0, )


0 x1 x2

f
ln x

(0, )

(0, )

f (x1 ) f (x2 )
ln x1 ln x2

f (x1 ) ln x1 f (x2 ) ln x2

g(x1 ) g(x2 )

g (0, ) 1 1 .
g11

x(0, )

g(x) g(x 2 ) x x 2 x 1.

83

f ,g : R R f (x) ex g(x) x 2 x.
1.

f (x)

A(0,1) g(x).
2.
3.

( 1,0), e 2 1 0.

h(x) f(x) g(x) , :


.

h(x) 2 1 x R ( 1,0).

. h(x) 2012 .

1. f f (x) e x ,
f A
1 : y f (0) f (0)(x 0) y x 1.

g B(x0 ,g(x0 )) g(x) 2x 1.


mathematica -137

1 B g(x0 ) x0 1 g(x0 ) 1.
x02 x0 x0 1 (1) 2x0 1 1 x0 1 (1)

B( 1, 0).

2. (x) ex 2x 1.
(x) 1,0

(0) 2 0
( 1) e 1 1 0.
Bolzano [1, 0].
, (1,0) , () 0 e 2 1 0 (2).
(x) e x 2x 1
(x) e x 2 0
.
3.
) h(x) ex x2 x
R
h(x) ex 2x 1
h(x) e x 2 0.
(2) h() 0.

x - +
h(x)
+
+
h(x)
- 0
+
h(x)
0 . 9

h , h
.

h(x) h() h(x) e

e 210

h(x) 1 2 2 h(x) 2 1.

, h(x) 2 1, x R.

) lim h(x) lim e x x 2 x , lim h(x) lim ex x 2 x

lim x 2 x .

h() e

e 2 1 0

1 2 2 2 1.

() 2 1 [1,0]
[1,0]
() 2 1 0 [1,0] .
mathematica -138

[1,0]
1 0 k( 1) k() k(0) 1 2 1 1 .

h (,] limh(x), lim h(x) 2 1,


x
x
h0

2012 2 1, , h

x1 (,] ( h0 ) h(x1 ) 2012.

h (, ] limh(x), lim h(x) 2 1,


h9

2012 2 1, , h

x2 (, ) ( h9 ) h(x 2 ) 2012.

84

f f (x) 2e x 2x ex.
1.

f .

2.

N f(x) 2 .

1.
1 (2x) 1 2ex ex 1 f (x) 2e x ex 1.
g(x) 2e x ex 1, lim g(x) lim (2e x ex 1) ,
x

0 g(x) f (x)

1
1
1
1
1

, 0
0,
lim

x g(x)
f (x) g(x)
g(x) f (x)
1
0 lim f (x) f(x) 0
x
x f (x)

lim
.

h(x) 2e x ex 1, lim h(x) lim (2ex ex 1)


x

f(x) h(x) 0

lim f (x) f R

f (R) R.

f x R x R
f x 2e x 22x e.
x
f x 0 x R , e 0

1 x 2 2x 0 e 2 e 2x.
mathematica -139

f x R
.

f R lim f x , lim f x , ,
x

1
1

lim f x lim 2ex 2x ex lim x 2 ex 2x e


x
x
x
x

x
1
1

lim ex 0 lim 2x 0
x x
x x

1 2x 1
1
1

lim lim 0 .
x
x
x
x
x x x
1
1

lim f x lim 2ex 2x ex lim x 2 ex 2x e


x
x
x
x

ex
1

lim Hospital lim 2x 0


x
x x

x
1 2x 1
1
1
lim lim 0 .

x
x
x
x
x x x

2.

2 f (R) R f R x0 R

f (x0 ) 2. f

f (x) 2ex 22x e

2 22x 2 e 2 e 22x e 2 2ex 0,x R


f (x) 0,x R. xo , f x .

85

f : R R R* , :

lim
x

f x xf
x

2f f
2

lim
x

lim

f x xf
f x f f xf
lim
x
x
x

f x f f

mathematica -140

x
x
f
x

lim
f
x
x
x x

f x f
1
1
lim
f
f f
.

x
x

g(x) f x xf , g() 0
g x0
x0 x0

g(x0 ) f x0

2 x
f
f f 2f f
g() f
2

2
2
2
2
f x xf
2f f
g(x) g()0
g(x) g()
lim
lim
g()
lim
x
x a x
x
x
x
2

f x f
f
x
x

lim

f x f
g x ,x
x

limg x f f x f x g x f x x g x f
x

lim
x

x g x f xf
f x xf
lim
x
x
x

(x )g(x)
lim

x
x

lim g x
x

x f ()
lim g(x)
x

x f

x f ()

2
2

lim g x f
x
x x

mathematica -141

f
2

f
2

f
2

2f f
2

86

f : R R g : R R

ln(f(x)) g(x) x R.
1.

f R.

2.

(f (1))x (f (2))x (f (3)) x


0,
. lim
x (f (4)) x (f (2)) x (f (3)) x
(f (1))x (f (2))x (f (3)) x
.
. lim
x (f (4)) x (f (2)) x (f (3)) x
(f (1))x f (1)
lim
2g(1) f (1) 1,
x1
x1

3.

g(1) ln 2.

f(1) 2 lim g(x) ,

4.

x0 (1, ) f(x0 ) 2012.

1. ., g , f (x) 0, x R

x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 :
g

lnx

x1 x 2 g(x1 ) g(x 2 ) ln(f (x1 ) ln(f (x 2 )) f (x 1 ) f ( x 2 ).


f R.
2. . f R ,

f(1) f(2) f(3) f(4).


f (1) x f (2) x
f (3)
f (3) 1
f
(3)

= lim
0,
x
x
x

x
f (2) f (3)
f (4) 1
f (4)
f
(4)



x

f (1) f (2) f (3)


lim
x
x
x
x
f (4) f (2) f (3)
x

f (3)
f (3)
0 ,
lim
1,

x f (4)
f (4)

f (2) x f (3) x
f (1) x f (2) x

1
lim

1.

1 1 xlim

x
f (3) f (3)

f (4) f (4)

mathematica -142

f (2) x f (3) x
f (1) 1


f (1) f (1)
= lim
.
x
x
x

x f (4)
f (3)
1
f (2)


f (2)
f (2)
x

f (1) f (2) f (3)


lim
x
x
x
x
f (4) f (2) f (3)
x

x
x
f (4) x
f (1)
f (3)
f (1)
lim
1 , lim
,
1
1
x f (2)
x
f (2)

f (2)
f (2)

f (2) x f (3) x
lim 1

1.
x
f
(1)
f
(1)



0

0

(f (1)) f (1)
lim (f (1))x ln(f (1)) f (1)ln(f (1))
x1
DLH x1
x1

3. 2g(1) lim

2g(1) 2ln(f (1))


f (1)1

2ln(f (1)) f (1) ln(f (1)) ln(f (1))(f (1) 2) 0 f (1) 2.


g(1) ln(f (1)) ln 2.

4. h(x) g(x) ln 2012, x R.


g(x) lnf(x) R lnx f (x) ,
h(x) R .
h(1) g(1) ln 2012 ln 2 ln 2012 ln
lim h(x) lim g(x) ln 2012 .
x

1
ln1006 0
1006

lim h(x) , 1 h() 0.


x

h [1,] h(1)h() 0 ,

Bolzano x0 (1,)

h(x0 ) 0 g(x0 ) ln2012 0 ln(f(x0 )) ln2012 f(x 0 ) 2012.

87
f f (x)


5x 5 x
2x.
ln2 5
mathematica -143

1. f x0 0.
2. N x0 0.

1.
5x 5 x

f (x)

2x, f (x) 5x 5 x 2x x 0.
ln5 ln5
h(x) 5x 5 x 2x h(0) 0 ,

1
) 2x,
5x
2 2x 2,
1
1
1
ln5 (5 x x ) 2 ln5 (5 x x ) 2x 2 ln5 (5 x x ),
5
5
5
1
1
ln5 (5 x x ) 2 h(x) 2 ln5 (5 x x ).
5
5

h(x) ln5 (5x

ln51

5
1
)2
x

2 5x 1

1
) 2 1 (5x
0.
x
5
5x
5x
5x
h , x 0
.
f (x) 0 x 0.
h(x) ln5 (5x

h9

x 0 h(x) h(0) 0 f (x) 0 f .


h9

x 0 h(x) h(0) 0 f (x) 0 f .


f x0 0.
2. x0 0
2
ln5 1
y f(0) f (0)(x 0), f (0) 0,f (0)
2 2
,
ln5
ln5
ln5 1
y2
x.
ln5

88

f : R R
f (x) 6
(6x 30)
lim
0 lim
f (5).
x 3 x 3
x5
x5
1.

f(x) x 2 (3, 5).

2.

f , f (x) 0 (3, 5).

mathematica -144

f x 6
1. x 3 g x
limg x 0.
x 3
x3
f x x 3 g x 6.

limf x lim x 3 g x 6 00 6 6.
x 3

x3

f xo 3 , f 3 6 .
lim
x5

6x 30
f 5 6x 30 u ,
x5

u
u
f 5 6lim
f 5 f 5 6 .
u0 u
u0 u
6

lim

h x f x x 2, x 3, 5 .
h x 3, 5 , f R
h 3 f 3 3 2 6 5 1 0
h 5 f 5 5 2 6 7 1 0.

Bolzano , xo 3,5
h xo 0 f xo xo 2 0 f xo xo 2.

2.
f 3,5 , f 3,5 , f(3) 6 f(5).
Rolle 3,5 f () 0.
f f 3, 5 .
f .

89

f x x3 3x ln x3 1 ,x 1,
g x x 5 x x ln 2, x R.

1. ,
, .

mathematica -145

2. Cf Cg
.
3. ,
f 1,0 g 0,1 .

1. ln(x3 1) ( 1, )

lnx x3 1 .
f ,g,h
(1, ),R,( 1, )

.
h(x) f(x) g(x) x 3 3x ln(x 3 1) x 5 x xln2
3x2
1 5 x ln5 ln2 0
3
x 1
, x 0 .
(0,f(0)) (0,g(0)) (0,1) .

x 0 h(x) 3x 2 (3x )ln3

2. f A(0, 1)
y f(0) f (0)(x 0) y ln3x 1
g A(0, 1) y g(0) g(0)(x 0) y ( 1 ln10)x 1.
3.
3x2
E f (x) 3x 3 ln3 3 0 , f (x)
x 1

2

f A lim f (x), lim f (x) A ( 1, ). lim f (x) ,


x

x1

x1

1 2
lim(x3 1) 0 lim ln(x3 1)
x1
x1
x1
3 3
3
x
lim f (x) , lim (x 3 ) lim (x 3 1) ,
lim(x 3 3x ) 1

lim ln(x3 1) f A lim f (x), lim f (x) ( , ) R.

x1

lim f (x) 0 1 0,
x1

f () 0. f(0) 1 0, olzano
f (x) [,0] 1,0 x1 ,0 1,0
f(x1 ) 0 f .
mathematica -146

g(x) g(x) (1 5 x ln5 ln2) 0, g(x)


g R lim g(x), lim g(x) .


x


lim g(x) lim x 5 x x ln 2 ,
x

lim g(x) lim x 5 x x ln 2 lim 5 x x(1 ln 2) .

g(x) g R lim g(x), lim g(x) , R.


x

4
g(x) 0,1 g(0) 1 0 g(1) ( ln2) 0
5
olzano x2 0,1 g(x2 ) 0
g.

90
1.
2.

r 0, lnr r 3 0.
1

f :(0, ) R f (x) 1 (lnx 2).


x

. f (x) .
. r (1) :
(r 1)2
i. f (x)
0 x 0,
r
ii. xo r f(xo ) f (xo ) 0.

1.
g(x) lnx x 3 , x 0.
g : [1,e]
g(1)g(e) 2(e 2) 0, Bolzano

r (1,e) 0, g(r) lnr r 3 0. g


(0, )

1
1 0 x 0 0, ,
x
r.
g(x)

2. . f (x)

1
11 1
g(x)

(lnx 2) 1 2 lnx x 3 2 .
2
x
xx x
x

mathematica -147

f (x) 0 g(x) 0 x r ( (1)


0 x r g g(x) 0 f (x) 0,
f (0,r],
x r g g(x) 0 f (x) 0 ,
f r, ,
x r f ()

r 1 (1)
1
r 1

f (r) 1 lnr 2
1 r
r
r
r

lnr r 3 0 lnr 3 r.
2

r 1
. i. x 0 : f (x) f (r) f (x)
r

r 1
f (x)

0.

ii. h(x) f (x) f (x).


h [r,e2 ]
h r f r

r 1

0.

h r h e

e2 1
0, 1 r e h e f e 4 0
e
2

Bolzano

x0 r,e 2 r, h x0 0 f x0 f x0 0.

91

f : R R :
(x 2)f (x) (x2 4)
f(x) 0 , x R
lim
2
x 2
x1 1
1.

. f(2) 5.
. x0 (1, 2),

1
1
2012

.
x 0 1 x 0 2 f (x 0 )
2. f 2 (x) f (x2 ) 2x2 , x R , :
. f(1) 2.
.
(1,f (1)).
. (1, 2), ( 3)f () f () 1.
mathematica -148

(x 2)f (x) (x 4)
1. ) g(x)
, x 2
x1 1
x 2
2

(x 2 4)
f (x)
x2

g(x)
x1 1
x2

lim
x 2

x1 1
x 11
1
1
lim
lim

x 2
x 2
x2
x1 1 2
(x 2) x 1 1

(x 2 4)
(x 2 4)
2
lim
lim
(x 2) 4, u x 4 x 2 u 0
2
x2
x2
x2
x 4
2
(x 4)
u
lim
lim
1 limf (x) f (2),
2
x 2
x 2
u 0 u
x 4

f
f (2) 4
limg(x)
2 2f (2) 8 f (2) 5.
x2
1
2
) (x 2)f(x) (x 1)f(x) 2012(x 2)(x 1) 0
(1, 2).
h(x) (x 2)f(x) (x 1)f(x) 2012(x 2)(x 1)

[1,2]
h(1) f(1) h(2) f(2) 5 f(x) 0
R.
f(2) 5 0 f (1) 0, h(1) f(1) 0

h(1)h(2) 0 Bolzano h(x) 0 (1, 2).


2. ) x 1 f 2 (1) f (1) 2 f 2 (1) f (1) 2 0

f(1) 1 f(1) 2 f(1) 2 1().


) f (x 2 ) R
f (x) x 2 . f 2 (x) f (x2 ) 2


mathematica -149

2f (x)f (x) 2xf (x2 ) 0 f (x)f (x) xf (x 2 ) 0 x 1

f (1)f (1) f (1) 0 f (1) 0, (1,f(1))


y f (1) f (1)(x 1) y 2.

) F(x) (x 3)f(x) x,x [1,2]


F(x) (x 3)f (x) f (x) 1

F(1) 2f(1) 1 3 F(2) f(2) 2 3, F(2) F(1)


Rolle (1,2), F() ( 3)f () f () 1 0,
( 3)f () f () 1.

92

1. f (x) ln(e x x) x. ,
;
2.

g(x) ln(e x x), f(x), g(x) ,

x xo 0 , y'y
3.

f (x) r1 ,r2

: . f (r1 ) ef (r1 ) r1 2 1 r1 , . er1 r2

2 r2
2 r1

1. f (x) ln(ex x) x

ex x 0. (x) ex x,x R
A(x) R

x - 0 +
(x) e x 1
- 0 +
(x) 0 . 9

(x) ex 1.

x
x 0 e 1

A(x) x 0

(0) 1, x R (x) (0) ex x 1 0.


H ln(ex x)
x -

R lnx ex x , f
R

ex 1
ex 1 ex x x 1
f (x) x
1
x
e x
ex x
e x

x-1
ex-x
f(x)
f(x)

1 +
- 0+
+ +
- 0+
0 . 9

f (1) 0. x 1 f (x) 0,
mathematica -150

f [1, ) x 1
f (x) 0, f ( ,1].
x0 1 f(1) ln(e 1) 1 0,

1 e 1 2 0 ln(e 1) ln2 1 ln(e 1) 1 ln2 1 0.


f(0) 0 0 ( ,1) ( ,1) 0

ex x
x

f (x) ln(e x) lne ln x ln 1 x


e

e
x

x
1
lim x 0 lim f(x) 0 f A [1, )
x
x
x e DLHx e
f (A) [f (1), lim f (x)) [ln(e 1) 1, 0).
lim

0 [ln(e 1) 1,0) 0.
2. g R .
O A(x0 ,f(x0 )) B(x0 ,g(x0 ))

y f(x0 ) f (x0 )(x x0 ) (1) y g(x0 ) g(x0 )(x x0 ) (2).


(1) yy x 0 y1 f(x0 ) f (x0 )x0
(2) y 2 g(x0 ) g(x0 )x0 f(x) g(x) x f(x0 ) g(x0 ) x0
f (x0 ) g(x 0 ) 1, y1 f(x0 ) f (x0 )x0

y1 g(x0 ) x0 (g(x0 ) 1)x0 g(x0 ) g(x 0 )x 0 y 2 ,


y y.

x1

ex x
ex x (x 1)(ex 1) 2ex xex 1
f (x)

(3).
(ex x)2
(ex x)2

3. f (x)

h(x) 2ex xex 1


h(x) 2ex ex xex ex xex (1 x)ex
h(1) 0 h(x) 0 x 1
h(x) 0 x 1 h
(,1] [1, ).
x0 1

h(1) 2e e 1 e 1 0
h( 2)

x - 1 +
1-x
+0 x
e
+
+
(x)
+0 (x) 9 . 0

2 2
4

1 0
e2 e2
e2
mathematica -151

h(2) 2e2 2e2 1 1 0 h( 2)h(1) 0, ..h(1)h(2) 0.


Bolzano
r1 (2,1),r2 (1,2) h(r1 ) h(r2 ) 0,
h(x) 2ex xex 1 r1 (,1]

r2 [1, )
h(x)
f (x)

h(x)
f
(e x)2
x

A(r1 ,f(r1 )), B(r2 ,f(r2 )).


. r1 (,1] r2 [1, )
r
r
r
h(x) 2ex xex 1 2e 1 r1e 1 1 0 (2 r1 )e 1 1 2 r1

(1 r1 )er1 1 er1
e

f (r1 )

ln(er1 r1 )r1

1

er1

1 r1
1
r 1
1
r1 r11
r1 f (r1 ) 2 r1
r1
1 e
e
e r1 e
.
er1 r1

r1 1 f (r1 )ef (r1 ) (r1 2)(1 r1 ).


r1
e

. (2 r1 )er1 1 (2 r2 )er2 1

(2 r1 )e r1
2 r2
1 er1 r2
.

r2
2 r1
(2 r2 )e

93

f (x) , [0,1]
: 2f (x) f 2 (0) f 2 (1) 2 x [0,1].
1. . c (0,1) f (c) f (1) f (0).
. f(0) 1 f(1) 1.
. f (x) f (x) 2
x [0,1].
. 1 f(x) 1 x [0,1].
A t (0,1) , :
2. . r1 (0,t) tf (r1 ) f(t) 1.
. r2 (t,1) (t 1)f (r2 ) f(t) 1.
. f (x) x [0,1].
mathematica -152

1. ) f [0,1] (0,1)

[0,1] , ... f [0,1] c (0,1)


f (c)

f (1) f (0)
f (1) f (0).
10

) 2f (c) f 2 (0) f 2 (1) 2


(1) , 2(f (1) f (0)) f 2 (0) f 2 (1) 2
f 2 (0) 2f (1) 1 f 2 (1) 2f (0) 1 0
(f (0) 1)2 (f (1) 1)2 0 (f (0) 1)2 (f (1) 1)2 0

(f (0) 1)2 (f (1) 1)2 0 f(0) 1,f(1) 1.


) 2f (x) f 2 (0) f 2 (1) 2 f(0) 1,f(1) 1
2f (x) 4 f (x) 2 0, f [0,1].

2f '(x) f 2 (0) f 2 (1) 2 2 f 2 (0),f 2 (1) 0 , f
[0,1] .
) f A [0,1]

f(A) [f(0), f(1)] [1, 1], 1 f(x) 1, x [0,1].


2. ) [0,t],t (0,1) ... f

r1 (0,t), f (r1 )

f (t) f (0)
tf (r1 ) f (t) 1.
t

3.
) [t,1] ... f
f (r2 )

r2 (t,1)

f (t) f (1)
(t 1)f (r2 ) f (t) 1.
t 1

) (1) f (r1 ) 2,f (r2 ) 2 (2),

f (t) 1
f (t) 1
2 f (t) 2t 1
2 f (t) 2t 1
t
t 1
t (0,1), f(t) 2t 1,t (0,1) f(0) 1,f(1) 1
f(x) 2x 1, x [0,1].
(2) ,

mathematica -153

94

f , .
f f 0 :
1.

: f f 0.

2.

f .

3.

x0 ,

f x0 f x0 .

1.

f f [,].

f [,] , (,) f() f().


Rolle (,)
f () 0.
f , f ,
f () f () f () f () 0 f () f ()f () 0.
2.

x f () f (x) f () f (x) 0 , f

(,] ( ) .
x f(x) f() f(x) 0.
x f () f (x) f () 0 f (x) , f
[,).
x f(x) f() f(x) 0.
f(x) 0, x (,), f() 0, f() 0.
3.

f(x) f (x) x (,) ,

f (x) f (x) 0 e xf (x) e xf (x) 0 (e xf (x)) 0,


g(x) e xf (x) (,).
g() g() e f () e f () 0 0 , .
xo (,) f(xo ) f (xo ).

95

f (x) ln x x 2 1 .

mathematica -154

1. f '
.
2. Cf
.
3.
4.

f (x)
.
x ln x
f (x) 2x f 3x .
lim

1.

x 2 1 x 2 x x. x x2 1 0 (1).

f , x x2 1 0 (1)

x R x2 1 0 x R.
f R.

x2 1 R

x x2 1 . x x2 1 R

. f (x) ln x x 2 1
R lnx x x2 1 .
f R R .

1
f (x)

x2 1 x
1
x2 1

0, x R.
x x2 1
x 2 1( x 2 1 x)
x2 1

x R f (x) 0 , f

R
f R ,
x
f (x) 2
(x 1)
2.

x
0 x 0 x 0
(x 1)
x
f (x) 0 2
0 x 0 x 0.
(x 1)

f (x) 0

f ( ,0] [0, ).
x 0 , f(0) 0
mathematica -155

3.

2
f (x)
ln(x x 2 1)
x
x
lim
lim x 1 lim
lim
1.
2
x ln x
x
DLH x
x
x
1
ln x
1
x 1
x 1 2
x
x

lim

4.

f(3x) 2x f(x) x 0.
f9

x0

f9

x0

x 0 3x x 0 f (3x) f (x) f (3x) 2x f (x).


x 0 0 x 3x f (x) f (3x) f (x) 2x f (3x).
x 0 .

f (x) 2x f (3x) f (x) x 3x f (3x) g(x) g(3x)

g(x) f (x) x x R
f

f (x1 ) f (x 2 )

x1 x2

0 x1 x2

f (x1 ) x1 f (x 2 ) x 2

g(x1 ) g(x2 )

g R 1 1 .
g11

g(x) g( 3x) x 3x 3x x 0 x 0.

96

1 x 1 x1
f f x ln 1 .
4 2

1. f
x'x.
2. f
.
f x
x 1 x 0.
3.
1
4ln
2

mathematica -156

1. f
x

x 1

2x

1 1
1
1
1

1 0 2 1 0 x 1 0
4 2
2
2
2

1
1 0 2x 1 x 0.
x
2
f Af , 0 0, ,
2
1 x 1 x1
1
1

f x ln 1 ln x 1 2ln x 1 , x 0.
4 2

2
2

1
1
f (x) 0 2ln x 1 0 x 1 1
2
2

1
1
1
1

x 1 1 x 1 1 x 2 x 0 x 1 .
2
2
2
2

A(1,0) xx.
2

1 x

1
2.
R
2

1 x

. ln 1
2

1 x

R lnx 1 .
2

1
1
2x x
2
x
f x 2ln x 1 2
2 2
2 x
0 ,

x
1
2
1

2
2

1
2x
f .
*

3.

1
1 2x
f x 2ln x 1 2ln
2ln 1 2x 2ln2x 2 ln 1 2x xln2
x
2
2

x 0

mathematica -157

2 ln 1 2x xln2
f x
x1
x1
4ln2
1
4ln
2
x 0 2x 1

ln 1 2 xln2 2xln2 2ln2


x

ln 1 2x xln2 2ln2

ln 1 2x ln2 x ln22 ln 1 2x ln2 x 2 1 2x

4 2x 4 2x

1 4 2x

1
4 2x

4 2x 1 0 2 2 x 1 0

97

1. h,g h(x) g(x) x x 0 ,


x0 R { }.
:
. lim g(x) lim h(x) ,
xx0

xx0

. lim h(x) lim g(x) .


xx0

xx0

2.

f : R R :
x2

x R.
f x 2012 2
x ex
. f
.
. g(x) f(x) 2011x R.
. f .
. lim f x 2 f x .
x

1. . limg(x) 0. xo h(x) g(x) 0,


x xo

1
1
1
lim

0 limh(x)
x xo
x xo h(x)
h(x) g(x)
h(x) g(x) 0.
0

. limh(x) 0. xo 0 h(x) g(x)


x xo

1
1
1
0,
lim

x xo g(x)
h(x) g(x)

mathematica -158

limg(x) 0 h(x) g(x).


x xo

x 2 ex ex
ex
2. . f (x) 2012
2011 2 x 0,
x 2 ex
x e
R .

f (x)

ex x(x 2)
f (x) 0 x 0, x 2 ,
[x2 ex ]2

x -
x

x
f (x)
f(x)

2
+
- 0 +
0 +
+
0 - 0 +

3 . 4 . 3

f (x) (,0],[2, )
[0,2] x 0, x 2.
. g(x) f (x) 2011 0 ( ()) g .
. :

g9

x 2 g(x) g(2) f (x) 2011x f (2) 4022 f (x) 2011x f (2) 4022
E1

lim f (x) lim 2011x f (2) 4022 lim f (x) .


x

g9

x 0 g(x) g(2) f (x) 2011x f (0) 0 f (x) 2011x f (0)


E1

lim f (x) lim 2011x f (0) lim f (x) .


x

f(( , )) ( , ).
.
... f [x,x 2]
f (x 2) f (x)
f (x 2) f (x).
x, x 2 , f ()
(x 2) x
f (x) 9

x x 2 f (x) f () f (x 2) f (x)

f (x 2) f (x)
f (x 2)
2

mathematica -159

ex
ex

lim f (x) lim 2011 2

2011 xlim
x
x
x 2 e x DLH
x ex DLH

e
e
ex
2011 lim
2011 lim
2011 lim x 2011 1 2012
x 2x e x DLH
x 2 e x DLH
x e
lim (x 2) lim f (x 2) .
x


f (x 2) f (x)
lim[f (x 2) f (x)] lim
2 (2012)2 4024.
x
x
(x 2) x

98

parmenides51

f : R R f (x) 0 x R ,

lim f (x) 0. :

1.

f .

2. f(x) 0 x R.
: . ( )

1. x R , f (x) 0 , f(x)
f
, .
f (x) y 1 x R.
xo f (xo ) 0.
xo

y f (x 0 ) f (x 0 )(x x o )
y f (x 0 )x x of (x 0 ) f (x 0 ).
(1) f (x) f (x0 )x xof (x0 ) f (x0 ) 2

lim f (x0 )x xof (x0 ) f (x0 ) lim (f (x0 )x) lim f (x) 0 (2)
x

. A x f (x) 0 3 .
f , f
( (3)) ( ),
f .
mathematica -160

.
f , f () f () 0,
Rolle f [,] (,), f () 0
f (x) 0 .
f (x) 0 , (3)
f .
2. x1 R f(x1 ) 0.
x x1 1 x1

f 0R

f (x) f (x

1) f ( x1 ) 0
o.

lim f (x) lim f (x1 1) lim f (x1 ) lim 0


x

f 0R

0 f (x1 1) f (x1 ) 0 0 f (x1 1) f (x1 ) 0 0 0 , .

f(x) 0 x R.

99

f : R R f x y 4xy f x f y

x, y R.
1.

f 0 1.

2.

f 0 0 , :

. f R.
x
. g : R R g x 2 f x R.
2

. f .

1. x y 0
f 0 40 f 0 f 0 1 f 0 .
2.

. x 0

f (x0 h) f (xo )
4x0h f (x 0 )f (h) f (x o )
4x0h f (h) 1
lim
lim
f (x0 )lim

h 0
h0
h 0
h
h
h

mathematica -161

x0h f (h) 1 4x0h 1


f (x 0 ) lim 4

2x 0f (x 0 )ln2.
h0
h
h

f (h) 1
f (h) f (0)
lim
f (0) 0,
lim
h0
h0
h
h0
0
0

x 0 4x0h ln 4
1
lim
lim
x 0 ln 4.
h0
h DLH h0
1
, f f (x) 2xf (x)ln2.
4

x0h

2
2
2
2

g x 2 x f x 2x2 x ln 2f x 2 x f x 2 x 2x ln 2f x f x 0,

g(x) c g 0 1 g(x) 1.
. () g(x) 1 2 x f x 1 f x 2x .
2

100

f : (0, ) R f(x) x ln lnx, 0.


1.

0, f(x) 0 x 0.

e :
x
e
2. f e x
x 0.
3.

x
e
e x , x 0.

x
x

4. , x x
x 0.
: . ( )

1. f x 0, x 0, f() 0 f x f , x 0,
f f f (
) 0, (
) Fermat : f 0 : 1 .

f x ln

f ln ln 1 ln 1 0 ln 1 e.
x

mathematica -162

2. e f x x elnx

x -
x-e
x
f (x)
-

e xe

x
x
xe
f x 0
0 x e.
x

f x 1

e
+
- 0 +
0 +
+
0 +
+
0

f(x)


f o 0,e
x 0 x e
0 x e x e 0
0 f x 0

f
x
0,e
f o e,
xe
0 f x 0

f
x
e, , f e 0
x 0

x e x e 0

x 0, f x 0 x e lnx 0
ln 9

x e lnx lne lnx e x x e , x 0, .


x

ex xe lnex lnxe xlne elnx f x 0 x e

3.

f e 0
0 xe
xe

f o 0,e

f o e ,

f x f e f x 0 f x 0, x 0,e

f x f e f x 0 f x 0, x e, .

4. (2) : ex xe : 1 , x 0, .
x x x x : 2 x 0, , x e
e e e e (3) (1) e e e e
e e e e (4).

(3) (4) e e e e e e e e 0.

e e 0 e e 0, e e 0 e e 0
E3

E3

e 0 e e e 0 e e .

101

f : R R , :

2f x f x x x R.

mathematica -163

1. f .
2. : f x f y x y , x R.
x1
x 1
f x
, x R.
2
2
4. f f 1 f .

3. :

1. f (x) R
x f (x) . 2f (x) f (x) x
R

2f (x) f(x)f (x) 1 (2 f(x))f (x) 1
2 f(x) 0 f (x) 0,x R , f
R.
2. x y .
x y x y,

f (x) f (y)
1
xy

1 .

[x,y] f
(x, y)
f (x) f (y)
1
f ()
f ()

xy
2 f ()

1
f (x) f (y)

. 1
2 f ()
xy
1
1 2 f () 1 1 f (x) 1 .
2 f ()

3. x 1 2f(x) x 1 x 1 x f(x) x 1,
1 f(x) 1, x R .
4. :
x 1
x1
lim

lim
x 2
x 2
x1
x 1
f x
, x R lim f (x)
x
2
2

mathematica -164

x1
x1
lim

x 2
x 2
x1
x 1
f x
, x R lim f (x)
x
2
2
f R

lim

f9

f (R) ( lim f (x), lim f (x)) ( , ) R


x

f f '1 1' x
f 1 (x) 2f (f 1 (x)) (f (f 1 (x))) f 1 (x) 2x x f 1 (x) .
1

x1
x1

0
x
2
2
x1
2
1
2
f (x)
0 0
0

lim
x x 1
2
f (x) x 1
1
0 f (x) 0 lim f (x)
lim
x f (x)
x
x1
x1
f (x)
lim f (x)
lim
x 2
x
2
f R
f (R) ( lim f (x), lim f (x)) ( , ) R f 1
lim

f '1 1' x
f 1 (x) 2f (f 1 (x)) (f (f 1 (x))) f 1 (x) 2x x f 1 (x) .

102

f : 0, R , :

xe f 2 x 2 x 0, .
f x

1. f x f x x 0, .
2. f .
3. f .
4. f 1 .

1. xe f 2 x 2 xe e
f x

x f 2 x e

f x

2e

f x

f x

f x

f 2 x e

f x

2e

f x

. ef (x) (0, )

e x f (x) .

mathematica -165

x f 2 (x)e f (x) 2e f (x) (0, )

1 2f x f x e
e

f x

f 2 x e

f x

f x

f x 2e

f x

f x

e
2f x f x f x f x 2f x f x 2
,
f x 2f x 2
f x

x 0, .
( f 2 x 2f x 2
f 2 x 2f x 2 0 f (x) R x 0, .

e
0 x 0, .
2. (E1) f x 2
f x 2f x 2
f x

f 0,
0, .
3.

0,

f x

e

f 2 x 2f x 2
f x

e f

f x
f x

x 2f x 2 ef x f 2 x 2f x 2

f x 2f x 2
e f x f x 2f x 2 e 2f x f x 2f x

f x 2f x 2
f x 2
f x 2f x 2 2f x 2
e f x
e f x
f x 2f x 2
f x 2f x 2
f x

f x

f x

f x

x 0, , x

6
.
e2

f x
x0 (0, ) f (x0 ) 2 xe f 2 x 2

x o e 2 22 2 x o

6
.
e2

. f '1 1' .
.(
f ).
mathematica -166


f x
f x
x f 2 x e 2e x 0, .

T(x) x 2e x 2e x R

T(x) x 2e x 2e x 2xe x x 2e x 2e x

e x x 2 2x 2 e x x 2 2x 1 1 e x

x 1

1 0.

T 1 1,

T 1 .
x f 2 x e

f x

2e

f x

x 0,

x T f x T1 x f x x 0, .
f ( f ) f T 1 ,
T 1 T R .
f(f ) R.
f 1 f 1 R
f x
f x
f ( f 1 ) 0, x f 1 (x) x f 2 x e 2e

f (x)e

f (f 1 (x))

x2 2
(f (f (x))) 2 f (x)e x 2 f (x) x , x R.
e
1

103
1.

ex x lnx x 0, .

2. x t, t 0,

f x e x g x ln x A, B .

. AB t 0,

AB d t .

. d t 0

0,1 .

. d t 0 0,1 .

mathematica -167

1.
h(x) e x x,x R h(x) e x 1 .
h
h x o 0

x -
h(x) ex 1

0 +
- 0 +

h(x)

h(0) 0 x R ,

h(x) h(0) e x x 0 e x x.
x 0, , x lnx e x x

elnx lnx x lnx ex x lnx x 0, .

2. . A t, f (t) A t, e t B t, g(t) B t, ln t .
A d(t) AB

x x y y
2

(t t)2 ( et ln t)2 e t lnt 0

(1).
. d(t) e t lnt 0 (0, )
1
1
, d(t) e t , d(t) e t 2 0
t
t
d(t) (0, ) ..
d'(t) (0,1]
d(1) e 1 0,
(t) 0, 0 0 : d() 0
limd

t 0

olzano, t 0 ,1 0,1 : d(t 0 ) 0


d(t) t 0 .

1
. d(t) e t ,
t

t 0 ,1 0,1
(2).
d 9

x 0

1
0
t2

1
d(t) e t ,
t

d(t) e t

d(t)

x t 0 d(x) d(t 0 ) 0,
d 9

x t 0 d(x) d(t 0 ) 0.
d t 0 0,1 .

mathematica -168

t0
+

104

1
f f x ln 1 e x x.
3
1. .
2. lim f x lim f x .
x

3. .
4. Cf .
: Annales corriges 2010 - Mathmatiques - Bac, Vuibert

1. f .
1 e x 0 x R. f R.
1 e x R
. ln(1 e x ) R
ln x 1 e x . f R
e x
1 3e x 1 e x 2e x 1
f (x)

, x R.
1 ex 3
1 ex
1 ex
:

2e x 1
1
1
x
x

2e

ln
x ln 2,
1 ex
2
2
1e x 0
2e x 1
1
1
f (x) 0
0 2e x 1 0 e x x ln x ln 2.
x
1e
2
2

x -
ln2
+
f
- 0 +
2e x 1
( , ln 2]
x
+
+
1

e
[ln 2, ) ].
f (x)
- 0 +
x0 ln 2
f (x) 0

h(x)
f (ln 2) ln(1 e ln2 )
2.

ln 2
3 ln 2
ln 2
2ln 2
ln
ln 3 ln 2
ln 3
.
3
2
3
3
3

ex 1 x
x
x

x
lim f (x) lim ln(1 e ) lim ln x lim ln(e x 1) x
x
x
3 x e 3 x
3

mathematica -169

2x

lim ln(e x 1) .
x
3

3e x
x
3ln(e x 1)
3e x
3e x
3
lim e 1 lim x
lim
.
lim
x
DLH x
x 2e 2
x
1
2x
2
2e x (1 x ) 2
e

ex 1 x
x
x

x
lim f (x) lim ln(1 e ) lim ln x lim ln(e x 1) x
x
x
3 x e 3 x
3

2x 3ln(e x 1)
2x

3
x
lim ln(e 1) lim
1 ( ) 1 .
x
3 x 3
2x

3. f R , .
lim f (x) lim f (x) , f .
x

2x

x
ex
2
ln(e

1)

x
f (x)
2 1
3
lim
lim
lim e 1 3 1
x x
x
DLH x
x
1
3 3

1
2x 1

lim f (x) x lim ln(e x 1)


x lim ln(e x 1) x
x
x

3
3 3 x

ex 1
lim ln(e x 1) ln e x lim ln x 0.
x
x
e

1
y x .
3
2x

x
ex
2
ln(e

1)

x
f (x)
2
2
3
lim
lim e 1 3 0
lim
x x
x
DLH x
x
1
3
3
2
2x 2x

lim ln(e x 1) 0.
lim f (x) x lim ln(e x 1)
x
3 x
3
3 x

2
y x .
3

4.

x 0 :

mathematica -170

1
2x 1
f (x) x ln(e x 1)
x
3
3 3
ln(e x 1) x 0 ln(e x 1) ln e x 0
ex 1
ex 1
ln x ln1 x 1
e
e
x 0.
x 0
2
f (x) x
3
2x
2
ln(e x 1)
x
3
3
ln(e x 1) 0
x 0.
f
.

1
f x ln 1 e x x
3

x
y

105

1
x
3

2
y x
3

ln x
, x 0.
x
f .
.
R,

f (x)
1.
2.
3.

x e x , x 0.

(0, ).
2
5.
(0, ),
Cf M(,f ()) y y 2010.
4.

(x)x x

6.

ln2 (x 1) ln 2 x
f (x).
x e f (x 1)
2

7.

lim ln2 (x 1) ln2 x .


x

: . ( ) . ( )

mathematica -171

1.

f x

f 0,

1 ln x
1 ln x
0 x e
. f x 0
2
x
x2

f x 0 0 x e ,
f x 0 x e. f
(0, e]
[e, )
1
x e f e .
e
2.

x -
0
e +
1-ln x
+
+ 0 2
x
+ 0 +
+
f (x)
+
+ 0 9 . 0

f(x)

f (0, e]

1
ln x
1

f (0, e] ( lim f x , f e ] ( , ] lim f x lim


lim ln x .
x0
x0
x0
x0
e
x
x

f [e, )

ln x
1
1
lim 0 ,
f [e, ) lim f x ,f e 0, lim f x lim
x
x x
x x
x
e
DeLHospital.
1 1
1

f Df f (0,e] f [e, ) , 0, , .
e e
e

3.

x ekx , x 0 f x k.

x 0 , x ekx ln x lnekx ln x kx

lnx
k f (x) k :
x
y
f (x)

ln x
, x 0.
x

k 0 ,

y k0

1
0 k ,
e

mathematica -172

y k, 0 k

1
e

lnx
f(x) ,x 0.
x

1
k ,
e

yk

1
e

x
f (x)

ln x
, x 0.
x

y k, k

4.

1
.
e

1
e

x
f (x)

ln x
, x 0.
x

x x x ln x x ln x
ln x ln x

f x f x .
x


x 0, , f , 1 1.
2

f x f x x x, x .
4
5.

Cf M , f

y f f x y

ln 1 ln

x .

0, 2010 :

ln 1 ln
ln
1 ln

2010 ln 1 ln
0 2010
2

2ln 2010 1 0.
2010

h x 2ln x 2010x 1, x 0.

2
2010 0
x
x 0. h x 0,

h x h x

h 0, lim h x , lim h x , .
x0

mathematica -173

0 h 0, , 0 ,
, h 0 2ln 2010 1 0 .
6.

f x 1

2f x 1 ln2 x 1 ln2 x 2f x

2f x 1

ln2 x 1 ln 2 x
x 1 x

ln2 x 1 ln 2 x
2

f x

2f x .

s x ln2 x, x e

ln x
2f x . ... s x x, x 1 ,
x
r x, x 1 ,
s x 2

s r

s x 1 s x

ln 2 x 1 ln 2 x

2f r .
x 1 x
x 1 x
:
2f x 1 2f r 2f x f x 1 f r f x ,
e x r x 1 f x f r f x 1 f x e.
7. 2f x 1 ln2 x 1 ln2 x 2f x

ln x 1
ln x
lim f x 1 lim
0
x
x x
x
x
x 1

lim ln2 x 1 ln2 x 0 .
lim f x lim

106

f f : R R
f(x 1) f(3 x) f (x) 0.
1.

f (x) 0.

2.

f 0, 3 f(0) f(1) ,

f
0, 3 .
: . ( )
mathematica -174

1.
f
f (x 1) f (3 x) f (x 1) f (3 x) 0 x 1
2f (2) 0 f (2) 0, f (x) 0 x 2.
f (x) 0 f 1 1,

x1 x 2 f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) Rolle
f (x) 0 x1 , x 2 .
f (x) 0 x 2.
2.
f
[0,3], f (x) 0 f (x) 0 x [0,3].
f (x) 0, f [0,3]
f (2) 0 x 2 f (x) f (2) 0. f
[0,2], f (0) f (1), f (x) 0 x [0,3].
f [0,3], x 2
f (x) f (2) 0 f [0,2] x 2
f (x) f (2) 0 f [2,3].
f x1 2 f (2)
x 2 0,x 3 3 f(1) f(3) f(0) f(1) f (0)
[0,3].

107
f x ln x

, R. f x 0 x 0,
x

:
1.
R.
:
2.
f .
3.

f .

4.

lim f x lim f x .

5.

f f x 0.

6.

ln 22 2

x0

1
1
2

ln

.
2 6
22 2
mathematica -175

: . . ( )

1. f(x) 0 f (1) 0 f(x) f(1), x (0, )


1 (0, ) f
(0, )

f (x)

Fermat
x x2

f (1) 0 1 0 1.

2. 1
1 1 x 1
f (x) 2 2
x x
x
f :
(0,1]
[1, ),

x -
0
1 +
x 1
- 0 +
2
x
+ 0 +
+
f (x)
- 0 +
f(x)

0 . 9

x 0 1

f (1) 0.
3.

1 2 2x
3 ,
x2 x3
x
f :
(0,2]
[2, )
(2, f (2)) f .
f (x)

x -
0
2 +
2x
+
+ 0 3
x
- 0 +
+
f (x)
+ 0 f(x)

3 . 4

lim
4. lim(lnx)

,
x0
x 0 x
x ln x 1
1
f (x)
x

lnx
1

lim(x
lnx) lim
lim x 0 lim (x ln x 1) ,

x0
x 0
x 0
1 DLH x 0 1
x

2
x
x
1
limf
(x) lim f (x) lim (ln x 1) .

x
x
x0
x
mathematica -176

5. f 1 (0, 1]
[1, ) f (1 ) [f (1), lim f (x)) [0, )
x 0

f (2 ) [f (1), lim f (x)) [0, ) (E2) (E4)


x

f (1 ) f ( 2 ) 0, .
6. H :

f (22 2) 1 f (2 6) 1 f (22 2) f (2 6)
22 2 1, 2 6 1, R f [1, )
22 2 2 6 2 4 2, 2.

108

f : 1, 2 R , f x 0

x R.
z

1 if 1

2 if 2

1.

:
1.

f 1 2 f 2 1.

2.

f x x 1, 2 .

3.

f x f x x 1, 2 .
: . ( )

1. z , ,
1 if (1)
1 if (1)
z z

2 if ( 2)
2 if (2)

2 f (2)i 2f (1)i f (1)f (2) 2 f (2)i 2f (1)i f (1)f (2)


f (1)f (2) 2.. 1
f (x) 0 , x [1, 2] , f 1, 2 .
f (1) f (2).
(1) f(1),f(2) , f(1) 0 f(2) (2).
z 1 ... f 2 (1) 3 f 2 (2) (3) .
(1), (2) (3) f(1) 2 f (2) 1.

mathematica -177

2.

g(x) x f(x) , x [1, 2].

g 1, 2 .
g(1)g(2) 3 0.
Bolzano 1, 2
g() 0 f() 0 f() .
g(x) 1 f (x) 0 g 1 1 .
.
3.

h(x) x 2 f 2 (x) x [1, 2].

h 1, 2
h(x) 2 x f (x)f (x) .
h(1) 5 h(2).
. Rolle 1, 2
h() 0 f()f () 0 f()f () .

109

f : 0, R

x 1 f x ln x x
2

x 0.

1. f (1).
2. Cf .
3. , R , g
f (x), 0 x 1
g(x)
, x 0

Rolle [0,1].
: . ( )

1.

lnx (x)
.
x 1 x 1
x 1 f x 1,
lnx (x)
f (1) limf (x) lim
1 ( ) ,
x 1
x 1 x 1 x 1
x 1 f (x)

mathematica -178

1
lnx
lim
lim x 1
lim
x 1 x 1 DLH x 1
x 1 x1 1
0
0

lnx

0
0

(x)

(x)
(x)
lim
lim
lim
.
x 1 x 1 DLH x 1
x 1
1

x 1

lnx (x)
,x 1

f (x) x 1 x 1
, ..........x 1
2.
(0, )

(x)

0 , limf (x) lim ln x
2
x 0
x0
x 1

(x)
(x)

lim(x 1)2 1 lim ln x


x lim x ln x
0
x0
x0
x0
x
x

(x)
lnx
1 limf (x) 0,
lim( x) 0 lim
x 0
x0
x 0
x 0 1 DLH x 0
x
x
f x 0.
lim(x lnx) lim

(x)
.
lim f (x) lim ln x
2
x
x

1
ln x
lim x 0
lim
x x 1
x 1
1
(x)
1
1
(x)
1
0,

lim
x x 1
x 1
x 1
x 1
x 1
x 1
ln x (x)
lim f (x) lim
0
x
x x 1 x 1

(x)
0 lim f (x) 0
lim
x x 1
x
, xx .
3.

. Rolle g

0,1

g 0,1 , (0,1)

g(0) g(1)
mathematica -179

limf (x) 0, g x 0 lim( f (x))


x 0

x 0

(1) limf (x)


x 1

limg(x) lim( f (x)) x 1


x 1

x 1

g(1) , g(0) g(1) (2)


(1), ,
Rolle.

110

f,g : (0, ) R f
: | f (x)g(x) x 2 | xlnx x 1.
1.

1 , 2
, 1 , 2 .

2.

1
f (x 5h) f (x 3h) x 2 1 lnx
f (1) ,

2
h0
2
(4h)
x
f (x).

3.

g(x) A(1, 2) ,
;

lim

1.

f (x)g(x) x 2 x ln x x ln x f (x)g(x) x 2 x ln x

x lnx x 2 f (x)g(x) x lnx x 2 x 0 x 2


ln x
f (x) g(x) ln x

1 (1) .
x
x x
x
1 , 2

f (x)
g(x)
ln x
1
lim
1 , lim
2 lim
lim 0
x x
x x
x x DLHx x
(1) 1 1 2 1 1 2 1,
.
2.

f (x 5h) f (x 3h)
f ( x 5h) f (x) f (x) f (x 3h)
lim

h0
h0
(4h)
(4h)

lim

mathematica -180

f (x 5h) f (x)
f (x 3h) f (x)
5
3 5f (x) 3f (x)

2f (x),
5h
3h
lim

h 0
(4h)
4
4
4h

f (x 5h) f (x) t 5h
f (x t) f (x)

lim
f (x)
h0
h0 t 0 t 0
5h
t

lim

f (x 3h) f (x) t 3h
f (x t) f (x)
f (x t) f (x)

lim
lim
f (x)
lim
h0
t 0
h0 t 0 t 0
3h
t
t
1 ln x
f (x 5h) f (x 3h) x 2 1 lnx

2f
(x)

lim

h0
x2
(4h)
x2

ln x
ln x

2f
(x)

c.
(2f (x)) x

,x

x
x

f (1)

1
2f(1) 1 c 1 1 c c 0
2

1
ln x
f (x) x
,x 0.
2
2x

1
ln x
ln x
0, ( (1))
f (x) x
lim
x 2x
2
2x
1
lim (f (x) x) 0
x
2
3.

1
2

f y x, 1

1
(1)
2

2 2 g y 2x
A(1,2) 2 2 4. y 2x 4.

111

f : 1, e 1, 4 , 1, 4 ,
f 1 2 f e e 1. :
1. . x1 , x 2 1, e x1 x 2 , f x1 f x 2 0.
. 1, e f 0.

. x o 1, e

f xo f xo 3f 2 xo xo .
mathematica -181

2. . e : x y e 2 Cf
co 1, e .

. 1 , 2 1, e 1 2 1, e , f 1 f 2 1.
: . . ( )

1. . f [1, e] ,
x1 , x 2 [1,e] f (x1 ) 1 f (x2 ) 4 ,
1 4 .
f (1) 2 , f (e) e 1 f(x1 ) f(1) f(e) f(x 2 ) , x1 , x 2
[1, e] .
x1 , x 2 (1,e). f ,
[1,e] Fermat
f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) 0.
f (x1 ) 1, f (x 2 ) 4.
. x1 x 2 (1,e), f [x1 , x 2 ], f (x1 , x 2 )
[1,e] f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) 0.
Rolle (x1 , x 2 ) (1,e),
f () 0. x 2 x1 (1,e).

. h(x) f (x)(f (x) 3f 2 (x)) x, x [x1 , x 2 ].


h [x1 , x 2 ]
h(x1 ) f (x1 )(f (x1 ) 3f 2 (x1 )) x1 1(0 3( 1) 2 ) x1 3 x1 0,

1 x1 e
h(x 2 ) f (x 2 )(f (x 2 ) 3f 2 (x 2 )) x 2 4(0 34 2 ) x 2 34 3 x 2 0,

1 x 2 e.
Bolzano x0 (x1 , x 2 ) (1,e)
h(x0 ) 0 f (x0 )(f (x 0 ) 3f 2 (x 0 )) x 0 .
2. . g(x) f(x) x e 2, x [1,e].
g [1,e],

g(1) f(1) 1 e 2 2 e 1 1 e 0,
g(e) f(e) e e 2 e 1 2 e 1 0.
mathematica -182

Bolzano c0 (1, e)

g(c0 ) 0.
x y e 2 f
c0 (1,e).
. f [1,c0 ], f (1, c0 ).
MT 1 (1, c0 )
f (1 )

f (c0 ) f (1) c 0 e 2 2 (c 0 e)

.
c0 1
c0 1
c0 1

f [c0 , e] , f (c0 ,e).


MT 2 (c0 ,e)
f ( 2 )

f (1 )f ( 2 )

f (e) f (c 0 ) e 1 ( c 0 e 2) c 0 1

.
e c0
e c0
e c0

(c 0 e) c 0 1 e c 0 c 0 1

1.
c0 1 e c0 c0 1 e c0

112

f [2, 2] ,
( 2, 2) , f(0) 3
f (x)f (x) f (x) x x [2, 2].
z z i 2.
:
1. H f .
2. f 2 (x) 2f (x) x 2 3 0.
3. H g(x) f(x) 1 ( 2, 2).
4. H f .
5. f (x) 1 4 x 2 , x [ 2, 2].
6. f
z z
z , xx.
: 23 xgastone

1. f x 0 f (x0 ) 0
f (x)f '(x) f '(x) x
( 2,2)
mathematica -183

f (x)f (x) f (x)f (x) f (x) 1 x x0


(f (x0 ))2 f (x0 ) 1 (f (x 0 )) 2 f (x 0 ) 1 0,
x 2 x 1 0,x R , .
2. f (x)f (x) f (x) 1 2f (x)f (x) 2f (x) 2
(f 2 (x)) (2f (x) x 2 ),x [2,2],

f 2 (x) 2f (x) x 2 c x 0 f 2 (0) 2f (0) c c 3,


f 2 (x) 2f (x) x 2 3 f 2 (x) 2f (x) x 2 3 0.
x0 ( 2,2) g(x0 ) 0 f (x0 ) 1 (2)
f 2 (x0 ) 2f (x 0 ) x 02 3 0 x 02 4 , g(x) 0,x ( 2,2)

[2,2] .
3. ( 2,2) g(0) f(0) 1 2 0
g(x) 0,x ( 2,2) f(x) 1,x ( 2,2).
4. f (x)f (x) f (x)f (x) f (x) 1
f (x)f (x) (f (x)) 2 f (x) 1 (3) f (x) 1 0
(f (x))2 f (x) 1 0, x R f (x)f (x) 0,
f (x) 0,x ( 2,2) f .
5. (2) f 2 (x) 2f (x) 1 4 x 2 (f (x) 1) 2 4 x 2

4 x 2 0, x [2,2] f (x) 1 4 x 2 (3)


f(x) 1,x ( 2,2)
f (x) 1 4 x 2 f (x) 1 4 x 2 , x [2,2].
6.

z i 2 z K(0,1)

=2, x 2 (y 1)2 4 (y 1)2 4 x 2 , x [2,2],


y 1 4 x 2 f
xx z
y y (0,2) f(0) 2
3f (0) f (0) f (0) 0 (0,2)
xx.

113

f , , ,

f() f() 0 f , .
mathematica -184

1. f(x) 0 x (,).
2. . x0 (,) f
x 0 .
4f (x 0 )
.
. x1 , x 2 (,), f (x1 ) f (x 2 )

3. f

, ,

(x1 , x 2 )
. f () 0,
2

. f (x) f ()
.
2
: (2002)

1. f [,] (,)
f () f () , .Rolle (,) f () 0.

x f
f (x) f () f (x) 0 ,
f [, ].
x f(x) f() f(x) 0.

f (x)
+ 0 f(x)

x f (x) f () f (x) 0 , f . [,].


x f(x) f() f(x) 0. f(x) 0 x (,).
2. . (1) f x o f (x o ).
. f [, x 0 ] , (, x0 ),
f (x 0 )
x1 (,x 0 ) f (x1 )
(1).
x0
x 2 (x 0 , ),

f (x 2 )

f (x 0 )
(2).
x0

(1), (2)
f (x1 ) f (x 2 )

1
f (x 0 ) f (x 0 )
1
1

f (x 0 )

.
4f (x 0 )
x0 x0
x

0
0

mathematica -185

x0 x0
1
1
4
4

x0 x0
x 0 x 0 x 0 x 0
4 x 0 x 0 2 2 2 4x 0 4x 02 4 x 0
2

2 2 2 4x 0 4x 02 4x 0 4x 02 0
2

x 0 0.
2

3. . f(x) 0 , f(x0 ) 0, x o
(1) f f (x o ) .
f [,x 0 ] , (,x 0 )

f (1 )

f (x 0 )
0.
x0

2 (x 0 ,),

f ( 2 )

1 (,x 0 ),

f (x 0 )
0.
x0

f 2 , f [1 , 2 ],
(1 , 2 ) ,

(1 , 2 ),

f ()

f ( 2 ) f (1 )
0.
2 1

. ()
f (1 ) f ( 2 )
f ()

1 2
2
4f (x o )
f ()( 1 2 ) f ( 1 ) f ( 2 )

f ()( 1 2 )

4f (x o ) 1 4f (x)

4f (x)
f ()(1 2 ) f ()( 2 1 ) f ()( )

f (x) f ()
.
2

114
1. x 2 ln2x x 0.
2
2. e x 2x x .
2
3. x e x 1.

mathematica -186

4. f : R R f (x) e f (x) x
x R. f
Cf x 1.
: . , ( )
2

1.
g(x) x 2 ln2x, x 0

1 2x2 1
,
g'(x) 2x
x
x

x -
2 x 2-1

x
g(x)

+0 - 0 +
- 0 +
+
- 0 + 0 - 0 +
0 . 9

g(x)

2
g(x) 0 x
, x 0
2

f f

2

2
2

1
2 2

2 1
1 1
1
1
g

ln 2
ln2 2 ln2 1 ln2 ln e ln2 0,

2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2

x 0

2 1
g(x) g
ln e ln2 0 g(x) 0 x 2 ln2x.

2 2

2.
x 0, x 2 ln2x ex eln2x ex 2x.
x 0, 1 0 .
2

x 0 x 0 e( x) 2( x) e x 2x 2x, .
2

3. (x) x e x , x R e x
2

R e x x 2 . (x)
R
x2
2
e
2x
(x) 1 2xe x
0 ( 2) (x)
2
ex
R 1 1.
11

x
x e 1 (x) 1 (x) (0) x 0.
2

mathematica -187

4. f (x) e f (x) x f (x) x . x1 , x2 R x1 x2


(f(x1 )) (f(x2 )
(3) f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f
. (f (1)) 1 (f (1)) (0)
'1 1' f(1) 0.
2

115

f : R R :
f (x) ef (x) x 1 x R.
1.
2.
3.

ex (x 1) x R.
x
f (x)
x R lim f (x ) .
x
2
x
f (x) ln 1 x 0
2

lim f (x ) .

4.
f (x)
.
5.
.
f (x) f 1 (x).
6.

1.

g(x) e x x 1, Ag R.

g(x) 0 e x 1 0 x 0,
g
( ,0], [0, )
g(0) 0.

x - 0 +
g(x)=ex-1
- 0 +
g(x)

g(x) g(0) e x x 1.
2.

(1) x f (x)

x
ef (x) f (x) 1 e f (x) f (x) 2f (x) 1 x 1 2f (x) 1 f (x) .
2
x 0, f (x) 0.
f (x)
mathematica -188

x
1
2
.
0
2
f (x) x

2
0,
x x

lim 0 0 lim
x

1
0 lim f (x) , f (x) 0.
x f (x)
x

lim

x
x
f (x) ln(1 ) ef (x) 1 1 f (x) , (2)
2
2
f (x)
e 1 f (x) (1)
3.

f (x) ln 1

ln 1
x
x
x
f (x)
,x 0 e e 2 x 1 f (x) 1 f (x)

2
2
2

(2).

x
lim ln(1 ) ,
x
2
x
ln(1 )0
2

x
1
1
f (x) ln(1 ) 0

2 f (x )0
f (x) ln(1 x )
2
1
0 lim f (x)
lim
x f (x)
x
f (x) 0, x 0.

4.

ef (x) R

e x f (x) . f x e x 1
f x

1
1 ef (x) (1).
0, f

f (x) f (x)e f (x) 1 f (x)(1 e f (x) ) 1 f (x)


(1) f (x) 0 1 ef (x)
R.

mathematica -189

2 (1) R
( e f (x)
R.

f (x)e f (x)
f f (x)
0.
(1 e f (x) ) 2
f R.
(2) (3) f R,
f(R) R.
5.
f 1 1 ,
Af 1 f (R) R.
f (x) y x f 1 (y)

e y y x 1 f 1 (x) e x x 1, x R.

116

f R, :
f( 1) 1,f() f ( 1) 1 , R.
1. f 1o
3o , .
2. f (x) 1 f (x) x,
( 1, 1).
3. f R
( 1, 1), f () 0.
: 12 xgastone

1. f R R .
[ 1,],[, 1] , Bolzano g(x) f(x) x,

[ 1,],[, 1]

g() f( 1) ( 1) 0,g() f() 0,g( 1) f( 1) ( 1) 0.


Bolzano 1 ,2
[ 1,],[, 1], g(1 ) 0 f(1 ) 1 , g(2 ) 0 f (2 ) 2 .

mathematica -190

2. h(x) (f (x) x)e x [1 ,2 ]



h(x) (f (x) 1)e x (f (x) x)e x h(1 ) h(2 ) 0 (1)
Rolle t (1 ,2 )
h(t) 0 (f (t) 1)e t (f(t) t)e t f (t) 1 f(t) t.
3. ... [ 1,],[, 1] f
f () f ( 1)
1 1, , ..f '( 1 )
f () f ( 1),
( 1)
:
f ( 1) f ()
2 , 1 , ..f ( 2 ) f '( 2 )
f ( 1) f (),
1
... [1 , 2 ] f :
f '( 2 ) f '(1 ) f ( 1) 2f () f ( 1)
f ()

0
2 1
2 1

(1 , 2 )

f ( 1) 1

2f () 2
f ( 1) 1
f ( 1) 2f () f ( 1) 0

117

f : 0, R f 1 0
xf x 2f x x x 0, .
1. h x
x 0, .

f x
x2

2. f.
3. g(x) R
(1, 0) , g(x) f (x) x R. .
g(x)
lim 2 .
x1 ln x
: . ( )

1.
H h (0, )

mathematica -191

f (x)x 2 2xf (x) f (x)x 2f (x) x


1

0, x (0, ).
x4
x3
x3 x2
h(x) 0, x (0, ), h
h(x)

(0, ).
2.

x 0

x 2f (x) 2xf (x) 1


xf (x) 2f (x) x x f (x) 2xf (x) x
2
x4
x
2

x 0

f (x)
1
f (x) 1
2 2 c.
x
x
x x
x 1 0 1 c c 1.

f (x)
1
1 f (x) x 2 x, x 0.
2
x
x
2
f (x) x x, x 0 , xf (x) 2f (x) x.

0
0

g(x)
g(x)
xf (x)

lim
lim
=
2
x1 ln x DLH x1 2ln x
x1 2ln x
x

3.

lim

0
2 0

x(x x)
x x
3x2 2x 3 2 1
lim
lim
lim

.
x 1
x 1 2lnx DLH x1
2
2lnx
2
2
x

118
2

f : (0, ) R f (1) 1

2f (x)
x 0.
x
1.
f (x) x 2 x 0.
2.
M Cf A M
xx. A O(0,0),
2o
. t 0 M 3,

sec
:
. AM OM,

f (x)

. MOA,
. OB , B Cf
mathematica -192

M xx.
: . ( )

1.

x 0 :

x 2f (x) x 2 f (x)
2f (x)
f (x)
f (x)

f (x)
xf (x) 2f (x) 0
0 2 0 2 c
2
x
x
x
x2

f (x) cx 2 , c R.
f(1) 1 c 1.
x 0 : f (x) x 2 .
2.
x
t, x x(t)

x t 2 /sec .

, . y(t) x 2 (t).
y t 0 2x t 0 x t 0 232 12
/sec.
)

d t x t y
2

d t

1 2x 2 t
1 x2 t

x t 0

x t x t x t 1 x2 t .
2

x t d t 0

19 10
/sec.
5

) t MOA.
: t

y t

x t

x t

t
2

x t t 1 2 t x t

t 1 x 2 t x t t 0 1 x 2 t 0 2 t 0

1
rad/sec .
5

) Cf , f :

mathematica -193


y f f x y 2x 2 x'x , 0 .
2
1
x t ,
2
1
x t o 1 /sec.
2

119

P(x) x3 x2 x ,, , R, 0
1 ,2 ,3 :
1.
2.
3.

2 3.
.
x1 ,x 2 , : P(x1 ) P(x 2 ) 0.
4.

x1 ,x 2 .
5.
.
P(x)
6.
f (x) 2

x x
y 2x 25 x 1, x 13
P(x) 2x 3 x 2 12x 13.

1.

P(x) x3 x 2 x , ,, , R, 0, x R.

P R
P(x) 3x 2 2x , x R.
P R P(x) 6x 2, x R
, ( )

1 2 3
P(1 ) P(2 ) P(3 ) 0 Rolle

[1 ,2 ] [2 ,3 ] x1 1 ,2 x 2 2 ,3
P(x1 ) P(x 2 ) 0 .
P , ,
0 (2)2 43 0 42 12 2 3.

mathematica -194

2. , x1 1 ,2
x 2 2 ,3

x1 , x2 P(x).
3. Vietta P' x 3x2 2x S x1 x 2
P(x1 ) P(x2 ) 6x1 2 6x2 2 6(x1 x2 ) 4

2
3

2
6 4 4 4 0
3
4. P(x1 ) 0 P(x1 ) P(x 2 ) 0 P(x 2 ) 0 ,
P(x) 0 , , P
.
5. P(x1 ) P(x 2 ) 0 , Rolle
P [x1 , x 2 ] x0 (x1 , x 2 )
P(x0 ) 0 .
P(x) 0 ,

P(x) 0 6x 2 0 x

3
P

x0
3
P(x)
x3 x2 x
6. f (x) 2

x x
x2 x
x 1 x 13 f , x 1
x 13 x2 x .

Vietta 12 13
y 2x 25 f ,
f (x)
lim
2 lim (f (x) 2x) 25
x x
x
f (x)
x3 x2 x
x 3
2 lim
lim
lim 3
x x
x
x x
x3 x2 x

2x 3 x 2 12x 13
2x)
25 lim (f (x) 2x) lim (
x
x
x 2 12x 13

mathematica -195

2x 3 x 2 12x 13 2x 3 24x 2 26x


lim

x
x 2 12x 13

( 24)x 2 14x 13
( 24)x 2
lim
xlim

24
x
x2 12x 13
x2

1 . P(x) 2x 3 x 2 12x 13

120

f(x) : (0, )

1
x

: x f (x) e x 0 f (1) e, f (1) 0.


3

1
x

1. g(x) xf (x) f (x) e

(0, ).

1
x

2. f (x) xe x 0.
3. f (x).
4. :
. f (x) A(2,f(2))

1
y ( e )x ( e ).
2
1
x

. 2xe (x 2)( e ) x 0.

1.

1
x

g(x) xf (x) f (x) e , x 0.

g (0, )
1

1
x

1
1
g(x) f (x) xf (x) f (x) 2 e xf (x) 2 e
x
x
g(x) 0 g(x) c.

2.

1 x 3f (x )e x
x

1
x

xe
1 x1
e 0.
x3 x2

x 1 g(1) c f (1) f (1) e c c 0.


1

xf (x) f (x) e x
xf (x) f (x) e 0 xf (x) f (x) e
2
x2
x
1
x

1
1
f (x)
f (x) x
x
x e x e c1 .

mathematica -196

1 x 0
x


1
1
f (x)
x
x
e f (x) xe , x 0,
x 1 f(1) e c1 c1 0 ,
x
.

3.

f (x) 0

1
x

f (x) e

1
x

e
1 (x 1)e
e (1 )
x
x
x
1
x

1
x

1
x

(x 1)e
0x 1
x
1
x

x 0
(x 1)e
0 x 1.
x
f (0,1] [1, ).

f (x) 0

x 1 f (1) e.
A1 (0,1], A 2 (1, ).
f (0, ) .
f (A1 ) [f (1), lim f (x)) [e, ) f (A 2 ) (limf (x), lim f (x)) (e, ),
x1

x0

f f (A1 ) f (A 2 ) e, .
1
x

. f (x) xe f (x)

1
x

(x 1)e
.
x

1
2

1
2

e
e

.
2
2
M(2,f(2))

f (2) 2e 2 e f (2)

y f (2) f (2)(x 2) y 2 e

e
e
(x 2) y
x e.
2
2

1
x

e
, x 0.
x3
x 0 f (x) 0. f
(0, ). f

. f (x)

, .
x 0
1
1
1
e
e
x
x
x
f (x)
x e xe
x e 2xe ex 2 e 2xe e(x 2)
2
2
.

mathematica -197

mathematica -198

60

mathematica -199

+ : 29/01/2012 17/02/2012

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=54&t=22769
:















.
erxmer
parmenides51

mathematica.gr.

mathematica -200

121

f : R R , f x 0 x R , :

f x 1 x

f xt dt , x R.
0

1.

f x 0 , x R.

2.
3.

f .

f x
x
t
dt , x R , .
g x
f
t

4.

, R , f f
:. ( )
:
1.
f R x R
f (x) 0 . f ,
x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 f (x1 )f (x2 ) 0 .
f R , [x1 ,x2 ] .
f (x1 )f (x2 ) 0 . , Bolzano ,
(x1 ,x2 ) f () 0 , , x R f (x) 0 .
f R . , x 0
f (0) 1 0 . , x R f x 0 .
5.

2.

xt u xdt du . t 0 u 0 t 1
1
1
x
t
tx
u
2
dt 1
xdt 1
du. f
u x . , f (x) 1 x
f
(xt)
f
(t)
f
(u)
0
0
0
u
R ,
R .
f (u)
x

u
u
du R , 1
du

f
(u)
f
(u)
0
0
R . , f R ,
x
x
f (x)
. , f (x)
f (x)f (x) x 2f (x)f (x) 2x
f (x)
f (x)
(f 2 (x)) (x2 ) f 2 (x) x2 c,c R.
x 0 c 1 , f 2 (x) x2 1 . x R
f (x) 0 , f (x) x2 1 , .
3.

, y x , R .
mathematica -201

x2 1

f (x)
x 1
lim
lim
x x
x
x
x
1 . ,
2

lim

lim f (x) x lim

1
x 2 lim 1 1 1.

x
x2

x 2 1 x lim

lim

1
x 1 x
x( 1 2 1)
x
0 , y x f .
x

0.

t
t
t
4.
g x
dt
dt
dt
2
2
f
t

t 1
t 1
x
0
0
t

R ,
2
t 1
x
x
t
t
0 t 2 1dt 0 t 2 1dt R . g
x
( x)
x
x
R , g(x)

0
x2 1
( x)2 1
x2 1
x2 1
x R g(x) 0 , g .
4.
t
t

h(t)
. t R t R h(t) h(t).
f (t)
t2 1
x

h ,
x

h(t)dt 0

g(x) 0 *

x
x

* : h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt


0

t u , dt du . t 0 u 0 , t x u x ,
x

h(t)dt h(u)du h(u)du. ,

0
x

h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt 0.


5.

f () f ()

( ) ,

f () f ()
1 , :

mathematica -202

f () f ()
1.

f [,] , (,) , MT
f () f ()
(,) f ()

f ()

f () f ()
1 ,

2 1

1 2 1 2 2 1,

f () f ()
1 f () f () .

122

1
t 1

f (x) e dt
2

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.

f
Cf A(2, f (2))
f (x) ex 2e x 1
E Cf ,
xx x 2 x 4 , E 2e
: . - . ( K)
:
1
t 1

1.
g(t) e . g t 1.
, Ag (,1) (1, ) 2 (1, ) Af (1, )
2.

g f
1
x 1

1
x 1

e f
1
1
x

f (x)
e 1 0 , f
(x 1)2
(1, ) .

f (x) e

3.
f (2) 0 f (2) e
y 0 e(x 2) y ex 2e.
4.
f , Cf
A(2,f (2)) , A ,
f (x) ex 2e,x 1.

mathematica -203

5.

E() ,

E() | f (x) |dx (1), (2) f (x) e


4

1
x 1

0.

f (1, ).
x 2 f (x) f (2) f (x) 0 E() f (x)dx
4

(4)
f (x) ex 2e f (x) (ex 2e) 0 f (x)dx (ex 2e)dx 0
4

ex 2

42 22
E() (ex 2e)dx
2ex e( ) 2e(4 2) E() 2e.
2
2
2
2
2
4

123

f : [0,1] R x [0,1]
x

f (x) xf (x) f (t)dt.


1

1.

f
[0,1]
x0 (0,1)

2.

f (x0 ) f (1) f (t)dt.


0
x

f (x) x f (t)dt c c R f (0) f (1)

3.

4.

f (0,1) ,
f (1)
.
f () 2
1
: . - . ( K)
:
f ( ) 0,1 1 0,1 ,

1.
x

f t dt f 0,1 (
1

0,1 ) x,f x 0,1 ( - )


x

f x xf x f t dt 0,1 (
1

) f 0,1
f x 2f (x) xf x .
mathematica -204

f x xf x f t dt

2.

x 0

f 0 f t dt f 0 f t dt, 1 .

f x xf x f t dt

x 1

f 1 f 1 f t dt f 1 f 1 , 2 .
1

f 0,1 , MT f 0,1 ,
x 0 0,1 :
1

f 1 f 0
f x0
1 0

3.

f 1 f 1, f 0 f t dt

f x0 f 1 f t dt .

x
x

f x xf x f t dt f x x f t dt x f t dt
1
1
1

x
x

f x x f t dt f x x f t dt c,c R : 3 x 0
1
1

f 0 c . x 1 f 1 c . f 0 f 1 c.

4.

f
x

0,1 f 0 f x xf x f t dt x
Fermat

1
f 0

f f f t dt f f t dt 0.
1

f x x f t dt c x f () f (t)dt c .
1

f () f (1)
.

1
1
f () f (1)
f (1)
f ()
2f () f () f (1) f ()( 2 1) f (1) f () 2
.

f (1) c f () f (t)dt f (1) f (t)dt

124

1
dt
0 1 t2
f .
3
1
4
dt ln2
0
0 1 t2

f (x) ln x x 2 1
1.
2.

mathematica -205

1
dt x, x R
0
1 t2
Cf ,
xx x 0, x 1 .
: . ( )

3.

4.

1
dt.
1 t2
0

f (x) ln x x 1

1.

x x 2 1 0 , x R ,

x 2 1 x 2 x x
x

1
1
dt

R ,
2
2
1

t
1 t
0
R , f R

2x
1
x x2 1
1
2 x2 1 1
f (x)

2
2
2
2
2
1

x
1

x
x x 1
x 1(x x 1)
1
x2 1 1
f (x)

.
2
2
2
1

x
1

x
x 1
1

x2 1 1
f (x) 0
0 x2 1 1 0 x2 1 1 x2 0 x 0
2
1 x
1x 2 0
x2 1 1
f (x) 0
0
x2 1 1 0 x2 1 1 x2 0 x 0
2
1 x
x R f (x) 0 , f R

2.

f (0) 0
3

2
3
4 1
4
3
1
3

3 5 4 1

f ln 1
dt

ln

dt

ln
2

0 1 t 2 dt.
4
0 1 t2
4
4 4 0 1 t 2
4

t R

3
4

1
1
0 2
dt 0 .
t 1
t 1
0
2

3
4

1
3
, f ln 2
dt. f R ,
1 t2
4
0
3
4

3
1
3
3
0 f (0) f 0 f (0) f ln 2
dt
4
1 t2
4
4
0
f

mathematica -206


3
4

3
4

1 t

1
dt ln 2.
2
1

t
0

dt ln 2. , 0
x

3.

h(x)

1
1
dt ,
R ,
2
1 t
1 t2
x

1 t

dt R , h

1
1
1
(x)

1.
2
2
1 x
1 x 2x
h(x) 1 h(x) x c,c R .

R h(x)

1
dt 0 . x 0 c 0 , h(x) x
h(0)
1 t2
0
x

1
dt x
1 t2

dt

0 1 t 2 4 .

dt x
4.
x
2
1

t
4
0
x [0, ) f (x) 0 ,

1
1
E f (x)dx (x) f (x)dx xf (x)0 xf (x)dx f (1) x
2
dx
x2 1 x 1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
x
x
1
2

f (1)
2 dx f (1) x 1 ln(x 2 1)
0

0 2
x2 1 0 x 1
0
1

1
1
1
f (1) 2 1 ln 2 ln 1 2
dt

ln 2
2
1 t2
2
0

1
ln 1 2 2 1 ln 2 ..
4
2


125
f R R ,

f (x)

(et 1)dt x.

1.
2.

f (x) , f 1 (x)
N
f x 0,y 0,x e

3.

Cf

4.

2010

2009

f (t)dt

2011

2010

f (t)dt .

mathematica -207

1. ,

f (x)

(et 1)dt x [et t]f0(x) x [ef (x) f (x)] [e0 0] x ef (x) f (x) 1 x.

g(x) ex x 1,x R.
g(x) ex 1 . x R g(x) 0 .
g R, 1 1 , .
g(f (x)) x f (x) g 1 (x) .
: f , .
153 164.
x 0

e
f (0)

1 dt 0 (1) . t R

et 1 0 , (1) f (0) 0
ef (x) f (x) x 1 . x f 1 (x)
f 1 (x) ex x 1, x R
2. f .
x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) ef (x1 ) ef (x2 ) .
ef (x1 ) f (x1 ) 1 ef (x2 ) f (x2 ) 1 x1 x2 .
x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) .
, f R
f , x 0 f (x) f (0) f (x) 0 .

f (x)dx . f (x) u

x f 1 (u) x eu u 1 dx (eu 1)du .


x1 0 , eu u 1 0 .
u1 0.
x2 e, eu u 1 e.
u2 1.
, E f (t)dt u(eu 1)du ueudu udu .
e

0
1

1
1
1
1
u
u
3
E ueu eudu ueu eu ..
0
0
0
0
2 0
2 0 2
2

3. f ,f 1
y x . De LHospital

f 1 (x)
ex x 1
lim
lim
. , f .
x
x
x
x

mathematica -208

f 1 (x)
ex x 1
lim
lim
1 lim (f 1 (x) x) lim (ex x 1 x) 1
x
x
x
x

x
x
f 1 y x 1 .
y x y x 1 , f
y x 1.
u

F(u) f (t)dt

4.

F [x,x 1] , (x,x 1) .
, .. x,x 1 F()
x 1

x 1

F(x 1) F(x)

x 1 x

f (t)dt f (t)dt f () f (t)dt .

f ()

(x,x 1) x,x 1
x 1

f ()

f (t)dt . (2009,2010)

(2009,2010)

x
2010

f (1 )

f (t)dt. , (2010,2011) 2 (2010,2011)

2009

2011

f ( 2 )

f (t)dt.

2010

f 2009,2010 , 2010,2011
2010

2009 1 2010 2 2011f (1 ) f ( 2 ) . ,

2011

f (t)dt

2009

126

f (t)dt.

2010

f (x) , R x o 0
g(x) : R R , g(x) f (xt)dt,t R,x R
1

z :| z 2 i || z 2 i |, 1 ,:
1.

,
() y 2x.

2.

A , Cf ,
1
1

2
xf
(
)

5x

(
)

x
x
R , lim
10
1 2
x 0

f( ) 2

x x

1 x
f (u)du , x 0

: g(x) x 0

f (0) , x 0

3.

mathematica -209

4.

g(x) R.

5.

z f (t)dt i f (t)dt 1
2

(1,2) g() f ().


:

1.
z x yi,x,y R
z 2 i z 2 i x yi 2 i x yi 2 i
(x 2) (y 1)i (x 2) (y 1)i

(x 2)2 (y 1)2 (x 2)2 (y 1)2 (x 2)2 (y 1)2 (x 2)2 (y 1)2


x2 4x 4 y 2 2y 1 x2 4x 4 y 2 2y 1 4y 8x y 2x.
, () y 2x.

2.

() y 2x
f (x)
f , lim
2 lim (f (x) 2x) 0.
x x
x

5u
1
1 5u 1
1
1

lim

lim
0

2
u
u u 2
u2
u2
u2
u2
u2
u


5u
lim 2 0
u
u
f (u) 5u
1
1

20 2
xf ( ) 5x 2 (*)
2
u
u
x
x
10 lim
lim

u
1 2
x 0
f
(u)

2u

2
0

2
2
f( ) 2
x x
2

10 18
2
1
1
lim
(*) u , limu

x 0
x0 x
x

3.

g(x) f (xt)dt , x 0
0

g(0) f (0)dt f (0) dt f (0) t 0 f (0).


1

du
.
x
t 0 , u 0 . t 1 , u x
1
x
x
f (u)du 1
f (u)du .
x 0 g(x) f (xt)dt
x
x0
0
0

x 0 xt u , dt

mathematica -210

4.

1 x
f (u)du, x 0
g(x) x 0
f (0), x 0

f (u) R ,
x

1

x
0
( , 0) (0, ) , g ( , 0) (0, ) .

f (u)du

R .

1
f (u)du f (0)
f (u)du xf (0) 00


x
g(x) g(0)
lim
lim 0
lim 0

x0
x0
x0
DLH
x0
x
x2
f (x) f (0) f (0)
lim

.
x0
2x
2
1 x
f (x)
,x 0
2 f (u)du
x 0
x
g R g(x)
f (0)

,x 0

z f (t)dt i f (t)dt 2i f (t)dt i f (t)dt


2

5.

1
2

f (t)dt f (t)dt 2

f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt 2 f (t)dt


0

g [1, 2] (1, 2) . MT
(1, 2)

g(2) g(1)
1
g()
g(2) g(1) f (t)dt f (t)dt 0
21
20
0
2

1
f ()
1
0 f (u)du f () 0
g() 0 2 f (u)du
0

1
f (u)du f () g() f ().
0

127

f , R f
. f
f (x)f (x) [f (x)]2 f (x)f (x),f (0) 2f (0) 1
1.

f
mathematica -211

2.

2004

lnf (x)dx 0

g 0,1
x
g(t)
0,1 2x
dt 1 0,1 .
0 1 f 2 (t)
3.

: . ( )
:

f x f x f x f x f x 2f x f x f 2 x

1.

2f x f x f 2 x c,c R . x 0 1 1 c c 0 . ',

f 2 x 2f x f x f 2 x f 2 x f 2 x e x f 2 x e x 0

f x e
x

0 f 2 (x)e x c1 ,c1 R . f (0) 1 c1 1 ,

f 2 (x) ex
x R f (x) 0 .
* f (0) 1 0 ,
x

f (x) 0 x R . f (x) e x e 2 .
(*) , (1)
121.
2.

h(x) x 2004lnf (x) x 2004

x
2

x R h( x) ( x)2004

x
h(x)
2

h x dx 0 **

g ,
x

** : h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt


0

t u , dt du . t 0 u 0 , t x u x ,
x

h(t)dt h(u)du h(u)du


0

0
x

h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt 0.

3.

g [0,1] : 0 g(x) 1.
1
, 1 f 2 (x) 1 0
1 . ,
1 f 2 (x)
mathematica -212

g(x)
g(x)
g(x)
0

0 1 f 2 (x) dx 0
1 f 2 (x)
1 f 2 (x)
1

g(t)
dt 0
2
1

f
(t)
0

g(t)
dt 1.
2
1

f
(t)
0

0,1 , r r(x) 2x
1

g(t)
dt 0.
2
1

f
(t)
0
Bolzano, r (0,1)
g(t)
1 0,1 ,

1 f 2 (t)
g(x)
1 , r
r r(x) 2
1 f 2 (x)
, (0,1).

r(0) 1 0 r(1) 1

128

f 1,2 R
f (x) 0,x 1,2 , f (1) 0,f (2) 2,f (2) 1
1.
2.
3.

f

y x
f
x0 (1,2)

f (x0 ) 1

4.


f (x) f (1) f (2) f (x)
.

,x 1,2
x1
2x
. f (x) 2(x 1),x 1,2
.

5.
6.

1.

f (x)dx 1

: x y 2
f
1 , 2 1,2 , 1 2 ,
f (1 )f ( 2 ) f (1 ) 2
: . ( )
:
f x 0,x 1,2 , f
mathematica -213

, f 1, 2 . f
xo 2
1, 2 ,, ,
f x f 2 1 0 . f 1,2 ,
f 1,2 f 1 ,f 2 0,2 .

Cf 2,f 2 2,2
y f 2 f 2 x 2 y x
2.

3.

f 1,2 (1,2), ..

f 2 f 1
2 . f ,2
21
(,2), .. x0 ,2 1,2
f 2 f
1
f xo

1.
2
2

1,2 f

4. . f 1,2 (1,2),
.. 1, x x, 2
1 1,x 2 x,2 f 1

f x f 1

x1

f 2 f x
. . 1 2
2x
f
f x f 1 f 2 f x
1 2 f 1 f 2

, f
x1
2x
1,2 .
f 2

. f x 2 x 1 x 1 x 2 . x 1,2
(4..)

f x f 1 f 2 f x

f x 2 x 1 .
x1
2x

. (4.) f x 2 x 1 f x 2 x 1 0
f x 2 x 1
2

f x 2 x 1 dx 0 f x dx 2 x 1 dx 1
5.

h x 2 x .

s x f x h x f x 2 x,x 1,2 . s x 1,2 f

s 1 1 0 s 2 2 0 . Bolzano
mathematica -214

x1 1,2 ,

s x1 0 f x1 h x1 0 f x1 h x1 .
s x , s x f x 1 0 . x1
.

6.

f 1,x1 x1 ,2 ,
(1,x1 ) (x1 ,2) , .. 1 1,x1
2 x1 ,2 f 1

f x1 f 1 2 x1

x1 1
x1 1

f 2 f x1
x1

.
2 x1
2 x1
2 x1 x1
x
2 x1
x1
f 1 f 2
1 f 1 2
2
.
x1 1 2 x1 x1 1
x1 1
x1 1
f 2

129

f ,g, R 0 , f (x) 0 , g x 0 , (x) 0


x

h(x)

t(t)dt
0
x

(t)dt

h( 1)

f (x)dx 0.

h(2)

1.
2.

h x 0 h
x 0 .
h 0 0 , h(x) 1 1 R

3.

f g(x)

x , , : f g

f (x)dx g(x)dx

o [, ) : f o g o .
4.

h 0 0,

x
g(x )dx

h f ( )g()
h

:
:

1.

(t)dt 0 .
0

mathematica -215

t R (t) 0 , x 0

(t)dt 0 .
0

x 0

(t)dt 0 (t)dt 0 . , x 0

(t)dt 0 . x (,0) (0, ). R ,


0
x

t (t)dt (t)dt
0

R. h(x)

t(t)dt
0
x

(,0) (0, )

(t)dt
0

,
x
x

x(x) (t)dt (x) t (t)dt (x) x (t)dt t (t)dt


0
0
(x)k(x)
0
0
h(x)

2
2
2
x

(t)dt
(t)dt
(t)dt
0

k(x) x (t)dt t (t)dt,x R


R ,
x

t (t)dt (t)dt
0

R . k R

0
x

k(x) (t)dt x(x) x(x) (t)dt,x R .


(1) k(x) 0 x 0
x - 0
+
k(x) 0 x 0 k(x) 0 x 0 .
k(x)
- 0 +
, k
k(x)
0 . 9
x 0
k(0) 0 .
x (,0) (0, ) k(x) 0
x (,0) (0, ) h(x) 0 .
x 0 h , x 0 h
.
2.

h(0) 0 , h x 0

mathematica -216

t(t)dt 00
lim x(x) lim x 0.
limh(x) lim 0x
x0
x0
DLH x0 (x) x0
(t)dt

h x 0
h ( ,0)
(0, ) . ,
h 1 1.
h

x 0 h(x) h(0) 0
h ( ,0) A1 ( lim h(x),limh(x)) ( lim h(x),0)
x

x 0

x 0 h(x) h(0) 0 . h (0, )


A2 (limh(x), lim h(x)) (0, lim h(x))
x 0

A1 A2 h 1 1 R
: h R
R
3.
f .
f R x R f (x) 0 , f
* R.
* , (1) 121
x R f (x) 0 , h(2) 0 h(1)
h( 1)

h(2)

f (x) 0

h( 1)

f (x)dx 0

f (x)dx 0 ,. x R

h(2)

f (x) 0.
s(x) f (x) g(x),x [,] . s [,] ,
.
s() f () g() 0
f () g() , 0 s.
f () g() . x [,]

f (x) g(x) f (x) g(x) 0 f (x) g(x) dx 0 f (x)dx g(x)dx . ,


x0 (,) f (x0 ) g(x0 )
s [,] ,
[x0 ,].

mathematica -217

, s() f () g() 0 s(x0 ) f (x0 ) g(x0 ) 0,


Bolzano 0 (x0 ,)
s( 0 ) 0 f( 0 ) g( 0 ) .
, 0 [,) s( 0 ) 0 f( 0 ) g( 0 )
s , 0 .
f ,g R . f (,)
g (,)
f

x1 ,x2 (,) x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 )


g

x1 x2 g(x1 ) g(x2 ) g(x1 ) g(x 2 )


s(x1 ) s(x2 ) , s
(,) . s [,] s
[,] , 0 .

4.
g R x R g(x) 0,
g R .
x

t
x
m(x) ( x) g(t )dt (x )f (x )g(x),x [,]

m [,]

, m() ( ) g(t )dt ( ) g(t t )dt m() ( )f ( )g()


t

, m()m() ( ) f ( )g() g(t t )dt 0 f ( ) 0

g() g(t t )dt 0 , g(), g(t t )dt . Bolzano


(,)

m() 0 ( ) g(t t )dt ( )f ( )g()

g(t
)gt
g(t
)gt

f ( )g()
f ( )g()

h
h

mathematica -218

130

[1,2] f f (x) 0
2x

x [1,2]
x

1.

t t
f ( )dt 1
x2 x

(1,2)
1
f ()

H(x) f (t)dt f (t)dt


2.
3.

H .
x0 (1,2)
x0

x0

f (t)dt f (t)dt

4.
E()
f x 1,x 2 4. ,
2

I H(x)dx
1

: . - . ( )
:
t
t ux . dt xdu .
x
t x u 1 t 2x u 2 .
2 1
2
u f (u)xdu uf (u)du
1
1
x

1.

F(x) uf (u)du, [1,2],x [1,2]


x

xf (x) [1,2] ,

uf (u)du [1,2] .

F(x) [1,2] F(x) xf (x) .


F [1,2] (1,2) .
, (1,2)
2
F(2) F(1)
1
F()
f () F(2) F(1) f () uf (u)du 1 f ()
1
21

2.

f f (x) 0 , f
1
* , f () 0 . x [1,2] f (x) 0 ,

H(x) 2f (x) 0 . , H [1,2]


mathematica -219

, (1) 121

3.

H(1)H(2) 0 ,
Bolzano c (1,2) H(c) 0 .
H [1,2] , c .

f (x)dx f (x)dx 0
c

E 4 f (x)dx 4 H(x)dx (x)H(x)dx


2

4.

[xH(x)]12 xH(x)dx 2H(2) H(1) 2xf (x) 3 f (x)dx 2 12 2 10.


2

131

f ,g [1, ) .
f , f (1) 1 . ,

x
f (t)dt
1
,x 1
x1

g(x)

f (t) 1

lim

f
(t)
,x 1
t1 t 1

1.
f (1) 0
2.

g(1)

3.

f ,g .
x 2

x2

4.

, x , (x 1) f (t)dt (x 1) f (t)dt
2

1.

(1, )
: . - . ( )
:
g xo 1 . limg x g 1 .
x1

f (t) 1

lim
f (t) g(1).
t 1
t 1

f ,

f t dt .
1

mathematica -220

De L'Hospital ,

0

f
t
dt

f
t
dt

1
1
0

limf x f 1 1 , f .
limg x lim
lim

x 1
x 1
x 1
x 1 DLH x 1 x 1
x

f (t) 1

f (t) g 1 1.
t 1
t 1

limg x lim
x1

f x 1
f x 1
h x f x
f x h x limg x f 1 1 ,
x1
x1
x1
f x 1
lim
h x f x f 1 f 1 0 f 1 0 .
lim
x1
x1
x

2.

,
x

g x g 1
g 1 lim
lim
x1
x1
x1

f t dt
1

x1
x1

f t dt x 1

lim 1
x1

x 1

f x

x1 2 x 1

lim

1
g(1) f 1 0 .
2
3.
f [1, ) , f [1, )
f , x0 1 .
x 1 , x 1 f x f 1 0 . f
[1, ) . f [1, ).
x

x 1 g x

f t dt
1

x1

g x

f x x 1 f t dt

x 1

1
2

s x f x x 1 f t dt,x 1.
1

s x 0 xo 1.
s ,
s x f x x 1 f x f x f x x 1 0 , x 1 .
s ,
x 1 s x s 1 0 . , x 1 g x 0.
g , g [1, ) .
4.

x 1,

mathematica -221


x 2

x2
x 2

x2

x 1 f t dt x2 1 f t dt
g x

g x 2 x

f t dt f t dt
1

x 1
2

x 21

x 2 , g .

x2 x 2 x2 x 2 0 x 2.

132

1.
2.
3.

xf (x) x x R .
f (x) .
, .

4.

f (x) f (x 2 ) f (x 8 ) f (x 2009 )

5.

Cf ,y x1 ,
2 1
xx x 0 ,x ,
1 .
2
3x t
2x t dt
lim
.
x 0
x
:
:

6.

1.
x

2ttf (t)dt t 2f 2 (t)dt 2 tdt x R .

0, .

2ttf (t)dt t 2f 2 (t)dt 2tdt


x

tf t t dt 0 tf t t 0 tf t t 0
2

tf t t
2

tf t t 0
x 0 .
2

x
,x 0
x
R 0 ,
x
,x 0
x

f 0 lim f x lim
1. , f x x
x 0
x 0 x
1, x 0

2. xf x x f x

x xx x
.
x 0 f f x

x2
x
mathematica -222

x 0 0 ,
x
0

1
0
f x f 0
x

x
x
lim
lim
lim

x0
x0
x 0
x0
x
x 2 DLH

x x 1

x 1 1
lim
lim
0 0.

2
x0
x0
2
x
2
x

f 0 f 0 0 .
xx x
,x 0

, f R , f x
x2

0, x 0

3. f , .
g x xx x, x , , 0 ,
g 0 0 0 0 0 g x xx x xx.

x 0 g(x) 0 . x 0 g(x) 0 . o
f [ , ]
x
g(x)
+
2
+
x
f (x)
+

x
0

x
+ 0 x
- 0 +
g(x)
- 0 -

f (x)

g(x)

0
0 0 +
0 9

0
.

x [0, ] f .
x 0 f 0 1
x [ ,0] f

x f
0.

4. 0 1
f (x) f (x2 ) f (x8 ) f (x 2009 ).
x , f

x f x

f x x 1 x x f x f x
f x f x f x f x .
x 1 x

2009

2009

2009

(1, ] .
f



f x f x f x f x

0 x 1 x2009 x2 f x 2009 f x 2 0 x 1 x8 x f x8 f x
2009

mathematica -223

(0,1) .
f (x) f (x2 ) f (x8 ) f (x 2009 ), 0 1 .
5.
x 0,x .
x
y f f (x)
, y x1 y xx 0 ( x )
x
x
1 (x) y f y
x1 , x 1
x
f [,]
x
xx x
1 (x)
x1

1
f (x) 1 0
f (x) 0
x2
x

1 (x) [0, ] .
1,f 1 1,y 0 1, 1 .
x
[0, ] x
2 (x) y f y xx
x
f [0, ].

,f 1,y xx ,0 .

3 (x) y y xx x1 [0, ] x 0 .

0, y 0 0, y xx 0 0,0
, y f f (x)

x
.
x

, y xx 0.
, y x1 .

y
2

1,1

yf

x=0
-1

mathematica -224

x
x

E2

E1
(0,0) /5

f(x)

2/5

x=1

, 0
3/5

y xx

4/5

(o xx)

x=

x
6/5

x'x , Cf y x 1 ,
E ,

E E1 E2 y y xx dx y f y xx dx
0

x1dx

x
1
x
dx

dx.
x
2
x
1

x (0, ) , f ,
f

1 x f 1 f x f f f x f 1

f dt f x dt f 1 dt (-1)f f x dt (-1)f 1

(-1)

x
1

dt (-1)
.

x
1
1

0
1

x
1
dt (-1)1 .

2
x

1 1
x
1
2 1
2 1

dt
1 1
1
1
2
2
x
2
2
2
1

,
y
2

1,1

yf

x=0

x
x

E2

E1
(0,0) /5

f(x)

2/5

3/5

y xx
x=1

, 0
4/5

x
6/5

0
x=

-1

6. x 0, f . x 0,
0 2x 3x t 2x t 3x :
f (2x) f (t) f (3x) f (3x) f (t) f (2x). ,
mathematica -225


3x

3x

3x

2x

2x

2x

3x

f 3x dt f t dt f 2x dt xf 3x f t dt xf 2x
2x
3x
3x

3x
2x :x0 3x
f t dt

3
2
3x
2x

f t dt

2x

2x
2x

3x
2x
1, lim
1 ,
xx0 3x
xx0 2x
3x t
3x
f
(t)dt
2x t dt

2x
lim
lim
1 .
x 0
x 0
x
x

lim

6.
f x0 0

lim

3x
2x

x0

lim

x0

2x
3x
t
0
3x

f
(t)dt

f
(t)dt
dt
0
f (t)dt 0 lim 0
t
lim 2x

DLH x0
x0
x
x

2f (2x) 3f (3x)
f (0).
1

133

f : 0, R x 0
x

f x
1

t1

t e

f t

dt.

1.

x 0 ef x f x x ln x.

2.

f x ln x x 0.

3.
4.

1.

e
g x f x f , x 0.
x
f f f f
0 , :

:
f (0, ) ,

mathematica -226

t
1

t1

f t

dt .

x 0
x1
f (x)

xf
(x)e

xf
(x)

x(ef (x) 1)
1
f (x) f (x)ef (x) 1 (ef (x) f (x)) (x lnx)
x
c R,
ef (x) f (x) x lnx c, ef (1) f (1) 1 0 c c 0 , f (1) 0 .
ef (x) f (x) lnx x. (1)

f (x)

2.
k(x) x ex ,x R,k(x) 1 ex 0 , k
R , 1 1 . (1) k(f (x)) k(lnx) f (x) lnx ,
k 1 1.
e
g(x) f (x)f ( ) lnx(1 lnx).
x
g (0, ),
1 2lnx
g(x)
,x 0
x
1
1 2lnx
1
g(x) 0
0 1 2lnx 0 ln x x e 2 e
x
2
1
g(x) 0 lnx x e,g(x) 0 x e,g( e) 0 .
2

3.

, , g
(0, e] ,
[ e, ).
x e
1
g( e) .
4

x 0
g(x)

g(x)

e
+ 0

1
1
f (x) 2 0 f (0, ) .
x
x
f
[,]

, (,),
f () f ()
.
1 (,) f (1 )

, f [, ] , (, )
4.

f (x)

2 (,) f ( 2 )

f () f ()
.

mathematica -227

f () f () f () f ()

( f

(0, ).
f

1 2 f (1 ) f ( 2 )

134

f :(0, ) R, g : R R
1 x
f (g(x))g(x) x,x R f (g(x))g(x) x ,x R g(0) 1 .
e
1.
g
A(1,g(1)) y g(1)x .
ln x
,x (0, )
2.
f (x)
x
(0,e e] , g R .
3.
4.
5.
1.

f
x 1 .

f ,g x 1,x ln3 .
6 2e

ln3 .
:
x 0 f (g(0))g(0) 0 f (1) 0.
e

1 x
x

x
f (g(x))g(x) x f (g(x) x f (g(x)) x c .
e
e
e
x 0 f (g(0)) c f (1) c c 0 .
x 0
x
x
, f (g(x)) x . f (g(x))g(x) x x g(x) x g(x) e x .
e
e
x
g(x) g(x) e , g(1) g(1) e .
Cg A(1,g(1))
g (1) g(1)

y g(1) g(1)(x 1) y g(1) g(1)(x 1) y g(1)x .

x
. ex u 0 ex u x lnu .
x
e
x
lnu
f (ex ) x f (u)
,u 0 .
e
u
ln x
f (x)
,x 0 , .
x
1 ln x
2ln x 3
f (x)
,x 0 f (x)
,x 0
2
x
x3
3
2ln x 3
3
f (x) 0
0 2ln x 3 0 ln x x e 2 e 3 e e
3
x
2

2.

f (ex )

mathematica -228


x 0
2ln x 3
3

2ln x 3 0 ln x x e e
3
x
2
, ,
x 0

e e
f (0,e e]
f (x)
- 0 +
[e e, ).
f (x)
4 . 3
, g(x) ex ,x R.

f (x) 0

g(x) ex ,x R g(x) ex 0. g R.
ln x
1 ln x
,x 0 f (x)
,x 0.
x
x2
f (1) 0,f (1) 1. Cf x 1
y f(1) f (1)(x 1) y x 1 .

3.

f (x)

4.
x (0, ) , f (x) g(x). ,
Cf A(1,0) y x 1 ,
Cg B(0,1) y x 1. f ,g
f(x) x 1 x x 1 g(x).
ln 3

ln 3

g(x) f (x) dx g(x) f (x) dx

1
ln 3

1
ln 3

ln x
ln x

x
E ex
dx

e
dx

1
1 x dx
x
1
ln 3
ln 3
1
1
E ex ln 2 x 3 e ln 2 (ln 3)
1
1
2
2
1

E 3 e ln 2 (ln 3) .
2

ln 3

y=ex

1 :x=1

ln x
x

O(0,0)
2 :x=ln3

1
E 0 3 e ln2 (ln 3) 0
2
6 2e ln2 (ln3) 6 2e ln(ln3) e 62e ln3.
5.

135

f : R R , x R ,
f (x)
1
0 1 u2 du x.
1. . : f (0) f (0) 1 .
. f .
. f . .
2. f R :
mathematica -229

. f
g(x) f (x) f (x) .
. f .
:
1.

. g(u)

g(u) 0

g(u) 0

1
u2 1

u
(u 2 1) u 2 1
u

g(u)

( u 2 1)
u2 1

u
g(u)
-

f (0)

x 0 ,

g(u) 0, u R f (0) 0 .

(u 2 1) u 2 1

0u0

g(u)

f (0)

0 u 0 ,

(u 1) u 1
, ,
g ( ,0]
[0, ).
2

1
u 1
2

0
0
.

du 0 .

f (0)

du 0

2
2
u

1
u

1
0
0
. x 0 f (x) 0 ,
x0 0 f (x0 ) 0 , x0 0 .
1 g(u) 0
.
0 u x g(0) g(u) g(x) 1 g(u) g(x)
g(u)

g(x)

f (0) 0

f (x)

x 0

du 0 f (0) 0

du x 0
1 u2
.
xo 0 f (xo ) 0
0

f (x0 ) 0

1
1 u
f (x)

f (x0 )

1
1 u

1
1 u

du 0

f (x0 )

1
1 u

du 0

du x 0 x 0 .

xo 0 f (xo ) 0 f (x) 0
x 0 .
x 0 f (x) 0 x 0 f (x) 0.
f (x) 0 ,
mathematica -230


f (x)

f (x)

f (x)

f (x)

1 g(u) du 0 du g(u)du f (x) g(u)du

0
f (x)

0
f (x)

0
f (x)

f (x)

g(u) g(x) du 0 g(u)du g(x)du g(u)du f (x)g(x)


0

0
f (x)

f (x)

g(u)du g(x)f (x) 0

f (x)

f (x)

g(u)du

g(x)f (x)

f (x)

f (x)

f (x)
f (x)

g(u)du

f (x)
f (x)
1
(1)
1

g(x)f (x)
x
g(x)

1
f (x)
f (x) f (0)
1 , , lim
1 lim
1
x0 g(x)
x0
x0
x
x0
f (x) f (0)
x 0 lim
1 f (0) f (0) 1 .
x0
x0
1.
( u 2 1)
u
1

.
g(u)
g(u)
u2 1
(u 2 1) u 2 1
u2 1
g ( ,0] [0, ).
lim

f (0)

x 0

f (0) 0 f (0) 0

u2 1
f (0)
1

f (0)

du 0 , g(u) 0, u R ,

u 1
2

du 0 f (0) 0

du 0. x 0 f (x) 0 ,
2
u

1
0
x0 0, f (x0 ) 0 x0 0, .

f
(x)
f (x) f (0)

.
lim
lim
f (x)
x0
x

1
x0
du

2
1

u
0

f 0 limf (x) f (0) 0 x 0


x 0

f (x) 0 , f (x) t t 0 :

0
1
t

lim t
lim
t 0
DLH t 0 1
1
du
2

2
1 t
u

1
0

f (0) f (0) 1 .

lim
t 0

1 t 2 1 f (0) f (0) 1 .

mathematica -231

. x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 )
f (x1 )

g(u)du 0

f (x 2 )

g(u)du

f (x1 )

f (x 2 )

g(u)du 0

f (x1 )

g(u)du

f (x 2 )

g(u)du

x1 x2 , x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f
R f (0) 0 , x 0
f (x) 0 , x 0 f (x) 0 .

1
1
f (x)
1

f (x) x, x 0 . 0

f (x) x
x
g(x)
1
0 , lim f (x)
lim
x f (x)
x
x 0 f (x) x lim f (x) .
. 1

f R .
1..
x R

f (x)

1 u

f ( x)

x 0

1
1 u2

du x

du 0 f (x) x 0

1
1

f (x) x

1
0 , lim f (x)
x
x f (x)
x<0 f (x) x lim f (x) ,

lim

f R.
2.

. (t)

1
t2 1

R ,
x

0
f (x)

f R. ,

0
f (x)

f (x)
f 2 (x) 1

dt
t2 1
dt

R.
R.

t 1
dt
x ,
2
t 1
2

1 f (x) f 2 (x) 1 (2). f R,

mathematica -232

f 2 (x) 1 R, f R,
f (x)
f (x)
f (x) f (x)
2
f (x) 1
g(x) f (x) f (x) 0 , g(x) 0.
. f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x) (f (x) f(x)) f (x) f(x)
, f (x) f (x) cex , c R , f (0) 0
f (0) 1, c 1.
1
f (x) f (x) ex exf (x) exf (x) e2x (exf (x)) ( e 2x )
2
1
1
exf (x) e2x c,c R. f (0) 0 , c .
2
2
1
1
1
1
exf (x) e2x f (x) ex e x .
2
2
2
2

136

f (x) xlntdt
1

1.

f (x) .

2.

N f '(x),f ''(x) .

3.
4.

f '(x) ,
.
1

xo f '(x),

f (x)dx 0 .
x0

5.

B f (x) .

:
1.
A(t) lnt (0, )
. 1 (0, ) x (0, ),
f (x) (0, ) .

f (x) xlntdt x lntdt x[tlnt t]1x


f (x) x(xlnx x 1ln1 1) x2lnx x 2 x x 0

mathematica -233

f x xlntdt x lntdt (1) .

0,

ln tdt
1

ln tdt . f x
1

. ,

f x x
f x
f x x
lntdt

lntdt

ln x
x
x
x
1

f x
f x

xln x x c,c R (2) . x 1 (1)


xln x x
x
x

f 1 0 . x 1 (2) c 1 .

f x
xln x x 1 f x x 2 ln x x 2 x,x 0, .
x
2.

f x 2xlnx x 1 f x 2lnx 1.

3.

f x : f x 0 2ln x 1 0 x e

e
e
f x 0 0 x
.
e
e
, , f x

f x 0 x

f (x)

1
2

1
e

e
e
e
e

0
-

f (x)
0 . 9

e
0,

e
e

, .
e

e
[ , ) , f x 0 x 1
e
.
e
f x (0, ] ,
e
e
e2
[f
,1).
, lim f x ) [
x0
e
e

e
0 , xo 0,

e

e
f xo 0 . xo f x (0, ] ,
e
f x .
mathematica -234

4.

f x dx f x x f 1 f xo 0 0 0 .
1

xo

f x , x 1 x xo xo 1 .
, 0 x xo f x f xo 0 f x
5.

e
e
] xo (0, ] . xo x 1 f x f xo 0, f x
e
e
e
e
(0, ] xo (0, ] .
e
e
x 1 f x f 1 0 .
(0,

e
e
, ) 1 [ , ) .
e
e
f : (0,xo ]
A1 (lim f x ,f xo ] (0,f xo ] .
f x [

x 0

xo ,1
A2 f 1 ,f xo 0,f xo [1, )
A3 [f 1 , lim f x ) [0, ) .
x

f
f A A1 A2 A3 (0,f xo ] 0,f xo [0, ) [0, ) .

137

f : 0, R :
x2f x 5xf x 4f x 0 x 0 , f 1 1 f 1 3.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

g x x2f x ln x x 0
.
f .
f .
ln ln
0 2 f
f .
2 2
Cf
: y 0, x 1, x e2 .

1.

:
g (0, )

mathematica -235

1
(1) . x2f (x) 5xf (x) 4f (x) 0,x 0
x
3
2
x f (x) 5x f (x) 4xf (x) 0,x 0 ,
x3f (x) 3x2f (x) 2x2f (x) 4xf (x) 0,x 0 , (x3f (x)) (2x2f (x)) 0,x 0
(x3f (x) 2x2f (x)) 0,x 0 , x3f (x) 2x2f (x) c,x 0 .
f (1) 1,f (1) 3 c 1 x3f (x) 2x2f (x) 1, x 0
1
1
2xf (x) x 2f (x) ,x 0 . g(x) 2xf (x) x 2f (x)
x
x
g(x) 0,x 0 g(x) c,x 0 .
g(x) 2xf (x) x 2f (x)

2.

g(1) 1 (1) c 1 . x2f (x) lnx 1,x 0.


1 ln x
f (x)
,x 0
x2

3.

1 ln x
1

limf
(x) lim
lim 2 (1 ln x) ,
2

x0
x 0 x
x0
x

x 0 f ,

1

1 lnx
x lim 1 0
lim f (x) lim

lim
x
x
x 0 2x 2
x 2 DLH x 2x
y 0 f

f (x)

:x 0

1 ln x
,x 0
x2

x
:y 0

ln x
,x [, ] . h
x
[,] ( ) h(x) f (x) ,
ln ln

ln ln
h() h()

.
f ()
(,) h()

2 2

, f () f () f ().
x 2x(1 ln x) 3x 2xln x 3 2ln x
f (x)

x4
x4
x3
f (x) 0 2ln x 3 x e e f (x) 0 x e e f
(0,e e] (0,2) (0,e e] ,
3.

h(x)

0 2 f () f () f ().

mathematica -236

5.

e2

E f (x) dx.
1

f (x) 0 1 lnx 0 x e f (x) 0 1 lnx 0 x e


e

e2

e2

(4 )

E f (x) dx f (x) dx f (x)dx f (x)dx

E [h(x)]1e [h(x)]ee h(e) h(1) h(e 2 ) h(e)


2

138

e2
.
e2

f : R R f 0 1 f f
, R .

2tf t
t 2 1 dt

2tf t
dt .
2
t

1
0
x

1.

x R f x 1

2.
3.

f
g : R R
f x g x 2 f x g x

4.

1.

.
f x 2ex1 R
.
:

2tf t
dt , 0
f f 2
t

2tf (t)
2tf (t)
f () f (0) 2
dt . x , f (x) f (0) 2
dt (1).
t

1
t

1
0
0

2tf (t)
dt . x ,
2
t

1
0

0 f () f (0)
x

2tf (t)
dt (2)
2
t

1
0

f (x) f (0)

2tf (t)
dt .
2
t

1
0

(1) , (2) x R f (x) 1


2.

, f (x)
2xf (x)
f (x)(x 2 1) (x 2 1)f (x) 0
, f (x) 2
x 1

mathematica -237

f (x)
2
x2 1 0 f (x) (x 1)c .

x 0 c 1 , f (x) x2 1 , .
f x g x 2 f x g x

3.

f x g x f x g x 2g(x) 0 (f (x)g(x) 2g(x)) 0


h(x) f (x)g(x) 2g(x),x [1,1] .
h [1,1] , ( 1,1)
h(1) f (1)g(1) 2g(1) 2g(1) 2g(1) 0
h(1) f (1)g(1) 2g(1) 2g(1) 2g(1) 0 . Rolle
x0 ( 1,1) h(x0 ) 0 .

f x g x 2 f x g x .

4.
x2 1 2ex1 2ex1 x2 1 0
H(x) 2ex1 x2 1,x R .
H R ,
H(x) 2ex1 2x , x R .
H(1) 0 H ,
H(x).
H(x) 2ex1 2 ,

x 1
x1
x1
H(x) 0 2e 2 0 e 1 x 1
(x)
- 0 +

H(x) 0 2ex1 2 0 ex1 1 x 1


H(x) 0 2ex1 2 0 ex1 1 x 1

(x)

O.E

, H(x)
xo 1, H(1) 0.
H(x) H(1) H(x) 0 x 1 H(x) 0 .
H R . H(1) 0
x 1.

139

f (x) lnx,x 0 , K(x)

2t 2

dt , x 0,
2
t 1
2

h(x) x 1 .
2

1.

f (x) x 1 x 0 .

2.

K(x)

mathematica -238

K(x) .
3.

. g(x) (foh)(x) R .
. E()
g , x'x

x 0,x 0, .
2
. lim E().


. E() 2( ) 0, .
2
:
1.
x 0
lnx x 1 lnx x 1 0.

m(x) lnx x 1,x 0. m (0, )


1
1 x
m(x) 1
,x 0.
x
x
1 x
m(x) 0
0 x 1
x 0
1

x
m(x)
+ 0 x 0
1 x
m(x) 0
0 x 1.
m(x)
9 O. 0
x
, ,
m (0,1] [1, ) .
x 1 m(1) 0 .
x 0 m(x) m(1) lnx x 1 0 lnx x 1 .

2t 2
(0, ) ,
2.
2
2
t 1
x
2
2t

dt
(0,
)
(0,
),

x
0 t 2 1
2
2
x

2t 2

dt (0, ),
2
t 1
2

2t

dt x. K (0, )
1
2
0
2
2
2 x
2 x

K (x) 2
(x) 2
2x 1 2 2x,x (0, ).
x 1
x 1
2

K (0, )
2
4x

K (x)
,x (0, ).
2
x
2

mathematica -239

3.

. f (x) lnx,x 0 h(x) x2 1,x R .


x Dh
x R

g(x) (foh)(x)

x R
2
h(x) D

x 1 0

f
g R
g(x) (foh)(x) f (h(x)) f (x 2 1) ln(x 2 1),x R.

. E()

ln(x 2 1) dt . x R

x 0 x 1 1 ln(x2 1) ln1 ln(x2 1) 0


x 0 , x R g(x) 0 .
2

E()

ln(x

1)dt (x) ln(x 2 1)dt

xln(x 1)
0
2

2x
x 2
dx xln(x 2 1)
0
x 1
0

xln(x 1) 2
0
2

xln(x2 1)

2x 2
dx
x2 1

x 11
1
dx xln(x 2 1) 2 dx 2 2
dx
2
0
x 1
x

1
0
0
2

2 x0 2 ln(2 1) 2 2.

dx
,

[0,
).
0 x 1
2
s
1
1

s() 2
2 1 1 .
2
1
1

, s()

s() c,c R. . 0 c 0 , s()

x
0

. lim E() lim ln( 2 1) 2 2

2
lim ln( 2 1) 2

2
2
0 , lim lim ln(2 1) .
lim

2
2

mathematica -240

1
dx .
1

. (0, )
2
2
ln( 1) 2 2 2( )
ln(2 1) 2 2 ln(2 1) 2 2
1
ln(
) 2 2 ln( 2) 2 2
2

ln( 2) 2 2 ln( 2) 2 2.
(1) , ln( 2) 2 1 2

(0, ) 2 2 2
2

t() 2 2 2, [0, ] .
2
t
t() 2 2 2( 1) 0 .

t [0, ] . [0, ]
2
2

t() t(0) 2 2 2 0 . (0, ) ,


2
2
2 2 0.

3..

(0, )
2
2
ln( 1) 2 2 2( ) ln(2 1) 2 2
1
ln(2 1) 2 2 ln(
) 2 2
2
ln( 2) 2 2 ln( 2) 2 2
ln( 2) 2 2 2ln() 2 2 ln() 1
2ln() 2 2 ln() 1 (1)
x x (0,1).

140

f : R R x R
f x

1 dt x 1.

1.
2.
3.
4.

f .
f .
f
x R .
Cf ,
mathematica -241

x'x x 1 x e 1 .
x1
x 1 .
x 1 f x f x
2
: . . ( )
:
t
g(t) e 1 R ,

5.

1.

g(t)dt

R , f

0
f (x)

R,

g(t)dt.

R. x 1 R .

f (x)

1 dt x 1 .

ef ( x ) 1 0

, f (x)(ef (x) 1) 1 f (x)

0.
ef (x) 1
f R , 1 1 , .
f (x)

1 dt x 1 et x

f (x)
0

x 1 ef (x) f (x) x .

h(x) ex x,x R . h R h(x) ex 1 0 .


h R 1 1 , .
: lim h(x) lim ex x

lim h(x) lim e x .


x

h R .
h 1 R . h(f (x)) x f (x) h 1 (x) .
f R .
h(f (x)) x f 1 (x) h(x) e x x,x R .

f (x) ef (x)
f (x)
f (x)
0.
2.
f (x)(e 1) f (x) e 0 f (x)
(ef (x) 1)
f R.
2

f (1)

3.

f (1) 0 , x 1

1 dt 0(1) .

t R e 1 0 (1)
f (1) 0 . , f R
x 1 f (x) 0 .
t

x 1f (x) f (1) 0 . x 1 f (x) f (1) 0 .


mathematica -242

Cf , x'x

x 1 x e 1 E

1 e

f (x) dx . x 1f (x) f (1) 0

1 e

, E

f (x)dx
1


1 e

f (x)dx


f f 1
y x A(1,f(1)) ,
B(1 e,f(1 e))
A(0,f 1 (0)) A(0,1) ,
B(1,f 1 (1)) B(1,1 e)

:y=1+e

B(1,1+e)

M(1+e,1+e)
1
(0,1)

B(1+e,1)
x

(1,0)

1 e

. E

1
:x=1

f (x)dx

:x=0

x2
x
E 1 e f (x) dx 1 e e x dx x xe e
2 0

0
0
1
3
E 1 e e 1 ..
2
2
1

f (x) u x f 1 (u) eu u , dx (eu 1)du.


x 1 u 0 x 1 e u 1.

1 e

u2
3
f (x)dx u(e 1)du u(e 1)du ue e .
0
0
2 0 2
0
0

5.

x 1 1,x f ,

f x f 1
.
x1
f , f R . ,
f x f 1
1 x f x f f 1 f x
f 1 .
x1
x 1 f 1 0,x 1 0 .

1,x f

mathematica -243

1
1
f 1 0 f 1 ,
f x
2
1 e
f x f 1
x1
f x
f 1 x 1 f x f x
.
x1
2

f x

141


x
-
-2
0
2
ln x

f (x) ex 3x g(x)

1.
2.

e (e 3t) x +2 dt - 0
et f(x)
3t
+
t

x -2

+
+
-

- 0 +
+
+
- 0 +

3.

f .
f(x)
9 0
0 . 9
x1 ,x2
e
f (x) 0 , 0, ln 3,2 .
3
g.

4.

g.

5.

g
, Dg
ln

et (et 3t)
dt e 3 .
e 3 t
e

3t
ln
: . ( )
:
x
f (x) e 3x f (x) ex 3 f (x) 0 ex 3 x ln3

1.

f (x) 0 ex 3 x ln3 . f [ln 3, ).


f (x) 0 ex 3 x ln 3. f (,ln3].
ln 3
x
, ,

f (x)
0
+

f (x)
0 .
9
x ln3, f (ln3) 3 3ln3.

, lim (ex 3x) lim (ex 3x) lim [ex (1


x

DLH x

3x
)] .
ex

3x
3x
3
lim x 0, lim (1 x ) 1.
x
x e DLH x e
x
e

lim

f ( ,ln 3] [f (ln 3), lim f (x)) [3 3ln 3, )


x

f [ln 3, [f (ln 3), lim f (x)) [3 3ln 3, ).


x

f , [3 3ln3, ) .

mathematica -244


e
e
3
2.
f (0) 1 0 f ( ) e e 0,
3
e
e
e
e
e 3 1 e 3 e. f [0, ] f (0)f ( ) 0.
3
3
3
e
Bolzano x1 (0, ) f (x1 ) 0.
3
(,ln3] f
e
e
(0, ) ( ,ln 3] , ln 3 e ln 33
3
3
e
3
e
3
lne ln3 e 3 , e 3 .
f (ln3) 3 3ln3 3(1 ln3) 3(lne ln3) 0 e 3

f (2) e2 4 0 e 2 f (ln3)f (2) 0, Bolzano


x2 (ln3,2) f (x2 ) 0. , [ln 3, )
f .
ln x

3.

g(x)

et (et 3t)
dt
f (t)
e
1 ln 3 x2 .
3
3x1 x 3x2 ,

f (t) 0 t (,x1 ) (x1 ,x2 ) (x2 , ) , 0 x1

x 0 x1 lnx x2 ex1 x ex2


x1 ,x2 f (x) 0 .
, g A (3x1 ,3x2 ) .
4.

f (3x1 ,3x2 ) et (et 3t)

et (et 3t)
(3x1 ,3x2 ) ,
dt
f (t)
1
(3x1 ,3x2 ) . , ln x (3x1 ,3x2 ) . g

eln x (eln x 3ln x) 1 x(x 3ln x) x 3ln x

,
g (x)

f (ln x)
x (x 3ln x)x x 3ln x
3
3
(1 )(x 3ln x) (1 )(x 3ln x) 6(1 ln x)
x
x
g(x)

2
(x 3ln x)
(x 3ln x)2
x

g(x) 0
g(x) 0

6(1 lnx)
2

0 x e (3x1 ,3x 2 )

0 3x1 x e

x 3lnx
6(1 lnx)
x 3lnx

mathematica -245


g (3x1 ,e]
[e,3x2 ).

et (et 3t)
dt 0.
g(e) t
e

3t
1
1

x 3x1
g(x)

g(x)

3x 2

e
+

g(e) 0 g e (3x1 ,3x2 ), g


B(e,0) .
5.
(e 3)(g() g()) ( )(e 3).
g(e) 0 g(x) 0 x e , g
(3x1 ,e] . g(x) 0 x e , g [e,3x2 ).
g
3x 2
e
x 3x1

g (x)
+ 0
e3
0,
x e g(e)
e3
g(x)
9 . 0
x (3x1 ,3x2 ) g(x) 0,
g (3x1 ,3x2 ).
g [,] (3x1 ,3x2 ) , (,) , ,
e3
g() g()

(,) g()
. g() g(e)
e3

g() g() e 3

(e 3)(g() g()) ( )(e 3) ,

e3
.

142


f : R R
x

f (x) 1 x f (x t)dt x R
1

1.
2.
3.

1.

f (x)dx 2 .

f
f x0 1 .
f (x) 1
lim
.
x1 (x 1)3
lim ex f (e x ) 1 2 .
x
: . , 18/4/2010
:
u x t du dt.

mathematica -246

t 1 u x 1, t x u 0 , f (x) 1 x f (x t)dt
1
0

x 1

x 1

f (x) 1 x f (u)( du) 1 x f (u)du


f

f (x)

x 1

f (u)du xf (x 1).

f (1) f (0).

, f (0) 1 0 f (u)du 1 , f (1) 1 .


0

x0 1 .
4

f (x) f (1) 1
f (x) 1

lim
,

2
x1 (x 1)3
x1
x 1 (x 1)
f (x) f (1)
1
f (1) 1 lim
lim
.
x1
x1 (x 1)2
x1
2.

lim

e x 1

3.

f (e x ) 1 e x

f (u)du .

e 1

g(x)

e
f
(e
)

f
(u)du
. , lim g(x) lim f (u)du .

0
x
x

x
e t , x t 0 .
x
e 1

t 1

lim f (u)du lim f (u)du .


x
t 0 0

e x 1

f R ,

f (u)du
0

R . t 1 R . g R ,
0
t 1
1
. , lim f (u)du f (u)du f (u)du ( 2) 2 .
t 0
1
0
0
(*)
f .
.
: f : R R

f (x) 1 x f (x t)dt x R
1

f (x)dx 2.

f x0 1.
:
mathematica -247

u x t du dt.
x

t 1 u x 1, t x u 0 , f (x) 1 x f (x t)dt
1

x 1

f (x) 1 x f (u)( du) 1 x f (u)du


x 1

0
x 1

1 x f (u)du 1

f (x ) f (1)
0
lim
x 1
x

1
x1
x1
x 1

lim f (u)du xf (x 1) f (0)


x 1
0

lim

x 1

lim

x f (u)du

x 1

x1

0
0

DLH

f (1) f (0) . , f (0) 1 0 f (u)du 1 , f (1) 1 .


0

f x0 1

.
4

143


z i f : R R
, : z i f x z i f 1 x z i z i x R
1.

z i z i .

2.

z .

3.

f x 1.
1

4.

f x dx 1.
0
2x

5.

f t dt 1 xf x
0

.
: . ( )
:
1.
z i R, z i R
f (x) f (1 x) ,x R,, R
x 1 x f (1 x) f (x) ,x R ,
f (1 x) f (x) f (x) f (1 x) ( )f (x) ( )f (1 x), x R
, f (x) f (1 x), x R .
x 1 f (0) f (1) , f ,
z i z i .
2.

z i z i z AB

mathematica -248

A(0,1),B(0, 1) xx .

3.
z i z i z i ,
f(x) f(1 x) 2, x R.

1
1 1
1
f f 2 f 1
2
2 2
2
1
1
f (x) 1 f (x) f x f .
2
2

f (x) f (1 x) 2 f (x) f (1 x) dx 2dx

4.
1

f (x)dx f (1 x)dx 2x

1
0

1 x u , dx du . x 0 u 1 ,
x 1 u 0 ,
1

f (1 x)dx f (u)du f (u)du

0
1

f (x)dx f (1 x)dx 2x 0 2 f (x)dx 2 f (x)dx 1 .


1

2x

1
2

h(x) f (t)dt 1 xf (x),x [0, ] .

5.

1
h [0, ]
2
0

h(0) f (t)dt 1 0f (0) 1 0


0

1 1
1 1
1
h f (t)dt 1 f 1 1 0
2 2
2 2
2 0
1

1
Bolzano (0, )
2
2

h() 0 f (t)dt 1 f () .
0

2x

f (t)dt 1 xf (x) .
0

144


f : (0, ) R x 0
x

f (t)
e x dt f (x) 1 . :
mathematica -249

1. f .
2. () Cf
.
3. Cf xx
().
x2

4. lim
x1

x
x2

5. lim
x1

f (x)
dt.
f (t)
1
dt.
2
x

x
f
(t)

1.
,
x
x
f t
1
e x dt f x 1 x e f t dt f x 1 e f t dt xf x x.
x

f , ,

f t dt
e

(0, ) . ,

f t dt xf x x f x f x xf x 1 xf x 1 .
e

x 0, f x f x ln x
x
f x lnx c,x 0,c R (1) .
x e , f e 1 .
x e , (1) , c 0 .

f x lnx,x 0.
2.

Cf A x o , f x o

1
x xo .
xo
,
1
O 0,0 ln xo xo xo e .
xo
Cf ,
1
1
A e, lne e,1 y x g x x .
e
e
1
1
f x lnx,x 0, f x ,x 0 f x 2 ,x 0 .
x
x
y f xo f xo x xo y ln xo

mathematica -250

x 0 f (x) 0 , f
(0, ) . f
y
,
.
.

x'x , x 1
1
y x
e
,

f x lnx

:x=0
f (e,1) ,
x
:x=e
:x=1
f x 1 .
,
1

E g x dx g x f x dx
1

1
1 x2 x2
e2
1

xdx x lnx dx x lnx x


..
e
e
e
2
2e
2

0
1
0
1
1

3.

1
1
,x 1,

f (x) ln x

T(x)

T(x)

1
x ln x

0 , x 0, T

x 1, t x t x 2 :

T(x) T(t) T(x 2 ) T(x 2 ) T(t) T(x)(*)


x2

x2

x2

T x dt T t dt T x dt x
2

ln x2

x2

x
T t dt

(1)

2ln x

ln x
x

x T x

2ln x

x
T t dt

T t dt x x T x
x x 1
T t dt
2

x2

ln x

x2

ln x

x2 x
1

ln x
dt x 2 x
2
f (t)
x
x

x2 x
f (x)

dt x 2 x .
2
f (t)
x
x

x
lim
x1

x
2

0, lim
x1

x 0
x2

f (x)
dt 0 .
x1
f
(t)
x
(*) f ,g [,] x [,]

lim

mathematica -251

f (x) g(x) f (x) g(x) 0 f (x) g(x) dx 0

f (x) g(x)dx .

4.
x x

3.
x
x2
x2 x
1
1
1
T t dt

2
dt
2ln x
ln x
2ln x x x x f (t)
ln x
x
2

lim
x1

1
1
, lim
,
x1 ln x
2ln x
x2

: lim
x1

1
dt.
2
x

x
f
(t)

145


f ,g R
x

f (t )dt
x10f (t )dt g(t)dt 0 x R {0,1} g(x) g(2 x) 2
g(x) 0 x R .
1.

2.

0
1

f (t)dt f (t)dt x R 0,1 .


1

f (t)dt 0 .

f 1 0 f 0 0 .

3.
4.

f ,

f (x) f (t)dt f (x)f (x) 0,1 .


1

5.

f (t)dt xf (x)
0,1 .

6.

f , 2f (x) xf (x)

0,1 .

7.


g(x) xx x 0 x 2.
:
:
1.
g x R g(x) 0 ,
Bolzano, g R.
, x 1 2g(1) 2 g(1) 1 0 g(x) 0,x R.
mathematica -252

F(x) f (t)dt G(x) f (t)dt ,

F(x)

G(x)

g(t)dt 0 x 0,1.

x0 R {0,1} F(x0 ) G(x0 )

F(x0 )

G(x0 )

g(t)dt 0

x0 R {0,1} F(x0 ) G(x0 ) g(x) 0,x R

F(x0 )

G(x0 )

g(t)dt 0,, F(x) G(x) , x R {0,1}.


x

F(x) G(x) , x R {0,1} F(x) f (t)dt ,

2.

0
1

G(x) f (t)dt R , ,
x

limF(x) limG(x), F(0) G(0) 0 f (x)dx


x 0

x 0

0
1

limF(x) limG(x), F(1) G(1) f (x)dx 0.


x1

x1

3.

f (t)dt 0 .
x

h(x) f (t)dt f (t)dt (1), (2)

h(x) 0, x R . h(1) h(0) 0 , x1 0,x2 1


h(x) 2f (x) , Fermat ,
h(0) h(1) 0 f (0) f (1) 0 .
4.

f (x) f (t)dt f (x)f (x) 2f (x)G(x) 2f (x)f (x) 0


x

2f (x)G(x) 2f (x)f (x) 0 2G(x)G(x) 2f (x)f (x) 0 (G 2 (x) f 2 (x)) 0.


H(x) G 2 (x) f 2 (x), x [0,1]
,
H(x) 2G(x)G(x) 2f (x)f (x) H(x) 2f (x)G(x) 2f (x)f (x).
, H(0) H(1) 0 . Rolle , H(x) 0
(0,1) 2f (x)G(x) 2f (x)f (x) 0 f (x) f (t)dt f (x)f (x).
x

5.

f (t)dt xf (x) 0 G(x) xf (x) 0


1

mathematica -253

(x) G(x) xG(x) 0 xG(x) 0.

K(x) xG(x), x [0,1]


x

K(x) G(x) xG(x) f (t)dt xf (x)


1

K(1) K(0) 0 , Rolle ,


x

K(x) f (t)dt xf (x) 0 (0,1) .


1

6.

2f(x) xf (x) 0 2xf(x) x2f (x) 0

(x2 ) f (x) x2f (x) 0 x2f (x) 0

(x) x2f (x),x [0,1]


(x) 2xf (x) x2f (x) (0) (1) 0 , Rolle ,

(x) 2xf (x) x 2f (x) 0 , (0,1) , 2f (x) xf (x) 0 .


7.

, g(x) 0,x R
2

E g(x)dx [2 g(2 x)]dx 2dx g(2 x)dx E 4 g(2 x)dx


2

u 2 x du dx . x 0 u 2, x 2 u 0.
2

g(2 x)dx
0

g(u)(du) g(u)du E

E 4 E 2E 4 E 2..

146


f R
x2 f (tx)
2
1 x x dt x 1 x R 0 .
1.
2.

x3

(x) f (t)dt .
x

f 1 1 f -1 1 .

3.
(x) x 0
f (0) 0 .
4.
f ,
.
:
:
mathematica -254

1.

x3

x3

0
x

(x) f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt .

f R ,

f (t)dt R ,
0

x3

f (t)dt

R , . (x)

(x) 3x2f (x3 ) f (x) .


2.

u tx du xdt . . t 1 u x, t x2 u x3
x2

x2

x3

x3

f (tx)
f (tx)
f (u)
1
1
x 0 ,
dt 2 xdt 2 du 2 f (u)du 2 (x).
xx
x x
x x
x x x
x x
1
1
x
:
1
x 0 , 3 (x) x2 1 0 (x) x5 x3 0 (1)
x
1
x 0 , 3 (x) x2 1 0 (x) x5 x3 0 (x) x5 x3 0 (2)
x
(x) (x) x5 x3 (1) (x) 0 ,
(0, ) (x) (x) 5x4 3x2 .
(1) (1) 0 , x1 1 .
Fermat, (1) (1) 5 3 0 (1) 2
3f(1) f(1) 2 f(1) 1
, (x) (x) x5 x3 (x) 0, x ( ,0) .
( ,0) (x) (x) 5x4 3x2 . ,
(1) (1) 0 , (x) (1), x ( ,0) .
x2 1 . Fermat,
(1) (1) 5 3 0 (1) 2 ,
3f (1) f (1) 2 f (1) 1 .
3.

(0) f (0) . , x 0

(x) x5 x3 0 (x) x5 x3 (x) (0) x5 x3


(x) (0)
(x) (0)
x4 x2 lim
0 (0) 0 .

x 0
x
x
x 0 , (x) x 5 x 3 0 (x) x 5 x 3 (x) ( 0) x5 x3 .
(x) (0)
(x) (0)
x4 x2 . lim
0 , (0) 0 .
,
x 0
x
x
(0) 0 , f (0) 0 .

mathematica -255

4.
H f [1,0] [0,1]. f
( 1,0) (0,1), ,
f (0) f ( 1)
x1 (1,0), x2 (0,1) f (x1 )
1
0 ( 1)
f (1) f (0)
f (x2 )
1 .
1 0
f [x1 ,x2 ] , (x1 ,x2 ) f (x1 ) f (x2 ) 1.
Rolle , (x1 ,x2 )
f () 0 . f .

147


xt
3
f
dt x 6x 6
2x
3

f : R R 3f (x)

x R .
1.
f .
2.
f .
3.
f 1 1 .
4.

f, Cf 1 , x'x
2
x 2 ,x 2 .
e
: , ( )
:

xt
u , dt 3du . t 2x u x
3
x
0
x
xt
)dt 3f (u)du 3f (u)du.
t x u 0 . f (
3
2x
x
0
1.

3f (x)

2x
x

f(

xt
)dt x 3 6x 6 ,
3
x

3f (x) 3f (u)du x 6x 6 3f (x) 3 f (u)du x 3 6x 6 .


3

f R , f (u)du
0
x

R , x3 6x 6 R , 3 f (u)du x 3 6x 6
0

R , f R .
mathematica -256

2.
x 0 3f (0) 6 f (0) 2 .

3f (x) 3f (x) 3x2 6 f (x) f (x) x 2 2 f (x)e x f (x)e x e x (x2 2)

f (x)e e
x

x 2 2e x .. 1 .

:
, .

x

t dt 2 e dt e

t 2

0
x

t dt 2 e

dt e t 2te dt 2 e tdt
0
t 2 x

0
x

e t t 2 2t e t dt 2 e tdt e t t 2 2te t 2 e tdt 2 e tdt


0
0
0
x

0
x

e t t 2 2te t 2 e tdt 2 e tdt e t t 2 2te t e xx 2 2xe x


0
0
0
0
x

0
x

e (x 2) e x x2 2xe x .
(1) ,

f (x)e e
x

x2 2xe x

f (x)e x e xx2 2xe x c,x R,c R .


x 0 c 2 , f (x)e x e xx2 2xe x 2 f (x) x2 2x 2ex ,
. f (x) 2ex x2 2x,x R .
3.
f R f (x) 2ex 2x 2,x R .
f , f .
f R f (x) 2ex 2,x R .
x

0
f (x) 0 2ex 2 0 x 0

f (x)
- 0
+
f (x) 0 2ex 2 0 x 0
,
f (x)
0 . 9
f (,0]
[0, ) .
x 0 f (0) 0.
x R f (x) 0 x 0 . f
R , 1 1 , .

4.

u f 1 (x) x f (u) dx f (u)du .


11
2
2
x 2 f (u) 2 f (u) f ( 2) u 2.
e
e
11

x 2 f (u) 2 f (u) f (0) u 0.


mathematica -257

(x) dx

(f (u))f (u)du

2
e2

uf (u)du u(2e

2u 2)du

2
0

0
u3
u
2
u
u
2 ue du 2 u du 2 udu 2 ue 2 e du 2 u 2
2
2
3 2
2
2
2
2
0

0
u3
2 ue 2 e 2 u 2
2
2
2
3 2
16
16
10

4e2 2 2e2
4
2 6e2 6e2 ..
3
3
3

148


x1 x
1
1
f (0, ) f (x) 2 2 f dt
1 t
2 2x
t
x 0 .
1.
f (0, )
f (x) f (x) .
2.

g(x) lnx x2f (x) x 0


(0, ) .

3.

f x (0, ) .

4.

Cf .

5.

E(k)
Cf , x'x x 1,x k k (0,1) .

6.

N lim E(k) .
k 0

x
x
x
u t dt 2 du .
t
u
u
t 1 u x , t x u 1 .
x
1
x
1 x
u
x
f (u)
du .
f dt f (u) 2 du
t
t
x
u
u

1
x
1
1.

1
1
f (u)
du,x 0 .
, f (x) 2 2
2 2x
u
1
f (u)
f (0, ) ,
(0, ) ,
u
x
f (u)
1
1
du

(0, ) .
(0,

)
1 u
2 2x 2
mathematica -258

f (0, ) f (x)

1 2f (x)

,x 0 .
x3
x

2.
g(x) lnx x 2f(x),x 0 (0, ) ,

1
1
1 2f (x)
g(x) 2xf (x) x 2f (x) 2xf (x) x 2 3

x
x
x
x
1
1
g(x) 2xf (x) 2xf (x) 0 . g (0, ) .
x
x
3.

x 1 f (1) 0 . g ,
x1

x 0 g(x) c,c R. , g(x) c ln x x f (x) c c 0


2

ln x x2f (x) 0 f (x)


f (x)

ln x
,x 0
x2

ln x
,x 0 .
x2

4.


ln x
lim f (x) lim 2 . x 0 Cf
x0
x0
x
-

1

ln
x

1
lim f (x) lim 2 lim x lim 2 0.
x
x
x DLH x 2x x 2x

xx Cf . Cf
, .


lnx
1


f (x)
lnx
1
lim
lim x lim 3 lim x2 lim 3 0.
x x
x
x
x DLH x 3x x 3x
x

1

ln x
1
lim f (x) x lim f (x) lim 2 lim x lim 2 0 .
x
x
x
x DLH x 2x x 2x

0
mathematica -259

y x 0x 0 0 , xx
Cf . , 1.
y

y
f x

ln x
f x 2
x
x

x
x=1

x=k

1
5.

ln x
x2

x (0,1] f (x) 0 .
1

( 2), E() f (x) dx f (x)dx

lnx
1
ln
1
1
lnx
lnx 1
2 dx lnxdx
2 dx

1 .

x
x

x x
x x

ln
1 1 ln
1

1 ln
1

lim E() lim


lim ( 1 ln) .

0
0

6.

E()

149


f : (0, ) R x 0

1 2f (t)
f (x) 3
dt.
t
t

1
x

ln x
,x 0.
x2
2.
f .
3.
E() Cf ,
1
x'x x x 0 ,
e
lim E() lim E().
1.

f (x)

4.

, R

x3 x 2 ln x
lim
0.
2
x
x

: . ( )
mathematica -260

1 2f t
(0, ),

t3
t
x
1 2f t
3
dt (0, ) .
t
t
1

1.

x 1 2f t
1 2f x
1
f x 3
dt f x 3
f x x 2 2xf x

t
t
x
x
x
1

f x x2 ln x f x x2 ln x c,x (0, ),c R .

f 1 0
ln x
f x x2 ln x f x 2 ,x 0 . .
x
2.

f (0, )

ln x x 2xln x x 1 2ln x

f x 2
.
x4
x4
x

f x 0 x e f x 0 x e f x 0 x e.
f . ,
x 0
e
, f
f (x)
+ 0
(0, e] [ e, ) .

f (x)

:
1
A1 (lim f x ,f e ] ( , ]
x0
2e
1
A 2 ( lim f x ,f e ] (0, ] .
x
2e
1
1
1
f A A1 A 2 ( , ] (0, ] ( , ] .
2e
2e
2e

3.

f f x 0 x 1

f x 0 0 x 1 . ,

mathematica -261

1
e

:x=0

1
e

ln x
E f x dx 2 dx
x

1
e

1
e

1
e

f x

1
1
ln x
E ln xdx

dx
2

x
x
x

:x

1
e

ln 1
ln
1
e
e

x
ln 1
E
.

lnx
x2

:x=1/e

1
1
e

1
e

E f x dx f x dx

1
e

ln 1
.

:x=1/e
f x

ln x
x2

:x=

f x

ln x
x2

E f x dx f x dx
1
e

x
:x=1/e

ln x
ln x
2 dx 2 dx
x
x
1
1
1

e
1

ln 1
ln 1
ln x 1 ln x 1


1
1 2
.
x 1 x
x 1

x
e

mathematica -262

:x=

1
ln 1

,
0

ln 1 1
, 1 .
E

ln 1
2 , 1

ln 1
1

, lim E lim
lim ln 1
0
0

ln 1
ln 1

lim E lim 2
lim 2
2

ln 1 lim 1 0.
ln 1
lim
lim

x3 x2 ln x
ln x

lim
lim x 2 lim f x x .
4.

2
x
x
x
x

x
, R ,
,

ln x

2
f x
ln
x

ln
x
1
lim
lim x lim 3 lim
lim 3 0

x
x x
x x
x
x
x3 x 3x

lnx lim 1 0.
lnx
lim f x x lim f x lim 2 lim

x
x
x x
x
x 2x 2
x2

150


g : R R f :
R R . , x R f (x) 0 g(x) 0 .
xg( x)

F(x)

t
f
dt .
g(x)

1.

x R F(x) g(x) f (u)du .


0

2.

F , f (x) e

3.

x R F(x) x , g(0)f (0) 1 .

4.

F(1)g(2) F(2)g(1) .
: . ( )

g(x) ex .

mathematica -263

:
t
1
1.
u
du
dt t 0
g(x)
g(x)
u 0, t xg(x) u x
xg(x)

F(x)

2.

xg(x)

t 1
f

dt g(x) f (u)du .
g(x) g(x)
0
x

f (x) e x ,g(x) ex . ,
x

F(x) e

t
f
dt g(x)
g(x)

e dt e [e
x

t x
0

] ex (e x 1) 1 ex . F(x) ex 1,x R.

3.

x R F(x) x g(x) f (u)du x.


0
x

x R g(x) 0

f (u)du
0

h(x) f (u)du
0

x
.
g(x)

x
,x R . x R
g(x)
x

h(x) 0. f R , f (u)du
0

x
R . ,
R ,
g(x)
x

. h(x) f (u)du
0

x
,x R
g(x)

g(x) xg(x)
,x R .
g 2 (x)
h(0) 0 . x R h(x) h(0) ,
g(0)
Fermat , h(0) 0 f (0) 2
0
g (0)
g(0) 0
f (0)g 2 (0) g(0)
2
f
(0)g
(0)

g(0)

g(0)
f
(0)g(0)

0
0


g 2 (0)
f (0)g(0) 1 .
R h(x) f (x)

F(x)
F(x)
F(x)
f (t)dt
4.

f (x) 0.

g(x) 0
g(x)
g(x)
F(2) F(1)
R,

F(2)g(1) F(1)g(2).
g(2) g(1)
x

mathematica -264

151

f : 0, 2 R f (x) x2
f (x)
x 0, 2 g :[0, 2] R g(x)
,x 0, 2
x
[0, 2 ) . f ( ) f ( ) 0.

1.

g(0).

2.

x 2
: f (x)
x 0, 2 .
2x

1
: xf (x)dx .
6
0

3.

:
g ,

1.

0

0

f (x)
xf (x) f (x)
f (x) xf (x) f (x)
g(0) lim g(x) lim
lim
lim

2
x0
x0
x
2x
x x0
DLH x0

x2 1
xf (x)
lim

lim

x0
2x x0 2 2

2.

t (0, 2) ,

f (t) t 2 2tf (t) 2tt 2

2tf (t)dt

2tf (t) 2f (t)dt t 2


x

2tt

2xf (x) 2 f ( ) 2 f (x)

x 2

x2
.
2
xf (x) f (x) x2
x (0, 2) g(x)

x2
2x 2
x(0, 2 )
x2
2
g(x) 0
0 x 0 x
2x2
0 x 0 x2 x2 0 g(x) 0
2xf (x) 2f (x) x2 xf (x) f (x)

x 2 x2 2 x2 0 g(x) 0

mathematica -265

, ,
, g
(0, ]

x 0
g(x)

[ , 2].

g(x)

.M

x g( ) 0.
x (0, 2) g(x) g( )
2xf (x) x2 2f (x) ,

x(0, 2 )
f (x)
0 f (x) 0.
x

x(0, 2 )

f (x) 0 2f (x) 0 2xf (x) x 0 2xf (x) x2 f (x)


2

3.

2xf (x) 2f (x) x2 2xf (x) 2x2f (x) xx2 . ,

2xf (x)dx 2x f (x)dx xx dx 2x f (x)


2

6 xf (x)dx
0

x2
.
2x

4xf (x)dx
0

1
x 2
0
2

1
1
x2 6 xf (x)dx ( 1 1)
0
2
2
0

6 xf (x)dx 1
0

xf (x)dx 6 .
0

152

erxmer
f : R R
f (x) 0 x R f (0) 1.
2x f (t)
dt ,x 0

g(x) x t
ln2
,x 0
g(x)
1.
N f (x)
f (2x) x 0
ln2
g(x)
f (2x)
f (x) x 0.
ln2
2.
g x0 0.
3.

g
: . ( ...)

:
1.
f(x) 0 x R f
R. x 0 x t 2x, f R,

mathematica -266

f (x) f (t) f (2x)

. , (*)
t
t
t
2x
2x
2x f (x)
f (t)
f (2x)
dt
dt
dt. ,

x
t
t
t
x
x

f (x) f (t) f (2x)

f (x)

2x
x

1
dt
t

2x

2x

f (t)
1
2x
x t dt f (2x) x t dt f (x)[lnt]x

2x

f (t)
dt f (2x)[lnt]2x
x
t

2x

f (t)
dt f (2x)ln 2 .
t
x
x 0 2x t x 0, f R,
f (2x) f (t) f (x)
f (2x) f (t) f (x)

. ,
t
t
t
x
x
x
x
x f (2x)
x 1
f (t)
f (x)
f (t)
1
2x t dt 2x t dt 2x t dt f (2x)2x t dt 2x t dt f (x)2x t dt
f (x)ln 2

f (t)
f (t)
x
f (2x)[ln t ]
dt f (x)[ln t ]2x
f (2x)ln 2
dt f (x)ln 2
t
t
2x
2x
x
2x

2x

f (t)
dt f (x)ln 2.
t
x
(*) f ,g [,] x [,]
f (x) g(x)
f (2x)ln 2

f (x) g(x) 0 f (x) g(x) dx 0 f (x) g(x)dx.


2.

x 0 f (x)ln2 g(x) f (2x)ln2


f (0)1

lim(f
(x)ln 2) lim(f
(2x)ln 2) f (0)ln 2 ln 2.

x 0

x 0

limg(x)
ln 2.

x0

, x 0 f (2x)ln2 g(x) f (x)ln2.


limg(x)
ln 2 , limg(x) ln2 g(0) ,

x0

x0

g x0 0.
2x f (t)
x f (t)
f (t)
dt
dt
dt
x
0
0
t
t
t
f (t)
(,0) (0, ) ,

t
f (2x) f (x) f (2x) f (x)

.
(,0) (0, ), g(x) 2
2x
x
x
x 0 2x x f (2x) f (x) ( f )

3.

g(x)

2x

mathematica -267

g(x) 0 . g 0, .
x 0 2x x f (2x) f (x)
( f ) g(x) 0

x
g(x)
+

0
0

g(x)
9
g ,0
, .
g x0 0, g ( , ).

+
9

153


x
4
f : R R f x
dt , x R.
0 1 f 2 t
1.
2.

f R .
Cf
.

3.

f
Cf , Cf 1 .

4.

Cf , Cf 1 .
:

1.

f R ,

4
R
1 f 2 (t)
x

4
0 1 f 2 (t) dt
R , f R
4
f (x)
.
1 f 2 (x)
4
0 , x R f (x) 0 . f
x R
1 f 2 (x)
4
R ,
R
1 f 2 (t)
.
8f (x)f (x)
f R f (x)
.
2
2
1 f (x)
.

2.

f (x)

4
0 x R f
1 f 2 (x)

R
f (x) 0

8f (x)f (x)

1 f

mathematica -268

(x)

f (x) 0

f 11

0 f (x) 0 f (0) x 0

f (x) 0

8f (x)f (x)

1 f

(x)

f (x) 0

0 8f (x) 0 f (x) 0 f (0) x 0 .

f (x) 0 x 0 .

, f
( ,0] [0, ) .
M(0,f(0)) (0,0)
.

x
f (x)
+
3

f (x)

0
0
.

3.
x R f (x) 0. f
R , 1 1 , . f (0) 0 ,
x 0 f (x) 0.
f9

f9

x 0 f (x) f (0) f (x) 0 , x 0 f (x) f (0) f (x) 0.

f (x)

4
f (x) f (x)f 2 (x) 4
2
1 f (x)

1
1
(f (x) f 3 (x)) (4x) f (x) f 3 (x) 4x c .
3
3
f (0) 0
1 3
1
x 0 f (0) f (0) 40 c c 0 . f (x) f 3 (x) 4x.
3
3
f ,
f (x) x f 1 (x) f (x) B A f (A) . (*)
1
1
1
f (x) x f (x) f 3 (x) x x 3 4x x x 3 12x 3x x 3
3
3
3
3
x 9x 0 x(x 3)(x 3) 0
x 0 x 3 x 3.
Cf ,Cf 1 A(3,3),O(0,0),B( 3, 3) .

(*) x0 B f (x) f 1 (x). x 0


f 1 (x) x, f 1 (x0 ) x0 . f (x0 ) f 1 (x0 ). (1)
f 1 (x0 ) x0 f 1 (x0 ) x0 f 1 (x0 ) x0 .
f 1 (x0 ) x0 (2) , f
f f 1 (x0 ) f (x0 ) x0 f (x0 ) (1),(2) .

f 1 (x0 ) x0 (3) , f
f f 1 (x0 ) f (x0 ) x0 f (x0 ) (1),(3) .

, f 1 (x0 ) x0 .
mathematica -269

x0 B f 1 (x) x, f 1 (x0 ) x0

f f 1 (x0 ) f (x0 ) x0 f ( x0 ). f (x0 ) f 1 (x0 ). f (x) x

f 1 (x) f (x) B A f (A).


3

4.

f (x) f

(x) dx

Cf ,Cf 1 . f [0, )
y x A(3,3),O(0,0) Cf
y x [0, ) , f 1 y x
[0, ) .
3

y x ( ), E

f (x) f

(x) dx 2 f 1 (x) x dx.


3

, f R , f 1
R.

x x3
x2 1
0.
g(x) ,x R , g R g(x)
4 12
4 4
x R g(x) 0 , g R,
1 1.

g lim g(x), lim g(x) ( , ).


x

f (x) f 3 (x)

x , g(f (x)) x f (x) g 1 (x).


,
4
12
f g , R. .
f (x) f 3 (x)
f (f 1 (x)) f 3 (f 1 (x))
x x3
1
1

f (x) f (x) ,x R.
4
12
4
12
4 12
1
f
y
y=x
3
3
x ( x)
x x
1
1
f ( x)

f (x)
4
12
4 12
:x=0
x R

( ),

:x=-3

:x=3

y=f(x)
f 1 (x)

mathematica -270

x x3

4 12

x x3
E 2 f (x) x dx 4 f (x) x dx 4 x f (x) dx 4 x dx
4 12
3
0
0
0
3

3x x 3
3x 2 x4
3 3 34
27 27 427 27
4
dx 4
4 4

..
4
12
8
48
8
48
8
16
16
4

0
0
3

154


f ,g : R R :
f g R.

f t dt g t dt

f t dt
2

0
x

0
2 x

g t dt x2 2x , x R.

1.
: f ,g
(0,2).
2.

f(0) f(2) g(0) g(2).

3.

x 0 0,2 f x0 g 2 x0 .

4.

0,2 f g 2 2.
:
x

F(x) f (t)dt,x R G(x) g(t)dt,x R.

1.

F(0) G(0) 0 F(2) f (t)dt g(t)dt G(2).


o H(x) F(x) G(x),x [0,2].
H [0,2] .
H (0,2) .
H(0) H(2) 0 , Rolle x1 (0,2)

H(x1 ) 0 F(x1 ) G(x1 ) 0 f(x1 ) g(x1 ) 0 f(x1 ) g(x1 ).


f

h(x) f (x) g(x) . , R f () f ().


g

g() g() g() g(). ,


h() h() , h R . h(x) 0
. x1 (0,2), h(x1 ) 0 , x1
h(x) 0 .
, f ,g
(0,2) .
:
x x1
mathematica -271

x x1 f (x) f (x1 ) g(x1 )


g(x) g(x1 ) f (x1 ) f (x)

g
x x g(x) g(x ) f (x )

1
1
1
x x1

f (x) f (x1 ) g(x1 )

1
g(x) g(x1 ) f (x1 ) f (x)

g
x x g(x) g(x ) f (x )

1
1
1
x x1 (0,2) f (x) g(x) 0 ,
f g .

k(x) f (t)dt

2.

2 x

g(t)dt x

2x,x R.

x R k(x) 0 . k(0) 0
2

k(2) f (t)dt g(t)dt f (t)dt g(t)dt 0.


Fermat k(0) 0 k(2) 0.
k(x) f(x) g(2 x) 2x 2,x R
k(0) 0 f(0) g(2) 2 0 (1) k(2) 0 f(2) g(0) 2 0, (2)
(1) (2)
f(0) g(2) f(2) g(0) 0 f(0) f(2) g(0) g(2).
3.
s(x) f (x) g(2 x),x [0,2].
s [0,2]
(1)

(2)

s(0) f (0) g(2) 2 0 s(2) f (2) g(0) 2 0.


Bolzano x0 (0,2)
s(x0 ) 0 f(x0 ) g(2 x0 ) 0 f(x0 ) g(2 x0 ).
4.
s [0,2] .
s (0,2) . MT
s(2) s(0) (1),(2) 2 ( 2)
(0,2) s()

2.
20
2
s(x) f (x) g(2 x) , s() 2 f () g(2 ) 2.

155


f [0,1]
1

f (x)

g(x)

t t 2dt
2

1.

f(x)dx 0. :

f (x) f (x) 2.
2

mathematica -272

2.

(0,1]

(t)dt 6 2 3.

x0 0,1

3.

x02

f(t)dt 2x f(x ).
2
0

:
:

1.

t 2 t 2 t [2,1]
f (x)

0 [2,1] g(x)

t 2 t 2dt

x [0,1] 2 f (x) 1 f (x) 2 0, f (x) 1 0,


(f (x) 2)(f (x) 1) 0 f 2 (x) f (x) 2.
x

h(x) f 2 (t)dt x 2 6x 3, x [0,1]

2.

0
1

h , h(0) 3 0 h(1) f 2 (t)dt 2 0.


0

(1)
f 2 (x) f (x) 2 f 2 (x) f (x) 2 0 ,
1

(x)dx f (x)dx 2dx f 2 (x)dx 2 ,

0
1

f (x)dx 0.
0
1

f (x)dx 2 h(1) 0 1 ,
2

(x)dx 2

(x)dx 2 0 h(0)h(1) 0 Bolzano

(0,1) h() 0 . h(x) 0 (0,1].


x2

2
x
x
2xf (x )e e f (t)dt
f (t)dt
x2
0
2xf (x 2 ) f (t)dt 0
0 0 x 0
2x
e

e
0

x2

3.

x2

(x)

f (t)dt
0

ex

, x [0,1]

mathematica -273


x2

[0,1] (x)

exf (x 2 )2x ex f (t)dt


0
2x

x2

2xf (x 2 ) f (t)dt
0
x

e
e
(0) (1) 0 , Rolle ,

x0 (0,1) (x0 ) 0 2x0f (x0 2 )

x0 2

f (t)dt 0.
0

156


x 0 f f (x) 0
x 0 , ,
1
x f (x t)
f [f (x) 4]dx 6x
dt x 0 .
0
0
et
:

[f (x) 4]dx 0 .
1

1.

2.

f (x) 3x2 6x x [0, ) .

3.

f .

4.

f 1 (x)dx 5 .

:
:
1.
x t u , dt du .
t 0 u x t x u 0
x
0
x u
x
f (x t)
f (u)
e f (u)
1 u
dt xu du
du x e f (u)du .

x
x
e
e
e
e 0
0
x
0
1

1
f ( (f (x) 4)dx) 6x x euf (u)du
e 0
0
1

e f ( (f (x) 4)dx) 6xe euf (u)du.


x

0
1

x 0 e f ( (f (x) 4)dx) e f (u)du f ( (f (x) 4)dx) 0.


0

2.

f ( (f (x) 4)dx) 0 euf (u)du 6xex .

mathematica -274

6xe x [0, ) euf (u) [0, ) ,


x

e f (u)du
u

[0, ) .

0
ex 0

f (x)e 6e 6xe f (x) 6 6x f (x) 6x 3x 2 c,c R.


x 0 f (0) c. f (x) 0, c 0. ,
x

1
0 f (f (x) 4)dx f (6x 3x 2 c 4)dx f 3x 2 x 3 cx 4x
0
0

0 f (3 1 c 4) f (c).
c 0

x c f (c) 0 6c 3c2 c 0 c(3c 7) 0 c 0 .


f (x) 3x2 6x,x 0 , .
3.
x [0, ) f (x) 6 6x 0 .
f [0, ) , 1 1 ,
. f (0) 0 lim f (x) lim 3x2 .
x

f [0, ).
f 1 [0, ).
y
f (x) y 3x2 6x y x 2 2x 1 1
3
x 0
y0

y3
y3
x 1
x
3
3
x3
f 1 (x)
1,x 0 .
3

x 1

4.

y3
1,y 0
3

9
x3

x3
9
, f (x)dx
1 dx x 0
dx
3
3
0
0
0

9
3
3 2 (x 3)3
1
0 f (x)dx 9 3 0 x 3dx 9 3 3

0
9

1
f (x)dx 9

2 3( 123 33 )
2 3(24 3 3 3)
9

9
9

423
42
9
9 14 5.
9
3

0
9

(x)dx 9

4. ,
125 147.

157

mathematica -275

et
f : R R , f (x) t
dt,x R.
10

1
x
1.

f R f (x).

2.

f (x) 0 R .

3.

f
.

z z i z 1 ,
Cf .
f (x)
lim
.
x 0 3x
: . - . ( )

4.

5.

:
t2

e
et
f x t
dt t
dt
10

1
10

1
x
0

1.

et
0 10t 1 dt .

et
g t t
R ,
10 1
2
x
et
F x t
dt R.
10 1
0
h x x R
x

et
0 10t 1 dt R, F x x , f
R,

x
x et

et
ex
ex
f x t
dt t
dt x

.
10 1
10 1 10 x 1
10

1
0
0

ex
ex

2.
f x x

0 . x R
10 1 10 x 1
f x 0 , f R . ,
2

et
f 0 t
dt 0 , x0 0 f x 0
10 1
0
( ).
3.

,
2
2
2
2
2
e
ex
ex
ex
ex
ex 10x
f x x

x
x

1
10 1 10 x 1 10x 1
10

1
10

1
1
10x
x2

mathematica -276

x
x
ex ex 10x 10 1e
x2
f (x)

e
10x 1
10x 1
f R ,
2

2xe

f x e

x2

x2

2e x 0

. f x 0 2xe 0 x 0.
x2

f 0, f 0,
2

f x 0 2xe 0
x2

2ex 0,xR

x 0 f ,0 f

,0 .
,

x0 0 ,

O 0,0
f .

x
f (x)
4

f (x)

0
0
.

+
3

f O 0,0 Cf

4.

f 0 0,f 0 e0 1

y f 0 f 0 x 0
: y x .
z
z i z 1 z i z 1 z i z 1 z i z 1
AB A 0, 1 B 1,0
: y x.
limf x lim 3x 0 f ,h x 3x

5.

x 0

x 0

R
2
f x
ex
e0
1
De L'Hospital : lim
lim

x0
3x x0 33x 30 3
lim
x0

f x
f x
1
lim
.

3x x0 3x 3

158


f : R R R f g
g(x) f (xt)dt.
1

1.

x f (t)dt
0
, x0
g g(x)
x

x0
f (0),

2.

g .
mathematica -277

3.

g R f 0 R .

4.

5.

x 0 0
x f (t)
f
dt.
0 x
g .

6.

x0 0,1

x0

f (t)dt 2x0f (x0 ).

:
1.

:
u xt du xdt t 0 u 0, t 1 u x .
1

1
1
x 0 g(x) f (xt)(xdt) g(x) f (u)du
x0
x0
x f (t)dt
0
, x0.
x 0 g(0) f (0)dt f (0), g(x)
x
0

x0
f (0),
1

2.

x 0 , g x

f (u)du f

. x 0 ,

0
x

f (u)du

0

0

f (x)
f (0) g(0).
x0
x 0
DLH x 0 1
x
g x 0 , R.

g(0) f (0) limg(x) lim 0

3.

lim

x 0, g

x
x

f (t)dt xf (x) f (t)dt


0

g(x) 0
.
2

x
x

1
f (t)dt f (0)
x 0
g(x) g(0)
lim

x 0, lim
x 0
x 0
x
x
x

f (t)dt xf (0)

lim 0
x0

mathematica -278

0

0

f (x) f (0) 1
f (0) , x 0.
DLH x0
2x
2
lim

xf (x) f (t)dt
0

,x 0
2
g(x)
x
f (0)

,x 0
2

4.

F(t) f (u)du [0,x] x 0 ,


0

(0,x), F(t) f (t) ,


(0,x) F()

F(x) F(0)
F(x)
f (u)
f ()

du.
x
x
x
0
x

5.

x 0 g(x)

xf (x) f (t)dt
x

0
2

(4) f ()x f (u)du , ,


0

xf (x) xf () f (x) f ()
g(x)

0 x f .
x2
x
g [0, ).
x

x 0 g(x)

xf (x) f (t)dt
x

0
2

.
x

f (u)
du xf () f (t)dt
(x,0) f ()
x
0
0
xf (x) xf () f (x) f ()
g(x)

0. x f .
x2
x
,
x

0
, g ( ,0]
g(x)
+ 0
[0, ).
g(x)
9 .M 0
x0 0 g(0) f (0).
x

6. f (t)dt 2xf (x) f (t)dt 2xf (x) 0 f (t)dt 2x f (t)dt 0


1
1
1
1

x
x
x

1
x
f (t)dt f (t)dt 0
f (t)dt x f (t)dt 0
2
2x 1
1

2 x 1
x

mathematica -279

f
(t)dt

x
f
(t)dt

2 x 1
1

q(x) x f (t)dt,x [0,1].


1

q [0,1] , (0,1)

f (t)dt xf (x) .
2 x 1
q(0) q(1) 0 , Rolle
q(x)

x0 (0,1) q(x0 ) 0

1
2 x0

x0

f (t)dt

x0

x 0 f (x 0 ) 0 f (t)dt 2x 0f (x 0 ).

159

7

f x t t dt x 0,
2
0

1.
f 0.
2
2.
f , ,
.
1 f 1
.
3.
n 1 , f
n
n

f (t t)7 dt u t du dt .
2
2 0

t 0 u ,t u 0
2
2

1.

f (( u) ( u))7 ( du) (u u)7 du


2
2
2
0
0

f (u u)7 du f , f ( ) 0 .
2
2
2
0

2.


(x x)7 0, ,
2

mathematica -280

x
x

x f (t)dt x f (t)dt 0 x f (t)dt 0


1
1
1

7

f x t t dt 0, ,
2
0


f (x) (x x)7 . f ( ) 0 . f (x) 0, ,
4
2

f (x) 7(x x)6 0, x .. f [0, ].


4
2

x
x f (x) f ( ) 0 .
0
4
2
4
4

f
(x)
0
+

f f .
f (x) . 0 . 9 .

f [ , ]
4 2

x f (x) f 0. f [0, ] .
4
4
4

x1 0 x 2 f (0) f 0
2
2

f ( ) (x x)7 dx.
4
4
0

f (x) 7(x x)6 0, x f [0, ]


4
2
.
x


1 1
f 0, , 0, , ,1
2
n n
1 , , f
1
1
, , x1 0, ,x 2 ,1
n
n
1
1
1
f f (0)
f (1) f
f (1) f
n
1
n n
n.
f (x1 )
nf f (x 2 )
1
1
n1
n
1
n
n
f
1
f
(1)

f
n
f 9
1


x1 x 2 f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) nf n
n1
n
1 1
1
1
nf f f (1) f nf f (1).
n n
n
n

3.

mathematica -281

160

f : R R
x

f x 5x 1 f u x u du , x R.
0

1.

f
f x f x , x R.
x

3.

f t f t e dt 0 x R.
f x f x e 4.

4.
5.

f .
f 1 1 .

2.

1.

f x 5x 1 f u x u du f x 5x 1 x f u du uf u du.
x

f 0 1 . f R , f u du.
0

R . ,

uf u du R
0

5x 1 . R . f R
x

f x 5 f u du.
0

f 0 5 . f R ,
x

f u du R . f R f x f (x).
0

2.

f t f t e dt
t

f t f t x

f t f t e dt 0 e dt 0 .
0

f t f t e dt 0 .
t

3.

g(x) (f (x) f (x))ex ,x R.


f (x)f (x)

0.
g R g(x) (f (x) f (x))ex (f (x) f (x))e x
g . x R g(x) c,c R.
mathematica -282

x 0 g(0) c (f (0) f (0))e0 c c 4.


g(x) 4 (f (x) f (x))ex 4 .
4.

(f (x) f (x))ex 4 ,

f (x) f (x)
f (x)
f (x)
2x
2x

4e

2e

2e2x c,c R.

x
x
x
e
e
e
f (0)
x 0 0 2e0 c 1 2 c c 3 .
e
x
f (x) 2e 3ex . .

5.
f R f (x) 2e x 3ex .
x R f (x) 0 . f
R , 1 1 . .
f , f 1 .
lim f (x) lim 2e x 3ex lim f (x) lim 2e x 3ex .
x

f R.
2
3ex y 3e2x ye x 2 0 .
x
e
x
2
e t 3t yt 2 0. y 2 24 0 .

f (x) y 2e x 3ex y

y y 2 24
y y 2 24
x
t1,2
.
. e
6
6
y y 2 24
x
x
x R e 0 , e
,
6
y y 2 24
y y 2 24
y y 2 24
x
.
x ln
0 . e

6
6
6

x x2 24
1
f (x) ln
,x R .

161


f :[,] R f () 2f () :
f (x) 2f 2 (x) 4f (x) 4 x [,] . :
1.
2.

H f .
f () 0 .

3.

4.

f (x)dx ln2 .

f () 1 , :
. f
mathematica -283

. f ,
.
: 67 xgastone
:

1.

, f x f 2 x f x 2 ,
2

x , f x 0, f , .
f

2.

f f f 2f f 0.

3.

x f x f 0 . f x 0.

f x f 2 x f x 2 , x ,
2

f x f 2 x

f x
f x
f x
f x 0.
f x
f x

f x

f x

f x f x dx 0 f x dx f x dx 0 lnf x f x dx

lnf lnf f x dx ln 2f lnf f x dx ln 2 f x dx.


4.

. f x f 2 x f x 2 , x ,
2

f x 2f x f (x) 2 f x 2 f (x) 2f (x)(2f (x) 2) 4f (x)(f (x) 1).

x [,] f () 1. , f
f

, , x f x f 1 .
f (x) 1 0, 4f (x)(f (x) 1) 0. , x [,]
f x 0, f [,].
. 3 A x1 ,f x1 ,B x2 ,f x2 , x3 ,f x3 Cf
x1 x2 x3 .
f [,] (,),

x1 ,x2 x2 ,x 3 , x1 x2 x3 .
1 x1 ,x2 2 x2 ,x3 :
f 1

f x3 f x2
f x2 f x1
AB f 2
B
x2 x1
x3 x2

mathematica -284

AB B f 1 f 2 , , f

f 1 f 2 .
f ,
.

162

f 0,1 0,1 .
1.
2.

f t dt 1.
f t dt 2x 1

x0 0,1 .

3.

x 0 (2)
Cf , x'x
x 0 x x0 0,5 ..

4.

f t dt 2x
x

x 0,1 .

:
1.
f (x) 1 f (x) 1 0,x [0,1] .
f ,


2.

f (x) 1 dx 0 f (x)dx dx f (x)dx 1.

f [0,1],
x

f (t)dt [0,1]. , 2x 1
0
x

[0,1], g(x) f (t)dt 2x 1, x [0,1]


0

[0,1]. , (.1) . g(1) f (t)dt 1 0. ,


0
0

g(0) f (t)dt 1 1 0, g(0)g(1) 0.


0

Bolzano (0,1)
g(x) f (x) 2 0 , f (x) 1, x [0,1] ,
, (0,1) .
3.

x0

f (x) 0 x0

f (x) dx

f (x)dx 2 . , (2)
mathematica -285


x0

g(x0 ) 0 f (t)dt 2x 0 1 , 2x0 1


0

4.

1
3
x0 .
2
4
x

f [0,1], f (t)dt
0

[0,1]. h() f (t)dt , [0,x], 0 x 1


0

[0,1]. h [0,x] 0 x 1,
(0,x), (0,x)
h(x) h(0)
h(x)
f ()
f (x) 1 2, x [0,1]
h()
x
x
h(x)
2 h(x) 2x x (0,1).

163

1.
2.

3.

x 0
x xlnx 0.
f (x) x lnx, x 0 0 , ()
f , f ,
() .
ln x

F(x)

(e

et)dt.

4.

e
0 (et et)dt 1 .
2
1
:
x0

1.
x xlnx 0 x 1 lnx 0 lnx 1 x e.
x xlnx 0 x e.
f x x lnx,x 0

f x 1 f x 2 0 x 0.
x
x
x 0, f
,
( ).
2.

3.

et et R, .

mathematica -286

1 R,

et dt R.

1
x

e et R,
t

et dt

R. lnx (0, ) ,
ln x

F x

et dt

et dt lnx . ,

ln x t

1 x eln x
F x e et dt eln x eln x
,x 0 .
x
x
1

g x x elnx,x 0.
g x e
e xe
g x 1
. g x 0 x e
x
x
x 0
g x 0 x e . ,
g(x)
g (0,e]
g(x)
[e, ) .

e
0

.M

x e g e e elne 0
x 0 . g x g e 0.

x 0 F x 0 x e. , F
0, .
4.

0 0 e e0 e 1 F e F 1

F . ,
lne

F 1 e

F e

ln1

1
lne

et dt e et dt
1

lne

et dt e t et dt
1

et 2
e
e

e t et dt e t
1 0 e 1 .

2 1
2
2

164


f : R R x R
x
4
f x 2
dt.
f
t

0
mathematica -287

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

f R
f ,
.
f 3 x 3f x 12x.
f x x.

x -2
x +2
f (x)

f x dx.
:

-2
0
2
+
- 0 +
- 0 +
+
+
x
+ - 4 - 0 +

4
dt
R, f (x) 2
f (t) 1
f 2 (x) 1
0
f(x)
9 0
0 . 9
4
f (x) 2
f
f (x) 1
4(f 2 (x) 1)
8f (x)f (x)
f (x) 2

.
(f (x) 1)2
(f 2 (x) 1)2
1.

2.

x R f (x)

4
0 , f
f (x) 1
2

R .
f ( x) 0
8f (x)f (x)

0 8f (x)f (x) 0 f (x) 0 (1) .


, f (x) 0 2
(f (x) 1)2
f (0) 0 f (x) 0, x0 0
f (x) 0. f (x) 0 x0 0.
f

f R , x 0 f (x) f (0) 0.
f

x 0 f (x) f (0) 0.
,
f (x) 0
f
8f (x)f (x)

f (x) 0 2

8f
(x)f
(x)

f
(x)

f
(0)

x 0.
(f (x) 1)2
f (x) 0 x 0.
, f
( , 0] [0, ) .
x0 0
f (0) 0 .

x
f (x)
+

f (x)

0
0
.

_
4

O(0,0)
f .
mathematica -288

4
f 2 (x)f (x) f (x) 4
f (x) 1
2
3f (x)f (x) 3f (x) 12 (f 3 (x) 3f (x)) (12x), x R
f 3 (x) 3f (x) 12x c,c R f (0) 0 , c 0 .
f 3 (x) 3f (x) 12x, x R.

3.

f (x)

4.

f (x) x x 0, x0 0

f (x0 ) x0 f 3 (x) 3f (x) 12x

f 3 (x0 ) 3f (x0 ) 12x0 x03 3x0 12x0 x03 9x0 0 x0 0,


x02 9 0 , f (x) x
x 0.
5.

g(x) x3 3x f 3 (x) 3f (x) 12x, x R


g(f (x)) 12x g(x) 3x2 3 0 g R

g(R) ( lim g(x), lim g(x)) ( , )
x

R g(f (x)) 12x f (x) g 1 (12x) f


g 1 g R ,
f ( )
f 1 R f 3 (x) 3f (x) 12x, x R

f 3 (f 1 (x)) 3f (f 1 (x)) 12f 1 (x), x R


1
1
x 3 3x 12f 1 (x) f 1 (x) x 3 x, x R.
12
4
6.
Cf ,Cf 1 . f
[0, ) , Cf y x [0, ) ,
f 1 y x [0, ).
1, 2
Cf ,Cf 1 y x.
y

y=x

y=x

:x=0
f 1 (x)

x x3

4 12

:x=-3

:x=3

y=f(x)

:x=0

f 1 (x)

x x3

4 12

:x=3

2
mathematica -289

3x x 3
x x3
E 4 f (x) x dx 4 x f (x) dx 4 x dx 4
dx
4
12
4
12

0
0
0
0
3

3x 2 x4
3 3 34
27 27 427 27
4
4( ) 4

..
8
48
8
48
8
16
16
4

0
3

f (x)dx
0

165

E 27
..
4 16

f : , R 0 ,
z
z1 if z 2 if w 1 R .
z2
1.

z1 iz 2 z1 iz 2 .

2.


f x
, .
Rolle g x
x
f
.
x
f x t
lim
dt 1 ,
x a
x

3.
4.

f x 1 , .
:

1.

z1 iz 2 z1 iz 2

z1
z
2
2
i 1 i wi wi wi wi
z2
z2

2i(w w) 0 w w, .
(1)
z1 iz 2 z1 iz 2 if () i if () if () i if ()

if () i f () if () i f () .
, f () i(f () ) f () i(f () )

f () (f () )2 f () (f () )2
2
2
f () (f () )2 f () (f () )2
2

2f () 2f () 2f () 2f () f () 2f ().
, z1 iz 2 z1 iz2

mathematica -290

z1 z1
z 1 z 2 z 1z 2
z2 z2
if () if () if () if () f () f (). H
f (x)
g(x)
,x [,],0 , [,]
x
, x (,)
f ()
f ()
.
g()
g()

f () f ()

g() g().
f () f ()

g Rolle [,] .
(,)
f () f ()
f ()
g() 0
0 f ()
, (,).
2

2.

wR w w

3.

f ,
f ()
xf ()
(x ) y
(2), y f () f ()(x ) y f ()

O(0,0) ,
f
.
4.

x t u , dt du . t u x
x

x
f (x t)
f (u)
f (u)
dt
du
du.
t x u . ,
(x

)(x

t)
(x

)u
(x

)u

g , ,
x

h(x) g(u)du , .

, lim g(u)du h() 0.


x

g(u)du

0

0

f (u)
du lim
lim g( x) g().
x (x )u
x ( x ) DLH x
a

, 1 lim

f ()
1 f () f () f () f () .

h(x) f (x) x,x [,].

g() 1

mathematica -291

h [,] , (,) h() f () 0 ,


h() f () 0 . Rolle x0 (,)
h(x0 ) 0 f (x0 ) 1 0 f (x0 ) 1 .
f (x) 1 (,).

166


f : (0, ) R
f (x) 0 x 0 .
f (x)
1
1
dt :
1,1 , ,2 g(x)
2
1 f (t)
2
1.
g(x) .
2.

g(x) .

3.

x 0 f (f (x)) x , :
. f '(1) 1.
2
. xo (0,1) g'(xo )
.
xo 1
3
. (0,1) f '() .
2
:
1.
x 0 f x 0 f ,
x 0 .

* (1) 121.

f x 0 x 0 f x 0 x 0 .
f x 0 x 0 f 0,
1
1
1 f 1 f 1 2 , .
2
2
f x 0 x 0 f 0, .
h t

11
1
. h t 0 f t 1 f (t) f (1) t 1
1 f t

Dh 0,1 1, . 2 1, f x (1, ),
f

f x 1 f x f 1 x 1. Dg 0,1 .
2.

x 0,1

mathematica -292

1
0,1 ,
1 f (t)

1
dt
2 1 f (t)
0,1 . f 0,1 , g 0,1 ,
,
f x
g x h f x f x
0
1 f f x

f x 1 f f x f 1 f f x 1 f (x) 0

g 0,1 , .
3.

. x 0 f f x x f f x f x 1
f (x) 0

x 1 f (f (1)) f (1) 1 f (1) 1 f (1) 1.


2

. F x f x 2x , x 0 .
1
F ,1 .
2
1
F ,1 F x f x 2.
2
1
F 1 3 F .
2
1
Rolle , x0 ,1 0,1 :
2
f x0
2
F x0 0 f x0 2

1 x0 x0 1
f f x0 x0

f x0

1 f f x0

2
2
g x0
.
x0 1
x0 1

3
. f x0 ,1 f x0 2 1 f (1) .
2

, ... ,
3
x0 ,1 0,1 f .
2

167


f R , :
f (0) 1 f (x) f (x) x [0, ).
1.

x (0, ) f (x) ex .

mathematica -293

2.

x (,0) (0, ) f (t)dt 2 x ex 3,

(0,1) (1, ).
3.

f (t)dt ex x 2
0

(0,1).
1.

:
x (0, ) f x f x f x e x f x e x

f x e x f x e x 0 , f x e x 0 .

g x f x e x x [0, ).
g [0, ) . x (0, )

x 0 g x g 0 f x e x f 0 e0

f x e x 1 f x ex .
2.

x 0
x

x 0

x
x
x
x
f (t)dt 2 e 3 f (t)dt 3 2 e
0

f (t)dt
0

3 2 x ex
.
x
x

f , . h(x) f t dt
0

R , . lim f (t)dt h(0) 0.


x0
0

, lim

f (t)dt
0

x0

0

0

lim f (x) f (0) , f .

DLH x0

0

0

3 2 e
2 x ln ex

lim
, lim
DLH x0
2 ln 1
x0
x
1

f (0) 2ln 1 (1).


x 0 ,
x

f (t)dt 2

x 0

e 3 f (t)dt 3 2 e
x

f (t)dt
0

3 2 x ex

.
x
x

f , . h(x) f t dt
0

mathematica -294

R , . lim f (t)dt h(0) 0 .


x0
0

, lim
x0

f (t)dt
0

0

0

lim f (x) f (0) , f .

DLH x0

0

0

3 2 e
2 x ln ex
, lim
DLH xlim

2 ln 1.
x0
0
x
1

f (0) 2ln 1. (2)


(1) , (2) f (0) 2ln 1. f (0) 1,
1
2 ln 1 1 2ln 2 ln 1 e 1 .
e
x

G x f t dt ex x 2 x 0,1 .

3.

G 0,1
0

G 0 f t dt e0 0 2 1 0
0

G 1 f t dt e 1 2 f t dt e 3 . (.1)
1

f t e f t dt etdt et e 1
1

f t dt e 1 f t dt e 3 2e 4 0
G 0 G 1 0 , Bolzano x1 0,1
x1

x1

G x1 0 f t dt e x1 2 0 f t dt e x1 x1 2.
x1

168


f : [0, ) R ,

1.

f (x) f (x)
f (1) f (1) e
dx

.
0 ex
e
f (0) 0 .

2.

x (0, ) f (x) 1 .

f (0) 1

3.

f (1) 2 , 1 f (x)dx
0

3
.
2

mathematica -295

g(x) f (t) ln f (t) dt,x [0, ) .

4.

. g .
. x (0, ) ef (x) ef (x) .
2

. e
1

dx ln f (x) dx .

f (x)1

: . ( , )
:

f (x) f (x)
f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x)
dx

dx
0 ex
0
ex
1

1.

1
f (x) f (x)
f (x) f (x)
f (x) f (x)
dx

dx

0
0 ex
ex ex
ex

0
0
1

f (1)
f (x) f (x) f (1)

f
(0)

f (0)
ex ex
e
e

0
0
1
f (x) f (x)
f (1) f (1) e
dx

,
x
e
e
0
f (0)1

f (1)
f (1)
f (1) f (1) e
f (0)
f (0)
., f (0) f (0) 1 f (0) 0.
e
e
e
1

2.
f , f .
x 0 f (x) f (0) 0
x 0 . f [0, ) . x 0

f (x) f (0) 1
3.

(2)
1

f (x) 1 f (x) 1 0 (f (x) 1)dx 0 f (x)dx 1


0 x 1 . f [0,x] , (0,x) ,
MT 1 (0,x)
f (x) f (0) f (x) 1
f (1 )

.
x0
x
, f [x,1] , (x,1) , MT
f (1) f (x) 2 f (x)

2 (x,1) f ( 2 )
.
1 x
1 x
0 1 x 2 1 f ,
f (x) 1 2 f (x) x(0,1)

f (1 ) f ( 2 )

x
1 x
mathematica -296

(1 x)(f(x) 1) x(2 f(x)) f(x) 1 xf(x) x 2x xf(x)


f (x) x 1 0 x 1 f (x) 0.
1

x 1 f (x)dx 0 x 1dx f (x)dx 0


0

1
x

3
3
2 x f (x)dx 0 f (x)dx 2 . 1 f (x)dx 2 .

0 0
0
0
2

4.

. g(x) f (t) ln f (t) dt,x [0, ).


1

f [0, ) f (x) 1 , ln(f (x))


.
x

f (t) ln f (t) [0, ) , f (t) ln f (t) dt


1

[0, ) , g [0, )
g(x) f (x) ln(f (x)),x 0. g(x)
f (x)
f (x) 1
f (x)
0.
g(x) f (x)
f (x)
f (x)
g [0, ).
. g [0, ) g
[0, ) . x 0 g(x) g(0) f (x) ln(f (x)) f (0) ln(f (0))
f(x) ln(f(x)) 1 f(x) 1 ln(f(x)) f(x) lne ln(f(x))

f (x) ln(ef (x)) ef (x) ef (x).


. e

f (x)

ef (x)
ef (x)
f (x) ef (x)1 f (x) ef (x)1 f (x) 0.
e
2

f (x)1

f (x) dx 0 e

dx f (x)dx.

f (x)1

g , x 0,
g(x) g(0) 1 . g [0, ).
2

1 2 g(1) g(2) 0 f (x) ln f (x) dx


1
2

0 f (x)dx ln(f (x))dx ln(f (x))dx f (x)dx.


1

ln(f (x))dx f (x)dx ef (x)1dx.

mathematica -297

169


f : (0, ) R
f (1) 1 x2 (f (x) 1) lnx 1 x 0.
ln x
1.
N g(x) f (x)
, x 0
x
(0, ).
2.

N f .
1
x 1

3.
4.

x e1 x x 1.
Cf ,
x'x x 1,x e.
: . - . ( )

:
1.
x2 (f (x) 1) lnx 1,(1). g (0, )

1 ln x x 2f (x) 1 ln x

g (x) f (x)

x2
x2
x2f (x) (ln x 1) (1) x 2f (x) x 2 (f (x) 1)
g(x)

1.
x2
x2
g(x) 1 x (0, ) g(x) x c,c R .
ln1
g(1) 1.
x 1 g(1) f (1)
1
, x 1 c 0 . g(x) x,x 0.

2.

g(x) x f (x)

ln x
ln x
x f (x) x
,x 0 ,
x
x

3.

x 1
1
1
1 x
x 1
x e ln(x ) lne1 x
ln x (1 x)lne
x1
lnx (1 x)(1 x) lnx 1 x2 x2 1 lnx 0 (x 1)(x 1) lnx 0
, x 1 x 1 0,x 1 0 lnx 0.
1
x 1

x 1 x

1
x 1

e1 x x 1 .

x2 1 ln x
x 1 f (x)
0
x2
x 1 3.

4.

f [1, ) .
f

x 1 f (x) f (1) 1.

mathematica -298


y

e
e
e
ln x

E f (x) dx f (x)dx x
dx
x
1
1
1
x
e
e
e
e
1
1
1
E x2 (ln x) ln xdx x 2 ln 2 x x -2
1
1
1
2
2
2
1

f x x

-2
0
+
- 0
:x=e
:x=1
- 0 +
+
+ - 0

x +2
f (x)

1 2
1 e2 2
E e 1
..
2
2
2

f(x)

170

lnx
x

2
+
+
+

0 . 9

f (x) ln(ex 1) lnx,x 0 .


1.

x 0 f (x) 0.

2.

f .
x 2

lim f (t)dt .
x
x 1

x2

lim xf (t)dt 0.
x
1

3.

4.

ex 1
1.
x 0 f x ln e 1 ln x ln
.
x
g x ex x 1,x R. g R,
x

, g x ex 1,x R.

g x 0 ex 1 0 ex 1 x 0
g x 0 ex 1 0 ex 1 x 0
, g

0
x
( ,0]
g(x)
0 +
[0, ).
g(x)
0 . 9
x 0, g(0) 0.
x 0
ex 1
ex 1
x
x
g x 1 e x 1 0 e 1 x
1 ln
0 f x 0 .
x
x

2.

f x

ex
1 xex ex 1

ex 1 x
x e x 1

x 0 x ex 1 0, f ,
.
mathematica -299

h x xex ex 1,x 0. h [0, ),


, h x xex ,x 0.

x 0 h x 0 . h [0, ),
h

h [0, ), x 0 h(x) h(0) 0.


h( x)
x 0 h x 0. , f x
0.
x ex 1

f 0, .
3.

x 1 t x 2 f

f x 1 f t f x 2
f x 1

x 2

x 2

x 2

x 1

x 1

x 1

f x 1 dt f t dt f x 2 dt

x 2

f t dt f x 2 .

x 1

ex 1
e 1
lim
lim
lim ex .

x
x
x DLH x x
x

e x 1
x

e 1
lnu .
lim f x lim ln
ulim
x
x

, lim f x 1 , lim f x 2 .
x

x 2

, lim

4.

x 0

f t dt .

x 1

1
2
t , f ,
x
x
2
x

2
x

2
x

1
2
1
2
f f t f xf dt xf t dt xf dt
x
x
x
x
1
1
1
e x 1

e 1
1
2
lim
lim ex 1.
f xf t dt f . lim

x0
x0
x DLH x0 x
x 1
x
2
x

0

0

x
u

1
x

e u 1
u

e 1
1
2
limln w 0 lim f 0.
, lim f lim f u lim ln

x
w 1
x
u 0
x u0
x
u
u

2
x

, lim xf t dt 0.
x

mathematica -300

1
x

171


f [1, ) , f (x) 0
x

x 1 . G(x) t 2f (t)dt,x 1
1
x

H(x) tf (t)dt,x 1.
1

1.
2.

F(x)

G(x)

H(x)

(1, ).
P(x) xH(x) G(x),x 1. :
. x 1 P(x) 0.
. P [1, ).
x2

3.

1.

lim
x1

H(x) lntdt
1

.
G(x)(x 1)2
: . ( )
:

G x t 2f t dt [1, )
1

t f t .
2

x
x 2

2
G x t f t dt x f x . H x tf t dt
1
1

[1, ) , tf t

. H x tf t dt xf x .
1

G x
F x
,x 1 1, .
H x
,

G x G x H x G x H x x 2f x H x G x xf x
F x


2
2
H
x
H
x
H
x

x
xf x xH x G x xf x x

2
F x

x
tf
t
dt

t
f
t
dt

1
H2 x
H 2 x 1

x
x
x

xf x
xf x
2
F x 2
xtf t t 2f t dt 2

x tf t dt t f t dt

H x 1
H x 1
1

mathematica -301

xf x x
xf x x
2
F x 2
xtf t t f t dt F x H2 x tf t x t dt (1).
H x 1
1
f x 0

xf x
0 x 1. .
H2 x

1 t x tf t x t 0
(1) x 1 F x 0.

tf t x t dt 0 .
1

F x 1, .

2.
. P x xH x G x ,x 1
[1, ) . ,

P x xH x G x H x xH x G x

P x tf t dt x f x x f x tf t dt 0 x 1 ,
2

1 t x tf t 0 . P x 0 P x
[1, ) .
x [1, ) x 1 P x P 1 0.
x

. P x tf t dt tf t
1

. P x tf t dt xf x 0 x 1.
1

P [1, ).
x

H x ln tdt
ln
tdt

H
x

(2)
1
1
lim
3.
, lim
2
2
x1 G x x 1
x 1 G x x 1

De LHospital ,
x2

mathematica -302

0
tf
t
dt

tf
t
dt

1
1
0
H x

lim xf x 1.
lim
lim x
lim

2
x
DLH x1
x1 G x
x1
x1 x f x

2
2
1 t f t dt
t f t dt
1

0
ln
tdt

1 ln tdt 0 1

ln x 22x
2xln x

lim
lim
lim
lim

2 DLH

2
x1
x1
x1 2 x 1
x1
x

1
x 1
x 1
2

x2

xln x
2 lim

x1
x 1

2 lim ln x 1 2.
x1

(2)
x
x

H x ln tdt
ln tdt
ln tdt

H
x
H
x

lim
1
1
lim
lim
lim 1
12 2.
2
2
2
x1 G x x 1
x1 G x x 1
x1 G x x1 x 1

x2

172

f : R R f x 1 2x f 1 x , x R
f (1) 0.
1.
2.
3.

f 1 x f 1 x x2 , x R.
1 x

x3
g x f t dt .
3
1 x
3

I f x dx.
1

1.

:
f x 1 2x f 1 x f x 1 f 1 x 2x

f x 1 f 1 x x f x 1 f 1 x x

c,c R.

x 0 2f (1) c c 0 . f (x 1) f (1 x) x2 .
2.

x 1

x3
g(x) f (t)dt
3
1 x

x 1

1 x

f (t)dt

x3
f (t)dt ,x R .
3

mathematica -303

f R . x 1
x 1

R ,

f (t)dt

R . , 1 x

0
1 x

R ,

f (t)dt R .
0

x
R. . g
3
g(x) f (x 1) f (1 x) 2x 2x 2x 0.
x R, g(x) c,c R.

x 1

x3
x 0, g(0) f (t)dt 0 0. g(x) 0 f (t)dt .
3
1
1 x
2

3.

2 1

23 8
x 2 f (t)dt f (t)dt .
3 3
1
1 2

173

f x u 2 udu .
2

1.
2.
3.
4.

f .
f ,
.
x
t t 2

g x e u u du dt
3 2

.
1 , 2 1,3

e f 1 e
1

5.

2 etf t dt.
1
x

f t
: et 3
dt x 3 x 2, .
f
3

1.

(u) u2 u , u2 u 0 .

u2 u 0 u (,0] [1, ) . (u) u2 u


(,0] [1, ).
f .
x

f (x) u 2 udu. 2 [1, ) , x [1, ).


2

mathematica -304

Df x [1, ).
x

f (x) u 2 udu, Df x [1, ).

2.

f (2) 0 x 2 f (x) 0.
x

u u [1, ) ,
2

u 2 udu

[1, ) .

f [1, ) f (x) x2 x,x [1, ) .


x [1, ) f (x) 0 x 1
f [1, ) .
1

x 1 f (1) u udu u 2 udu.


2

: , ,
.
x 2 f (x) 0.
f

x 2 f (x) f (2) 0 1 x 2 f (x) f (2) 0.


x
x
t t 2

t
2
3.
g(x) e u udu dt e u udu dt etf (t)dt,x 1.
3 2
3
3

t
f(t) [1, ) , e [1, ) .
x

e f (t)dt
t

[1, ) g(x) exf (x),x 1.

(.2) x [1,2) f (x) 0 , x (2, )


f (x) 0 . , f (2) 0.
x [1,2) g(x) 0 , x (2, )
g(x) 0 .
, ,
x 1

2
g [2, )
g(x)
0
+
[1,2] .
,
g(x)
2

x 2 g(2) etf (t)dt etf (t)dt


.

mathematica -305

g(x) etf (t)dt 0,x [2, ) , g(x) e xf(x),x [2, )

4.

g(x) e (f (x) f (x)).


g [1,2] , (1,2) , MT 1 (1,2)
x

g(2) g(1)
g(2) g(1) etf (t)dt e tf (t)dt
g(1 )
21
3
3
2

g(1 ) e f (t)dt e f (t)dt etf (t)dt.


t

g [2,3] , (2,3) , MT 2 (2,3)

g(3) g(2)
g(3) g(2) etf (t)dt e tf (t)dt
g( 2 )
32
3
3
3

g( 2 ) 0 e f (t)dt etf (t)dt.


t

g(1 ) g( 2 ) etf (t)dt etf (t)dt e1 f (1 ) e2 f ( 2 ) e tf (t)dt.


5.
g(x) ex (f (x) f (x)).
x (2, ) g(x) 0 . g (2, ) .

g .
g(3) 0 g(3) e3f (3) .
A(3,0) y g(3) g(3)(x 3) y e3f (3)(x 3).
x

f (3) 0

x (2, ) g(x) e f (3)(x 3) e f (t)dt e f (3)(x 3)


3

t3

1
e f (t)
e f (t)
t
e
f
(t)dt

dt

3
3 e f (3)
3 f (3) dt x 3.
e f (3) 3
3

174

f (x) 3x g(x) x2 9x 5 .
1.

Cg
A(1,4).

2.
3.

f (x2 5x 6) g(x)4x. .
f (x 1) 5f (x) 2x
: A lim

x f (x 1) f (x) 2 x

mathematica -306

-2

f (x 1) f (x) 2x
+
B lim
.
x f (x 1) f (x) 2 x
-2
x
- 0 +

x +2
- 0 + +
+
f g .
+ - 0 +
f (x)

4.

x 2 1
f (x)91dx 0 0R.. 9

5.

I() f(x)
:

1.
g x 2x 9.
Cg M(x0 ,g(x0 ))
y g(x0 ) g(x0 )(x x0 ) .
A(1,4)
4 g(x0 ) g(x0 )(1 x0 ) x02 2x0 0 x0 0 x0 2 .
A(1,4).
M(0, 5) y 9x 5 M 2,5
y 5x 1.
2.

2
2
h x f x 5x 6 g x 4x 3x 5x6 x2 5x 5.

h 2 h 3 0
h x 2x 5 3x

h x 0 2x 5 3

5x 6

ln 3 2x 5 2x 5 3x

5x 6

ln 3 1 .

5
ln 3 1 0 2x 5 0 x .
2
5
x2 5x 6
ln 3 1 0 2x 5 0 x .
2
, h
x
5

,
2

h(x)
5

, .
h(x)
0
2

h x 0 2x 5 3x

5x 6

lim x 2 5x 5

5
,
2

5
2
0
.

401
5
h
0.
324
2

h x

xlim
2
x 5x 6
u

lim 3
lim 3
x
u

A1 , A 2 , .
2

mathematica -307

,
h
h
401
401
5
5
h A1 [h ,limh(x)) [
, ) h A 2 [h ,limh(x)) [
, ).
324
324
2 x
2 x
2 A1 h(2) 0, x 2 h(x) 0. h
A1 , x 2
h(x) 0.
3 A2 h(3) 0, x 3 h(x) 0. h
A 2 , x 3
h(x) 0.
3.

f (x) 3x , f (x 1) 3x1 3 3x.


x

2
8
x
x
x
x
x
x
f x 1 5f x 2
33 5 3 2
83 2
3 2
A lim
lim
lim
lim
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x f x 1 f x 2
x 33 3 2
x 43 2
x
2
4
3
x
3
8 1
f x 1 5f x 2x
33x 5 3x 2x
83x 2x
2
B lim
lim
lim
lim x
1
x
x
x
x
x
x
x f x 1 f x 2
x 33 3 2
x 43 2
x
3
4 1
2
4.

w x f x g x 3x x2 9x 5,x R .

w x R, w x 3x ln3 2x 9,x R. w
x R, w x 3x ln 3 2 0.
2

w 1 w 2 0.
w(x) 0 2 . w(x) 0 3 .
w R, .
w(1 ) w(2 ) w(3 ) 0. Rolle
w(x) 0 2 .
Rolle w
w(x) 0 , .
w(x) 0 , Cf ,Cg E(1,3)
Z(2,9).
5.

x2 1
dx
I() x
3

mathematica -308

I() x x I()

, 2I()

x 1
x 1
dx x 3x dx
x
1
3 1

x2 1
x2 1 x
1 dx x 3 dx.
3 x 1
3 1

3
2I() x 1 dx 2 I()
.
3
x -2
3

-2
0
2
+
- 0 +
- 0 +
+
+
+ - 0 +

x +2
f (x)

175

f(x)
9 R0 f0
f
09
0.

F x f t dt.
x

1.

F x R.

2.

F x .

3.

F(x) 0. .

4.

0,1 .

3x 1

f t dt x

x 1

f t dt

1.

f R , f (t)dt R ,
0

F(x) f (t)dt R , F(x) f (x),x R.


0

2.
F(0) 0 , x 0 F(x) 0 .
f (0) 0 f R ,
f

x 0 f (x) f (0) 0 x 0 f (x) f (0) 0.


x 0 F(x) f (x) 0 x 0
F(x) f (x) 0 .
, , F

0
x
( ,0]
F(x)
+
0
[0, ).
F(x)
9 . 0
x 0
F(0) 0.
3.
( 2) , x R
F(x) F(0) F(x) 0.
4.

3x 1

H(x) 1

x 1

f (t)dt x

f (t)dt.
0

mathematica -309


x 1

f (t)dt R

f(t) R ,

3x 1

f (t)dt R , 1 x R ,

H R , .
1

H(0) 1 f (t)dt 0 f (t)dt 1 0


0
4

0
2

H(1) 1 f (t)dt 1 f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt


0

H(1) f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt.


4

x 0 f (x) 0 ,

f (x)dx 0 . ,
2

H(1) f (t)dt 0.
2

, Bolzano (0,1)
H() 0 . H(x) f (3x 1) f (x 1) 1,x (0,1) .
x (0,1)
f

x 1 3x 1 f (x 1) f (3x 1) f (3x 1) f (x 1) 0
f (3x 1) f (x 1) 1 1 0 H(x) 0. H
(0,1) , . , (0,1)
3 1

H() 0 1

f (t)dt

f (t)dt.
0

176

1.
f : R
. f
( ) f x 0 , ( f x 0 )
x .
2.
f ,g : 0, R

f (t)dt g(t)dt , f 0, g 0, .

mathematica -310

. F x

f t dt
0

,x 0,

G x

g t dt

x
x

. f t dt g t dt x 0, .
. x,y [0,] x g(t)dt y f (t)dt.
y

1.
f . x0 ,x x0 x
f (x) f (x 0 )
0.
x x0

f (x) f (x0 )
lim
0.
x x0
x x0
f (x0 ) 0 . x 0 ,
x f (x) 0 .

x f (x) 0 .
x1 ,x2 x1 x2 ( x1 x2 ) :
f [x1 ,x2 ] , (x1 ,x2 ) , MT
f (x2 ) f (x1 )
(x1 ,x2 ) f ()
.
x2 x1
f (x 2 ) f (x1 )
f (x) 0 ,
0 , f .
x2 x1
f .
2.

. f [0,] f (t)dt
0
x

[0,] . F x

f t dt


x
0,
0

xf (x) f (t)dt
x

F'(x)

0
2

mathematica -311

. H(x) f (t)dt x [0,],


0

f [0,] , H(x)
[0,] ,
MT H(x) (0,x)
x

H(x) H(0)
H()

x0

f (t)dt 0
0

f () f (t)dt xf (),
0
x

xf (x) f (t)dt

xf (x) xf () f (x) f ()

0,
x
x2
x
f () f (x) 0 x f .
F'(x) 0 (.1) F
(0,].
G (0,] .
F'(x)

0
2

. f t dt g t dt x 0 .
F (0,]

0 x F(x) F()

f t dt f t dt

(1).
x

G (0,]
0

0 x G(x) G()

g t dt g t dt

f t dt g t dt
0

f t dt g t dt

(1),(2),(3)

(3)

(2)

f t dt f t dt g t dt g t dt
0

f t dt g t dt
0

mathematica -312

f t dt g t dt x (0,] , x 0.

. x g(t)dt y f (t)dt(4) x,y [0,].


x 0 y 0 .
0 x,y .
y

x,y 0 (4)

x g(t)dt

f t dt g t dt

g(t)dt g(t)dt

G(y) F(x)
xy
xy
y
x
0 y G [0,] G(y) G()
0 x , F [0,] F(x) F()
0

y g(t)dt

f t dt g t dt

G() F( )

0
0
G(y) G() F() F(x) 0 x,y .
0

177

f 0,e
f 0 0 .

xf x dx ef e f e .

1.

2.

0,e

3.

4.

xf x dx e f e f .

1 ,e

xf x dx ef 1 e .

2 0,e

xf x dx e 2f 2 .

1.
e

xf x dx x f x dx f x f x dx
e

xf x dx ef e f x 0 ef e f e
e

2.

xf x dx ef e f e , , f e ef e xf x dx, (1).
0

f [0,e] (0,e).

mathematica -313

.. 0,e
e
(1)
f e f 0
f
ef f e ef ef e xf x dx
e0
0
e

xf x dx e f e f .
0
e

f e f

xf x dx

ef e f e
. (2).
e

3.

f [,e] (,e).
f e f

.. 1 ,e f 1
e
(2)
f e

e f 1 f e f e f 1 f e
e
e

(1)

e e f 1 ef e f e e e f 1 xf x dx .
0

4.

f 0,e , tf (t)
x

0,e tf t dt 0,e ,
0
x

g x tf t dt g x xf x . g x tf t dt
0,e . .. 2 0,e

e

g e g 0
g 2
2f 2
e0

tf t dt 0
0

e0

e 2f 2 xf x dx.
0

178


f R f (1) 2 f (x) 0

x R . :
1.

H g x f t dt R
x

A(1,g(1)).
1

2.

1 1 f t dt f t dt.

3.

x 1 :

mathematica -314

u f t dt du x 1 2 .
1

1 x t f t dt x 1

:
f R .

1.

f (t)dt

R. g

R, g (x) f (t)dt f (x).


1

f R , g R
g(x) f (x).
x R f (x) 0 , x R
g(x) 0 . g R.
1

g(1) f (1) 2 g(1) f (t)dt 0 .


1

g A(1,g(1))
y g(1) g(1)(x 1) y 0 2(x 1) y 2x 2.
2.

1 :

1 f t dt f t dt f t dt
0

f t dt
1

g t dt
0

g t dt
1

g t
g 1 g 0 g g 1
1
g t 0

.
a1
1 0
1

g R [0,1] , [1,]
(0,1),(1,) .
.. p 0,1 q 1,
:

g p

g g 1
g 1 g 0
g q
.
1 0
1

g R , g(x) 0 x R.

mathematica -315

, p q g p g q

g 1 g 0 g g 1

.
1 0
1

3. . g R ,
g
g , . , x R
x

g(x) 2x 2 f (t)dt 2(x 1),(1).


1
x u

h(x) f (t)dt du (x 1)2 ,x R.


1 1

f R

f (t)dt

(x 1)2 R , h R
x

h(x) f (t)dt 2(x 1) g(x) 2(x 1) . x 1 h(x) 0


1

x 1 , h [1, ) .
h(1) 0 , x 1
x u
u

2
h(x) h(1) f (t)dt du (x 1) 0 f (t)dt du (x 1) 2 .
1 1
1 1

. H(x) x f (t)dt tf (t)dt (x 1)2 ,x R


f R .
x

f (t)dt

R , tf (t)dt R
1

x f (t)dt (x 1)2 R
1
x

H(x) f (t)dt xf (x) xf (x) 2(x 1) f (t)dt 2(x 1) 0 , (1).


x 1 H(x) 0 x 1 ,
H [1, ) , x 1

mathematica -316

H(x) H(1) H(x) 0 x f (t)dt tf (t)dt (x 1)2 0


x

(x t)f (t)dt (x 1) .
2

179
f f x

x 2

2 t 2 t dt .

1.

Df .

2.
3.

f .
f .

4.

x Df

5.

3,5

2 3 2

t 2 tdt f x 2 2.

2 2 f x
2
:

1.

x 2

f (x)

2 t 2 t )dt.

t 2 t t 2 t 0 t (, 1] [0, ).
f .

2 t 2 t (, 1] [0, ) . 3 [0, ) ,

x 2 [0, ) x 2 0 x 2 .
f Df [2, ).
x 2

f (x)

(
3

x 2

2 t t )dt 2t
3
2

x 2

t 2 tdt

x 2

f (x) 2(x 2) 3 2

x 2

t tdt 2x 5 2
2

2.

t 2 tdt,x 2.

t 2 t [2, ) x 2
x 2

[2, ) ,

t 2 tdt [2, ).

2(x 2) [2, ) , f

[2, ) f (x) 2 (x 2)2 x 2 2 x2 3x 2,x 2


x 2

f (x) 0 2 x2 3x 2 0 x 2 3x 2 2 x 2 3x 0 x 3
mathematica -317

f (x) 0 2 x2 3x 2 0 x [2,3)
, ,
x 2
f
f (x)
[2,3]
[3, ) .
f (x)
0

3
0

x 3
1

f (3) 2 2 t tdt 2 2 t 2 tdt .


2

: , ,
.
3.

f (x)

2x 3

. x [2, ) f (x) 0 .

2 x 3x 2
f [2, ) . f .
2

f (3) 2 2 t 2 tdt f (3) 0 .

4.

1
3

A(3,f (3)) y f (3) f (3)(x 3) y f (3) y 2 2 t 2 tdt


1

f ,
f .
3

2 2 t tdt f (x) t 2 tdt f (x) 2 2 .


2

5.
f [3,5] , (3,5) . MT
(3,5)
3

0 2 2 t tdt

f ()

f (5) f (3)

53

2 2 t 2 tdt
1

f () 2 2 3 2 ,
3

2 3 2
2

mathematica -318

2 2 t 2 tdt
1

2 2 2 3 2 2 2 t 2 tdt
2

3 2
2

t 2 tdt

. (4)

t 2 tdt f (x) 2 2 ,

2 3 2

t 2 tdt

f (x) 2 2
.
2

180

z1 ,z 2 C f R f x

2x

t z 2 dt

x R f x x . :

2.

1
.
2
f x 2020 0, .

3.

x R

1.

z2

z1 t

z2
x
dt .
2
4

1.

2x

z1 t z 2 R,

z tz
1

dt

R, f R f x 2 2z1x z 2 .
g x f x x 0 g 0 . g

R, Fermat , x0 0

g 0 0. , g x f x 1 2 z12x z 2 1
g 0 0 2 z 2 1 0 z 2
2.

1
.
2

f x 2 z12x z 2 0 x 0, f

0, .
.
1
1

f x x 0 0
f (x) x
1
lim 0 0 lim 0
x x
x

1
0 f x x 0 lim f x
x f (x)
x
lim

mathematica -319

f 0 z1t z 2 dt 0.
0

f 0, , 2020 0, ,
, .., f , ( )
x0 0, f x0 2020.
, f x

3.

2x

z t z
1

dt x

, t 2u dt 2du
t1 2x u1 x t 2 0 u2 0 ,

f x

2x

z t z
1

dt 2 z12u z 2 du. x R f x x,

0
x

z
z
x
2 z12u z 2 du x 4 z1u 2 du x z1u 2 du
2
2
4
0
0
0
x R .

mathematica -320

mathematica -321

mathematica -322