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AHMED A. MAHMOUD Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra, University of Zagazig Cairo, Egypt 1. ABSTRACT Although deep beams with openings are the most common types of deep beams in buildings, limited research works have been carried out to study the behavior of such beams under eccentric vertical loads. Introducing openings in deep beams reduces their strengths and alters their deformation characteristics. Comprehensive experimental investigations have been conducted by many researchers to study reinforced concrete deep beams, but few of them study deep beams under eccentric vertical loads. This paper presents experimental and analytical study of the behavior of highstrength concrete (HSC) simply supported deep beams under eccentric vertical loads. Five simply supported specimens with and without opening, are tested under two-eccentric point loads at different positions and supported at the bottom. The studied factors are (1) position of loading (at top or at bottom or at the beam mid-height), (2) existence of the openings and their locations (above or below the beam mid-height). Some of the important factors affecting the behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams (named: concrete compressive and tensile strength, span to depth ratio, shear span to depth ratio, breadth to depth ratio, physical and mechanical properties of horizontal, vertical web reinforcement and main steel, loading position and eccentricity, opening dimensions and location) are investigated throughout a parametric study using ANSYS 7 finite element computer program. Based on the test results and the parametric study, a semi-empirical equation for modeling deep beam action under combined flexure and torsion is proposed. The predictions are in good agreement with experimental and analytical results. Some important conclusions, precautions and instructions for the designer, site engineers, and researchers in this field are given. KEYWORDS: Simply Supported Deep Beams; High Strength Reinforced Concrete; Ultimate Strength; Eccentric Vertical Loads; Loading Position; Openings; Experimental; Analytical; Material Nonlinearity; Finite Element Method. : : .

( ( - : ) ) ( ) ( ANSYS 7 ) ANSYS 7 ANSYS 7 ( : ) ( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) () () ( ) - : 2. INTRODUCTION Reinforced concrete deep beams are fairly common structural elements that are utilized as transfer girders for loading distribution elements in high- rise buildings, walls of rectangular tanks, pile caps, folded plates, retaining walls, and bridge cross diaphragms. Also, the use of reinforced High Strength Concrete (HSC) deep beams in high rise buildings and long span bridges is dramatically increased. According to the ACI 318 building code (2002), deep beams are defined as beams with span to depth ratio L/d less or equal to 5 for simply supported beams and 2.5 for continuous beams. In both cases, if the shear span of the beam a is less or equal to twice its depth, it can be treated as a deep beam. Design procedures for deep beams are developed based on experimental data obtained from testing Normal Strength Concrete (NSC) specimens. Experimental results described in this paper give further empirical evidence on the behavior of HSC deep beams. Test results are used to assess the suitability of using available design documents for HSC deep beams. The use of HSC in building frame constructions is particularly attractive due to many advantages

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such as: (1) increased strength; (2) reduced cross sectional dimensions; and (3) increased durability and; (4) enhanced construction economy. In the present paper, review of previous experimental and analytical research works is carried out to study the behavior of solid deep beams, and deep beams containing openings. 3. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE The building codes for deep beams are entirely based on testing results of simply supported deep beams loaded at top. A survey of previous works on reinforced concrete deep beams has shown that the problem not studied in depth is the behavior of deep beams under torsional moment. There have been extensive experimental investigations of high strength reinforced concrete deep beams under centric vertical loads, and few tests for eccentric vertical loads, which produce torsional moment (Kong et al. (1970), Rogowsky et al. (1986), Farahat (1987), Morsy (1989), Siao (1994), Tan et al. (1995, 1997, 1998, 1999), Hamdy (1996), Wahib (1996), Yehya et al. (1996), Darwish (1998), Foster (1998), Mahmoud and El -Mahdy (1998), Averbuch and Buhan (1999), Abdel Hafez (2000), Oh and Shin (2001), Wang et al. (2001), Aguilar et al. (2002), Hong et al. (2002), Yousef (2003) and Russo et al. (2005)). Furthermore, non of the available international building codes considered the eccentricity of vertical loads in deep beams. Therefore, this paper provides an attempt to study experimentally and analytically the behavior of high strength reinforced concrete deep beams under eccentric loading. Also, the aim of this paper is to examine the procedure of analysis and design of deep beams in some international codes, as well as the Egyptian Code by developing a semi empirical equation for modeling of simply supported high strength reinforced concrete deep beams under combined action of flexure and torsion. 4. OUTCOME OF RESEARCH Cracking patterns, failure modes, load-displacement relationships, and ultimate loads are the key aspects obtained experimentally to characterize the response of the tested specimens throughout this study. 5. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM 5.1 General The tests are carried out at the Advanced Composite Materials Research Laboratory, University of Zagazig, Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra. The experimental program included testing of five simply supported deep beams with or without opening loaded at the top, at beam mid-height and at bottom, and supported at bottom. The specimens are tested in a vertical position under two-point eccentric loads with eccentricity from beam centerline e = 225 mm. Loading of all beams is performed using 1000 kN testing machine. A constant slow rate of loading adapted to all beams is approximately 1.0 kN/min. At each load increment, the cracks are plotted and marked on each side of the specimen. Loads and reactions are applied through bearing plates to allow free rotation of the supports. Vertical loads are applied using displacement control. The

displacements are traced and are continuously recorded using LVDTs (Linear Variable Differential Transducers). Figure 1 shows specimens dimensions, configurations, and location of instrumentation. The reinforcement details of all specimens are given in Fig. 2. For the restraining of local failure, in the top compressive face and supports of tested beams, steel plates are used. Figure 3 shows test setup and loading system. The most important issue in this type of tests is to adjust the position, verticality of the specimens, and eccentricity of the loads. For all specimens, and to avoid disasters and to save instruments, the load is stopped at 90 % at the descending branch (i.e. 10 % of the ultimate load reduction) to avoid any sudden failure and protect the measurement instrumentation. The influence of the following two major parameters is emphasized: (1) Load position (at top, or at bottom, or at the beam mid-height), (2) opening location (above or below the beam midheight). 5.2 Description of the Tested Specimens The effective span, L, for all specimens, as measured from center to center of support points, is equal to 1000 mm. All beams have overhangs of 50 mm at each end to provide sufficient anchorage for horizontal reinforcement and to accommodate the support assemblies. Also, all beams have abutments as shown in Fig. 1 to prevent premature crushing or bearing failure. For all specimens, shear span a = 225 mm, the depth d = 800 mm, breadth b = 150 mm, shear span to depth ratio a/d = 0.28125 and span to depth ratio L/d = 1.25. Figure 1 shows dimensions and configurations of all test specimens. All specimens have two reinforced concrete corbels for applying load at the required position. These corbels are strengthened using GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers) to prevent premature shear failure. Tables 1 and 2 summarize the mechanical proprieties of the used concrete and steel reinforcement. The specimens are divided into two groups. The first group consists of three deep beams (DB1, DB2 and DB3) having the same dimensions and reinforcement with different load position (at the top, or at the beam mid-height or at the bottom) which causes torsional moment. The second group consists of three deep beams (DB1, DB4 and DB5) having the same dimensions and reinforcement with or without openings. 5.3 Materials A trial mix design has been conducted using locally available materials. The mixes are designed to get target cubic compressive strength greater or equal 50 MPa at 28 days. The materials used for concrete mix are fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, cement, water, silica fume and super plastizer. The coarse aggregate used is crushed dolomite size number 1 and 2 from the Suez mountain. The fine aggregate is sand, which is clean and almost free of impurities. The cement used is ordinary Portland cement. The cement is tested to ensure its compliance with Egyptian Standard Specifications 373-1991. The super plastizer used (7 liter /m3) was Rhu Build 1110E (powerful high range water reducing agent admixture). Silica Fume content is 12.5 % of the cement by weight.

The absolute volume method is used to determine the concrete mix proportions. The proportions by weight per cubic meter of concrete to achieve target strength 50 MPa at 28 days are: Cement : Sand : Crushed Stone No 1&2 : Silica Fume : Super Plastizer : Water 400 Kg. : 700 Kg. : 1100 Kg. : 50 Kg. : 7 Liter : 150 Kg. The amount of water is adjusted to the actual moisture content of the aggregates at the time of casting. Standard cubes (150 x 150 x 150 mm), cylinders (150 mm diameter and 300 mm height), and standard beams for flexural tension test (100 x 100 x 400 mm) are cast at the same time with the specimens and are cured under the same conditions. (The specimens are tested after about four months from casting). The concrete forms are made from plywood to get fair face concrete to facilitate visualization of crack propagation and also for properly fixing the instrumentation. Nine cubes, nine cylinders, and three standard beams are tested under compression, splitting, and flexure to determine the compressive and tensile strength of concrete, fcu , f`c , ft . Table 1 shows the mechanical properties of concrete used for all specimens. Different reinforcement diameters and types (High tensile steel bars with 10 and 16 mm diameter and mild steel with 8 mm diameter) are used. The properties of reinforcing steel bars obtained from results of tension tests carried out for three samples of bars for each diameter are shown in Table 2 and Fig. 11. All specimens are reinforced using 2 F 16 and 2 F 10 as bottom and top reinforcement, respectively. Longitudinal steel reinforcement consisted of straight bars with a 90-degree hook to provide adequate anchorage. Vertical shear reinforcement is closed stirrups with 10 mm bars each 100 mm, while the horizontal shear reinforcement consisted of straight 10 mm bars spaced at 140 mm. 5.4 Experimental Results: Observations and Interpretations Table 3 shows the measured cracking loads, ultimate loads, vertical displacement at third and mid-span, and horizontal displacements at top of all the specimens. Figure 4 shows the crack patterns of all specimens. The load deflection curves at points A, B and C are illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6. Based on the test results for the range of the studied factors and from Table 3 and Figures 4,5, and 6, the following conclusions and observations can be made: 1. The load deflection curves are almost linear at the beginning of the loading, then getting less inclination at the ultimate load. 2. All the studied specimens experienced pre-linear elastic behavior followed by a ductile nonlinear post-cracking behavior accompanied by very small deflections until failure. 3. The first crack occurred at a load ranging from about 14 % to 28 % of the ultimate load depending on many factors (load position and opening location). 4. Diagonal cracks at almost 45 degree formed within the middle part (flexural span). 5. After shear crack occurred, the load decreased slowly, which attribute to shear interlocking and dowel action. Near ultimate load, the load is increased in a slow rate, while there is big increase in deflection

6. For all specimens, the region of torsional moment with constant value coincides with the region of flexural moment with constant value as shown in Fig. 13. Therefore, the failure mechanisms are significantly different from failure mechanisms under centric vertical load. 7. All tested deep beams except specimen DB5 exhibited a shear failure mode of behavior characterized by diagonal cracks at almost 45 degree. 8. Specimen DB5 exhibited a flexural shear failure mode of behavior characterized by diagonal cracks at almost 45 degree in addition to flexural cracks and splitting at the bottom of the beam at the flexural span. 9. The position of the load is a main factor affecting the ultimate load, where the ultimate load decreased by about almost 73 % of its value when the load acts at bottom instead of at top of the beam, while decreased by about 46 % of its value when the load acts at the mid-height of the beam. 10. Also, the eccentricity of the load is very important factor affecting the ultimate load, where the ultimate load decreased by about 82.2 % of its value due to eccentricity ratio e/b = 1.5 compared to centric vertical loading. 11. The existence of opening at the bottom part of the beam (below the beam midheight) influenced the ultimate load value more than the existence of the opening at the top part, where in the first case the load decreased by about 45 % compared to the solid beam, while in the second case the load decreased by about 20 %. This is because the opening in the first case intersects the flow of the force. 6. ANALYTICAL STUDY 6.1 General The main objectives of the analytical study are; (1) calibrate ANSYS 7 program using a highly nonlinear problem by comparing its results to those obtained experimentally, (2) compare the results of one of the most sophisticated finite element programs ANSYS 7 to that of the hand-calculated from strut-and-tie models, and (3) examine the possibility of implementing nonlinear finite element analysis as a preliminary design tool, especially for the cases where a clear force path in the STM is not obvious. The analytical model has been checked for several specimens, where, in addition to the experimental work done in this paper, published experimental results have been used to calibrate the finite element models developed in this study. The good agreement between the results obtained from the analytical study and both published and present experimental results established the validity and capability of the proposed model for predicting the nonlinear behavior of high strength reinforced concrete deep beams under eccentric vertical loads. 6.2 Finite Element Idealization Using ANSYS 7 Program 6.2.1 General The finite element method can be used to closely predict the behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams subjected to in plane forces if proper care is taken in modeling the material characteristics (Abdel Hafez (2000)). Using the finite element, the load deflection behavior, crack pattern, failure load and failure mode can be predicted with an accuracy that is acceptable for engineering purposes (Mahmoud et al. (1998)).

The accurate prediction of the behavior in the study of deep beams under combined loads (flexural, shear and torsion) is complex and difficult. A finite element model has been incorporated into the nonlinear analysis program ANSYS 7, which has facility to model the concrete element as a 3-D solid element with or without reinforcing bars in any direction. Also, it has the facility to determine the internal stresses in each element and the cracking pattern of the element at each load increment. Furthermore, the program accounts for (1) material nonlinearity of both concrete and steel, (2) biaxial failure surface of concrete, (3) nonlinear stress-strain curve of steel, and (4) concrete cracking and crushing. 6.2.2 Solid 65 3-D Element Solid 65 is used for the three-dimensional modeling of solids with or without reinforcing rebars. The element is capable of cracking in tension and crushing in compression. The solid element capability may be used to model reinforced and unreinforced concrete, while the rebar capability is available for modeling reinforcement behavior. The element is defined by eight nodes having six degrees of freedom at each node: translations of the node in x, y, and z directions (ux, uy, and uz) and rotations (qx, qy and qz). Up to three different rebars specifications may be used. The most important aspect of this element is the treatment of nonlinear material properties. The element is capable of cracking in three orthogonal directions and crushing. The rebars are capable of tension and compression, but not shear. The geometry, nodes, and coordinate system for the used element are shown in Fig.7. Figure 8 shows the finite element idealization used throughout this study (for specimens DB1 as example). 6.3 Material Modeling 6.3.1 Concrete in Compression The stress-strain curve for concrete in compression is based on the properties of concrete (f`c , e0 and eu). The stress-strain relation for concrete in compression is shown in Fig.9. 6.3.2 Concrete in Tension The low tensile strength of concrete, which is generally about one tenth of its compressive strength, is one of its most important properties. In this study, concrete is assumed to behave as a linear elastic brittle material in tension, and this is a major factor causing the nonlinear behavior. Tension stress- strain idealization for concrete, which used throughout this study, is shown in Fig.10. 6.3.3 Reinforcing Steel Reinforcing steel is modeled as an elastic-hardening material using the stress-strain curve and shown in Fig.11. 6.4 Analysis of Results The analytical results using ANSYS 7 program and STM are compared with the experimental ones. The correlation between experimental and analytical results is based on comparisons of the most important aspect, which is the ultimate load (refer to Table 4).

Analytical results using ANSYS 7 program are found to be conforming to those given experimentally, where the comparison shows good agreement between the experimental and the analytical results using ANSYS 7 program for the ultimate loads, within a difference between 3 % to 6 % as shown in Table 4-a, which is acceptable. The difference between experimental and analytical results may be attributed to the differences in finding the concrete prism compressive strength and/or concrete and reinforcing steel stress-strain idealization. In addition to representation of steel reinforcement, bond slip and the finite element mesh has to be much finer. Also, in ANSYS 7 program, the failure load is assumed to have been reached when there is failure of convergence of force and/or displacement vector norms. The corresponding load is referred to as the collapse load although it might be the numerical procedure that has failed and not the structure failure. The comparison between the experimental and analytical results using STM for the ultimate load shows a difference between 4.1 % to 16.8 % as shown in Table 4-b. Therefore, the strutand-tie model provides a lower bound approach to determine the ultimate strength, since it considers equilibrium and yield conditions of the materials only. Thus, theoretically, it should give conservative estimates of the ultimate strength only if premature failure modes are prevented. The predicted crack patterns and failure modes by ANSYS 7 program are almost the same as that observed experimentally as shown in Fig. 4. 7. PARAMETRIC STUDY 7.1 General ANSYS 7 program is used for parametric studies to further extent the understanding of the mechanism of simply supported high strength reinforced concrete deep beams under eccentric vertical loading and provide information that can not be easily measured in experimental studies. For the purpose of parametric study, the behavior of simply supported high strength reinforced concrete deep beams subjected to monotonic, incremental eccentric vertical loading is investigated. The specimens used throughout the present work have been selected such that their dimensions, boundary conditions, loading and material properties are chosen to represent common practice in buildings used in Egypt within the practical limits as shown in Table 5 and Fig. 12. 7.2 Studied Aspects Ultimate load is considered as a key parameter used to characterize and discuss the behavior and strength of the studied specimens. Throughout this comparative study, the ratio of the specimen load at ultimate Pu to that of the control specimen Pu0 is used as a guide for the influence of the studied key factors. 7.3 Studied Factors The influence of the different key factors affecting the nonlinear behavior and performance of simply supported high strength reinforce concrete deep beams under eccentric vertical

loading, has been investigated. The main key factors investigated throughout this study are: (1) concrete compressive strength f`c; (2) concrete tensile strength ft; (3) span to depth ratio L/d; (4) shear span to depth ratio a/d; (5) breadth to depth ratio b/d; (6) physical and mechanical properties of horizontal and vertical web reinforcement (percent rh %, rv %, yield strengths fyh, fyv, inclination of web reinforcement), (7) physical and mechanical properties of main steel (percent r, and yield strength fy), (8) loads positions (at top, at bottom, and through the beam height),(9) load eccentricity to breadth ratio e/b, (10) opening dimensions (x0, y0 and b0), and, (11) opening location (x and y). The values of the studied factors are shown in Table 5. The configuration, loading and finite element models of the specimens used throughout the parametric study are shown in Fig. 12. 7.4 Discussion of the Numerical Results Based on the parametric study and for the range of the studied factors, the following results are emerge: 1. The influence of concrete strength on the ultimate capacity of deep beams is noticeable. Generally, the increase of the concrete compressive strength f`c and consequently the initial modulus of elasticity of the concrete leads as expected to increase the ultimate load. Increasing the concrete compressive strength f`c to double its value increases ultimate load by about 24 %. Generally, the low tensile strength of concrete is one of the major factors causing 2. nonlinear behavior of concrete. The increase of the concrete tensile strength to double its value (with constant compressive strength and constant initial modulus of elasticity of the concrete) increases the ultimate load by about 18 %. The geometry of the beam is a key parameter in the overall behavior. This is 3. because load carrying capacity is related to span to depth ratio of the beam L/d. Generally, ultimate strength is very much dependent on the span to depth ratio L/d, where the increase of the depth to double its value (i.e. decrease a/d with constant shear span a) increases the ultimate load by about 37.5 %. The ultimate strength increases with the decrease of L/d, where the rate of decrease in strength becomes smaller as L/d increases above 2. 4. The increase of the shear span to depth ratio a/d with constant depth, (i.e. increase of shear span a), to double its value, decreases the ultimate load by about 16 %. 5. Increasing deep beam breadth to depth ratio b/d (with constant depth and span to depth ratio a/d, (i.e. increase b)) significantly improves deformational behavior and increasing ultimate load by about 62 % due to double increase of breadth. 6. The use of orthogonal web reinforcement comprising both vertical and horizontal reinforcements is essential for crack control and preserves the integrity of the inclined compression struts. The shear capacity is influenced by the ratio of web reinforcement. The vertical web reinforcement has more influence on the shear capacity than the horizontal web reinforcement. Increasing the value of rv fyv to double its value increases the ultimate load by about 27 %, while increasing the value rh fyh to double its value increases the ultimate load by about 17 %. 7. Presence of vertical stirrups with ratio 0.5 % highly enhances torsional stiffness of deep beams and increases ultimate load by about 50 % over beams without vertical stirrups.

8. The same amount of web steel reinforcement is more efficient in deflection control when it is used as inclined web reinforcement than it is used as orthogonal web reinforcement. 9. The increase of main tension steels physical and mechanical properties r fy to double its value increases the ultimate load by about 31 %, while this value is 5 % for double increase of top steel reinforcement r` f`y. 10. The position of the load is a main factor effecting the ultimate load, where the ultimate load decreases by about almost 64 % of its value when the load acts at bottom instead of acts at top of the beam, while it decreases by about 38 % of its value when the load acts at the mid-height of the beam. 11. The eccentricity of the load is very important factor affecting the ultimate load, where the increase of load eccentricity to breadth ratio e/b to double its value decreases the ultimate load by about 73 %. 12. As expected, the increase of the opening dimension decreases the ultimate load, where the increase the opening area to double its value decreases the ultimate load by about 44%. 13. The existence of opening at the bottom part of the beam (below the beam midheight) influences the ultimate load value more than the existence of the opening at the top part, where in the first case the load decreased by about 32 % compared to the solid beam, while in the second case the load decreased by about 18 %. This is because the opening in the first case intersects the flow of the force. 8. PROPOSED EQUATION 8.1 Introduction Considerable work has been carried out to assess the ultimate torsional strength of reinforced concrete members subjected to combined flexure and torsion (Cowan and Lyalin (1965), Lampert and Collins (1972), and Collins and Mitchell (1980)). Lampert and Collins (1972) approached the problem by using both the space truss analogy and a skew bending theory. In both the truss analogy and skew bending theory approaches, a parabolic interaction between flexure and torsion was found. Lampert and Collins (1972) suggest an interpolated parabolic interaction relationship in the following form:

Tu T u0

Where:

M = r 1 - u M uo

(1)

Tu = applied ultimate torque; Mu =applied ultimate bending moment; Tu0 = pure ultimate torsional capacity of the section; Mu0 = pure ultimate flexural capacity of the section; r = ratio of yield forces of flexural tension and compression reinforcement, given as follows:

r = As f y A f

` s ` y

(2)

fy and f`y

This relationship shows good agreement with experimental (Lampert and Collins (1972)). Assuming yielding of the longitudinal steel occurs in flexural tension zone. Also, the predictions of the proposed formulas are very consistent and safe for a broad range of concrete strengths (Lampert and Collins (1972)). 8.2 Proposed Equation for Loading Position The author used the experimental results of the five deep beams tested in this study to modify Lamperts equation (1972). The proposed equation is: Tu Mu l T * = r 1 - M uo 1 u0 Where: l1 : is a factor for the effect of load position in the vertical direction (top, bottom, and through the beam height); (4) Tuo* = Tuo . b b : is a correction factor (Ashour et al. (1999)). b = [1.0 + (1.0 /(2.0 * (L/d)) * {2.5 0.5 (L/d)}] (5) Based on softened truss model theory for shear and torsion (Hsu (1988)), the author conducted a simplified Fortran computer program to get the pure torsional ultimate moment Tu0. From this program Tu0 = 44478 kN.mm (for specimens DB1, DB4, and DB5). b = 1.75 , then Tuo* = 77836.5 kN.mm From structural analysis of external loads (as shown in Fig. 13) Tu =112.5 Pu (kN.mm) and Mu = 112.5 Pu (kN.mm). The pure ultimate flexural capacity, for deep beams loaded at top, at beam mid-height and at bottom, is obtained from the Strut-and-Tie-Model (STM), (Saad (2002)) (as shown in Fig. 14), where Mu0 equals 114.48 Pu , 126.49 Pu and 138.50 Pu kN.mm for specimens DB1, DB4 and DB5, respectively. By substituting in the previous equation with the experimental results for the range of the studied factors, l1 values can be obtained as follows : l1 = 2.894 for deep beams loaded at top; l1 = 0.616 for deep beams loaded at its mid-height; l1 = 0.240 for deep beams loaded at bottom. 8.3 Proposed Equation for Deep Beams with Opening For deep beams with opening (DB2 and DB3), the proposed equation for the combined effect of flexure and torsion taking into consideration opening location is: Tu M = r 1 - u * M l l T uo 1 2 u0 where: l1 : is a factor for the effect of load position in the vertical direction (top, bottom, and

2 2

(3)

(6)

9.

through the beam height); l2 : is a factor for the effect of opening position (above or below the beam mid-height). Based on softened truss model theory for shear and torsion (Hsu (1988)), the author conducted a simplified Fortran computer program to get the pure torsional ultimate moment Tu0. From this program Tu0 = 33501 kN.mm (for specimens DB2 and DB3). b = 1.75, then Tuo* = 58626.75 kN.mm. From structural analysis of external loads (as shown in Fig. 13) Tu =112.5 Pu (kN.mm) and Mu = 112.5 Pu (kN.mm). The pure ultimate flexural capacity, for deep beam loaded at top is obtained from the Strut-and-Tie-Model (STM), (Saad (2002)) (as shown in Fig. 14), where Mu0 equals 126.277 Pu and 126.256 Pu kN.mm for specimens DB2 and DB3, respectively. By substituting in the previous equation with the experimental results for the range of the studied factors, l1 , l2 values can be obtained as follows : l1 = 2.894 for deep beams loaded at top; l2 = 1.000 for deep beams without opening; l2 = 0.750 for deep beams with opening above the beam mid-height; l2 = 0.500 for deep beams with opening below the beam mid-height. VERIFICATION OF THE PROPOSED EMPERICAL EQUATION The experimental results and the analytical results using ANSYS 7 program are used to verify the proposed empirical equation. Figure 15 illustrates the obtained results from experimental and analytical results compared with the results from proposed empirical equation for the range of the studied factors. Figure 15 predicts good agreement with the experimental and analytical results from ANSYS 7 program. From Fig. 15 it can be seen that the predictions of the author proposed equation are conservative for the range of the studied factors used throughout this study. The degree of conservatism decreases with the increase of shear span to depth ratio a/d and concrete compressive strength f`c, and with the decrease of span to depth ratio L/d and load eccentricity to breadth ratio e/b. Therefore the proposed equation consistently predicts the ultimate strength of deep beams and expresses reasonably well the functions of the key factors.

10.

COMPARISON OF CODES Comparing the results of the current parametric study with the well-known codes, the following conclusions emerge: 1. The CIRIA Guide 2 (1984) predictions, gives greatest scatter compared to ACI Code (1995). This is due to the unrealistically high value of some factors in its equation. The deep beam provision in both the ACI 318-95 and the Egyptian Code ECP-2001 2. insure safe designs for HSC deep beams. The design equation in the CIRIA Guide 2 (1984) may overestimate the capacity of HSC deep beams. 3. The ultimate strength calculated from the ACI 318-99 Code and Appendix A of the ACI (318-02) Code are shown to be conservative with 25 % degree of conservatism. This represents a significant improvement over the ACI (318-89) method, where the ultimate strength predictions by the ACI Code (1989) tend to be unconservative.

4. The comparison between the ACI Code (318-95) and softened strut-and-tie model shows that the performance of the softened STM is better than that the ACI (318-95) approach for all design parameters according to studies done by Hwang (2002). The comparison between experimental test results done by Ashour (1999, 2000), 5. and codes of practice (ACI Building Code (318-89)) shows poor agreement. Therefore, the ACI Building Code (318-89) predictions are unconservative, while the ACI (318-95) Code design criterion for the shear strength of deep beams is known to be conservative with a large safety margin. 6. The Canadian Code (1994) predictions provide safety margin. This approach is recommended as it is based on a strut-and-tie model, not on a critical section. In comparison to shear design equations, the strut-and-tie predictions do not deteriorate with increasing L. 7. Both the Canadian Code (1994) and CIRIA Guide 2 (1984) slightly overestimate the effect of f`c. 8. The ACI Code (1995) predictions are conservative for practical range of main longitudinal reinforcement ratios (r < 4 %). For r exceeding 4 %, the estimations are very conservative; i.e. the ACI Code (1995) underestimates the influence of r. 9. The Canadian Code (1994) gives greater scatter as r increases this is due to the high values of some factors in its equation. 10. The ACI Code (1995) gives conservative predictions for a wide range of vertical web reinforcement ratios. 11. The Canadian Code (1994) predictions are safe, since it does not take the vertical web reinforcement ratio rv into account. 12. The ACI Code (1999) tends to overestimate the shear strength contribution from horizontal web reinforcement. The reason for the discrepancy for web steel contribution is the limit value L/d at which both horizontal and vertical web steel are equally effective, is unrealistic. 13. The contribution of the web reinforcement to shear strength obtained from the ACI Building Code (318-89) is higher than that obtained from CIRIA Guide 2 (1984) rules, and both design methods predict that the portion of the shear strength resisted by the horizontal web reinforcement is higher than that resisted by the vertical web reinforcement, which is contrary to the parametric study done by the author and experimental observations done by Ashour (1999, 2000). 14. The Canadian Code (1994) gives conservative predictions for rh > 0.0 percent, as the method dose not take the horizontal web steel contribution into account. On the other hand the CIRA Guide-2 (1984) gives unconservative predictions for specimens with high percentage of horizontal web reinforcement. 15. The ultimate load is proportional to (d 0.5) as stated by Bazant studies (1984,1991, 2002). 16. The CIRIA Guide 2 (1984) equation is not suitable for short beams. The conservatism of the predictions decreases rapidly with increasing a/d. 17. Although not considering the opening, ACI Code equation (1995) gives close values for ultimate strength of high strength reinforced concrete deep beams. 18. The Canadian Code (1994) is not intended for deep beams with a/d exceeding 2.0. For a/d increasing beyond 2.0, the ultimate strength predictions become more conservative especially for a/d in between 2.5 and 3.0. 19. The ACI Code (1999) predictions are generally conservative for all sizes of beams even though the conservatism decreases with increasing a/d. 11. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Five simply supported specimens with and without opening, are tested under two-eccentric point loads at different positions and supported at the bottom. The studied factors are (1) position of loading (at top or at bottom or at the beam mid-height), (2) existence of openings and their locations (above or below the beam mid-height). The current paper introduces the results of the nonlinear finite element analysis carried out using ANSYS 7 program and their comparison with experimental results. The results obtained from these analyses are presented and discussed. Also, this paper presents a parametric study carried out to study several factors affecting the behavior of high strength concrete deep beams named: concrete compressive and tensile strength, span to depth ratio, shear span to depth ratio, breadth to depth ratio, physical and mechanical properties of horizontal, vertical web reinforcement and main steel, loading position and eccentricity, opening dimensions and location. The author used the experimental results of the five deep beams tested throughout this study and the parametric study to propose a semi-empirical equation, considering the combined forces (flexural and torsion). Based on the test results, and for the range of the studied factors, the following conclusions can be made:

1. The position of the load is a main factor affecting the ultimate load, where the ultimate load decreased more when the load acts at bottom or through the depth than it acts at top of the beam. Also, the eccentricity of the load is very important factor affecting the ultimate 2. load, compared to centric vertical loading. 3. The existence of opening at the bottom part of the beam (below the beam midheight) influenced the ultimate load value more than the existence of the opening at the top part. This is because the opening in the first case intersects the flow of the force. 4. The first crack occurred at a load ranging from about 14 % to 28 % of the ultimate load depending on many factors (load position and opening location). 5. All tested deep beams except the specimen loaded at the bottom exhibited a shear failure mode of behavior characterized by diagonal cracks at almost 45 degree. Specimen loaded at the bottom exhibited a flexural shear failure mode of behavior 6. characterized by diagonal cracks at almost 45 degree in addition to flexural cracks and splitting at the bottom of the beam at the flexural span. Based on the analytical and the parametric study done by the author and for the range of the studied factors, the following conclusions can be made:

1. The nonlinear finite element program ANSYS 7 is used to analyze the five simply supported deep beams tested throughout this study. Good agreement with acceptable differences is achieved between the experimental results and the analytical results using ANSYS 7 program. 2. The influence of concrete compressive and tensile strength on the ultimate capacity of deep beams is noticeable. 3. The ultimate strength is very much dependent on the span to depth ratio L/d. The ultimate strength increases with the decrease of L/d, where the rate of decrease in strength becomes smaller as L/d increases above 2.

4. The increase of the shear span to depth ratio a/d with constant depth, decreases the ultimate load. 5. Increasing deep beam breadth to depth ratio b/d significantly improves deformational behavior and increases ultimate load. 6. The shear capacity is influenced by the ratio of web reinforcement. The vertical web reinforcement has more influence on the shear capacity than the horizontal web reinforcement. 7. Presence of vertical stirrups highly enhances torsional stiffness of deep beams and increases ultimate load compared to beams without vertical stirrups. 8. The same amount of web steel reinforcement is more efficient in deflection control when it is used as inclined web reinforcement than when it is used as orthogonal web reinforcement. 9. The increase of main tension steels physical and mechanical properties r fy to double its value increases the ultimate load. 10. The position of the load is a main factor affecting the ultimate load, where the ultimate load decreases by about almost 64 % of its value when the load acts at bottom instead of acts at top of the beam, while it decreases by about 38 % of its value when the load acts at the mid-height of the beam. 11. The eccentricity of the load is very important factor affecting the ultimate load, where the increase of load eccentricity to breadth ratio e/b to double its value decreases the ultimate load by about 73 %. The increase of the opening dimensions decreases the ultimate load, where the 12. increase the opening area to double its value decreases the ultimate load by about 44 %. Based on the proposed empirical equation and for the range of the studied factors, the following conclusions can be made:

1. The proposed semi-empirical equation, which models deep beam action under combined flexure and torsion, predicts strengths that are in good agreement with the experimental results and the parametric study for the range of the studied factors. 2. The results are quantified so as to be utilized in the future similar cases in the actual construction. 3. The proposed equation consistently predicts the ultimate strength of deep beams and expresses reasonably well the functions of the key factors. Based on comparison of the results of the current parametric study with the wellknown codes, the following conclusions can be made:

1. The ACI Code (1995) gives conservative predictions for a wide range of vertical web reinforcement ratios, main longitudinal reinforcement ratios and all sizes of beams. 2. ACI Code (1995) gives close values for ultimate strength of HSC deep beams although it not considering the opening. 3. The deep beam provision in both the ACI Code (1995) and the Egyptian Code ECP-2001 insure safe designs for HSC deep beams. 4. The ultimate strength calculated from the ACI Code (1999) and Appendix A of the ACI (318-2002) Code are shown to be conservative with 25 % degree of conservatism. 5. The ultimate strength predictions by the ACI Code (1989) tend to be unconservative, while the design equation in the CIRIA Guide 2 (1984) and the Canadian Code (1994) (based on a strut-and-tie model) overestimate the capacity of HSC deep beams.

12. REFERENCES Abdel Hafez, A.A.M., (2000),"Nonlinear Analysis and Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Continuous Deep Beams", M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, 2000. ACI Committee 318, (1989),"Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary", American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1989, pp. 353. ACI, American Concrete Institute, (1992),Building Code Requirements for Concrete and Masonry Structures, ACI Standard 531-92, Detroit, Michigan, 1992. ACI Committee 318, (1995),"Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, and Commentary", American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan, 1995, pp. 369. ACI Committee 318, (2002),"Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary ", American Concrete Institute, 2002. Aguilar, G., Matamoros, A.B., Montesions, G.J.P. , Ramirez, J.A., and Wight, J.K., (2002),"Experimental Evaluation of Design Procedures for Shear Strength of Deep Reinforced Concrete Beams", ACI Structural Journal, July-August 2002, pp. 539-548. Ali, M., (1993),"Application of Equilibrium Truss Models to Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams with Web Openings", M.Sc. Thesis, Cairo University, Egypt, 1993. ANSYS 7 (2004), Inc., ANSYS 7 Computer Program Manual, SAS IP., 2004. Ashour, S.A., Samman, T.A., and Radain, T.A., (1999),"Torsional Behavior of Reinforced High Strength Concrete Deep Beams", ACI Structural Journal, November December 1999, pp. 1049-1060. Ashour, A.F., (2000),"Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams", ASCE Structural Journal, September 2000, Vol. 126, No. 9, pp. 1045-1052. Averbuch, D., and Buhan, B., (1999),Shear Design of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams: A Numerical Approach, Proceedings of Journal of Structural Engineering, March 1999, pp. 309-318. Bazant, Z., P., and Kim, J., K., (1984),Size Effect in Shear Failure of Longitudinally Reinforced Beams, ACI Journal, Proceedings Vol. 81, No. 5, September- October 1984, pp. 456-468. Bazant, Z., P., and Kazemi, M.,T., (1991), Size Effect on Diagonal Shear Failure of Beams without Stirrups, ACI Journal, Proceedings Vol. 88, No. 5, May-June 1991, pp. 268-274. Bazant, Z.P., (2002),Scaling of Structural Strength, Hermes Penton Science, London. CAN 3-A232-2-M94, (1994),"Design of Concrete Structures for Buildings", Canadian Standards Association, Rexdate, Ontario. Carrira, D.J., and Chu, K.H., (1986),Stress-Strain Relationship for Reinforced Concrete in Tension, ACI Journal Proceedings, Vol. 83, No. 1, January- February, 1986, pp. 21-28. CEB-FIB Model Code, (1991),"Final Draft Bulletin Information No. 203,204 and 205 ", Lausanne, 1991. Chen, B.S., Hagenberger and Breen, J.E., (2002),"Evaluation of Strut-and-Tie Modeling Applied to Dapped Beam with Opening", ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 99, No. 4, July-August 2002, pp. 445- 450.

CIRIA Guide 2, (1984),"The Design of Deep Beams in Reinforced Concrete," Over Arup and Partners, and Construction Industry Research and Information Association, London, 1984, pp. 131. Collins, M. P., and Mitchell, D., (1980),"Shear and Torsion Design of Prestressed and Non- Prestressed Concrete Beams", PCI Journal, Vol. 2, No. 5, September 1980, pp. 32. Cowan, H.J., and Lyalin, I.M., (1965),Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete in Torsion, Edward Arnold, London, 1965, 138 pp. Darwish, M.N., (1998),"Reinforced High Strength Concrete Deep Beams: Effects of Web Reinforcement", Proceedings of the Eighth International Colloquium on Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Cairo, Egypt 1998, pp. 99-112. Egyptian Code of Practice, (2001), Permanent Committee for the Code Design and Construction of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Fourth Edition, Housing and Building Research Center and Physical Planning, Cairo, Egypt, 2001. Egyptian Code of Practice, ECCS 203-2001 (2004)Design Aids, Examples and Details of Reinforcement in Accordance with the Egyptian Code for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures, Fourth Edition, Housing and Building Research Center and Physical Planning, Cairo, Egypt, 2004. Farahat, M.A.M., (1987),"Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams with Web Openings ", M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, 1987. Foster, S.J., and Gilbert, R.I., (1998),"Experimental Studies on High-Strength Concrete Deep Beams", ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 95, No.4, July-August 1998, pp. 382- 390. Foster, S.J., (2002),"Evaluation of Efficiency Factor Models used in Strut-and-Tie Modeling of Non-Flexural Members", Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 128, No. 5, May 2002, pp. 569-577. Hamdy, E.M.Y., (1996),"Effect of Reinforcement Detailing on the Behavior and Strength of R.C. Deep Beams with Openings", M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, 1996. Hong, S.G., Kim, D.J., Kim, S.Y., and Hong, N.K., (2002),"Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams with End Anchorage Failure", ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 99, No. 1, January - February 2002, pp. 12-22. Hsu, T.T.C., (1988),Softened Truss Model Theory for Shear and Torsion, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 85, No. 6, November- December 1988, pp. 624-635. Hwang, S.J., Lu, W.Y., and Lee, H. J., (2000),"Shear Strength Prediction for Deep Beams", ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 97, No. 3, May-June 2000, pp. 367-376. Hwang, S.J., (2002),"Strength Prediction for Discontinuity Regions by Softened Strutand-Tie Model", Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 128, No. 12, December 2002, pp. 1519-1526. Kong, F. K., Robins, P. J., and Cole, D. F., (1970), "Web Reinforcement Effects on Deep Beams," ACI Journal, Proceedings, Vol. 67, No. 6, December 1970, pp.1010-1017. Lampert, P., and Collins, M.P., (1972),Torsion, Bracing and Confusion: An Attempt to Establish the Facts, Journal ACI, Vol. 69, No. 8, August 1972, pp. 500-509. Liang, O.O., (2002),"Performance-Based Optimization for Strut-Tie Modeling of Structural Concrete ", Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 128, No. 6, June 2002, pp. 815-823. Mahmoud, A.A., and El Mahdy, O.O, (1998),"Nonlinear Analysis of Deep Structural Elements with and without Openings", Proceedings of the First International Conference on Civil Engineering, Cairo, Egypt, March 1998, pp. 10-24.

Maxwell, B. S., and Breen, J. E., (2000)" Experimental Evaluation of Strut-and-Tie Model Applied to Deep Beam with Opening", ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 97. No. 1. January-February 2000, pp.142-148 Mohamed, M.A., (1993),"Application of Equilibrium Truss Models to Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams with Web Opening", M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, 1993. Morsy, O.A., (1989), "Effect of Reinforcement Detailing on the Behavior of R.C Deep Beams", M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, 1989. Oh, J.K, and Shin, S.W., (2001),"Shear Strength of Reinforced High-Strength Concrete Deep Beams", ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 98, No.2, March-April 2001, pp. 164-173. Rogowsky, D. M., MacGregor, J. G., and Ong, S. Y., (1986), "Tests of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams", ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 83, No. 4, July-August, 1986, pp.614-623. Russo, G.,Venir, R. and Pauletta, M., (2005), Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams: Shear Strength Design Formula, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 102, No.3, May 2005. Saad, F.A., (2002),"Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Using Strut-and-Tie Method", Dar El-Hakim Press, Cairo, Egypt. Schlaich, J., and Schafer, K., (1993)," Design and Detailing Using Strut-and-Tie Models", lABSE-Workshop, India 1993. Siao, W. B., (1994),"Shear Strength of Short Reinforced Concrete Walls, Corbels, and Deep Beams", ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 81, No. 2, March-April 1994, pp. 123-132. Tan, K. H., Kong, F. K., Teng, S., and Guan, (1995),"High-Strength Concrete Deep Beams with Effective Span and Shear Span Variations", ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 82, No. 4, July-August 1995, pp. 395 - 404. Tan, K.H., Kong, F.K., Tewng, S., and Weng, L.W., (1997),"Effect of Web Reinforcement on High Strength Concrete Deep Beams", ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 84, No. 5, September-October 1997, pp. 572-582. Tan, K.H., Kong, F.K., and, Weng, L.W., (1998),"High Strength Reinforced Concrete Deep and Short Beams: Shear Design Equations in North American and UK Practice", ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 85, No. 3, May-June 1998, pp. 318- 329. Tan, K.H., and Lu, H. Y., (1999),"Shear Behavior of Large Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams and Code Comparisons", ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 86, No.3, September October 1999, pp. 836-845. Tjhin, T.N., and Kuchma, D. A., (2002),Computer Based Tools for Design by Strutand-Tie Method: Advances and Challenges, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 99, No. 5, September 2002. Vecchio, F.J., and Collins, M. P., (1986), The Modified Compression Filed Theory for Reinforced Concrete Elements Subjected to Shear, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 83, No. 2, March-April 1986, pp. 219-231. Wahib, S.G., (1996), "Behavior of Flanged Continuous and Cantilever Deep Beams with Web Openings", M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, 1996. Wang, F., Teng, S., and Fan, S.C., (2001),"Softened Damage Model for Finite Element Analysis of Structural Concrete Deep Beams", ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 98, No. 1, January - February 2001, pp. 27 - 35. Yehya, E.M., Degwy, W.M., and El Kafrawy, M.F., (1996),"Influence of Reinforcement Detailing on the Behavior of R.C. Deep Beams with Openings", Proceedings of the Seventh International Colloquium on Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Cairo, Egypt, December 1996, pp. 85-100.

Yousef, A.M., (2003),"Shear Strength Prediction of High Strength Fiber Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams", Tenth International Colloquium on Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, April 2003, (E03RC02). Yun, Y.M., and Ramirz, J.A., (1996),"Strength of Struts and Nodes in Strut-Tie Model", ASCE, Journal of Structural Engineering, January 1996, pp. 20-29. Zaatar, W. A., (1994),"Application of Equilibrium Truss Models to Continuous Reinforced Concrete Solid Webbed Deep Beams with Web Openings", M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, 1994. Zaatar, W.A., Ali. M.A., El Attar, A. G., (1996),Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams with Web Openings, Journal of the Egyptian Society of Engineers, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1996. 13. CONVERSION FACTORS cm = 10 mm in. = 25.4 mm Ib = 4.4482 N psi = 0.0068948 MPa kg = 9.81 N MPa = 145 psi

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