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Shoe Sole Manufacturing Tech. INTRODUCTION Now a days shoes are meant as basic requirement of our day to daylife.

Through out the life we come across various types of shoes according to thes c e n a r i o we are going to face. Throughout the g l o b e v a r i o u s f o o t w e a r manufacturers came forward to full fill the customers requirements.Basically shoe is consisting of upper part and sole part n upper partmanufacturing is expansive as its associated with skillful labour. It providesi d e n t i t y , s h a p e , l o o k t o a s h o e o f particular kind. Sole manufacturing i s comparatively less expansive as its associated with less skillful labour as compareto upper.Welt construction shoes are traditional design, with the upper stitchedto welted inner sole and the outer sole sewn to inner. Variation of this traditionalconstruction include the adhesive bonding of various parts in place sewing in whichthe upper is turned out wards instead of inwards. This allows an appearance similar to welted shoe but at a much lower manufacturing cost. The advantages of sheetmaterials are essentially those of flexibility of design fashion and it is easy to supplya large number of size variations.Generally rubber, PVC, PU and EVA are used as raw material for solemanufacturing. Each of above mentioned material has got specific

characteristicswhich promotes availability of different kinds of foot wear in the market to full fillthe various kinds of customer requirements.Footwear industry is also unable to keep it self away from moderntechnique. Traditionally compression molding machines are used for solemanufacturing, as manufacturers did not have any alternative other than rubber as araw material. Later on modern science suggested that PVC, EVA. and PU are the C.O.E.& T.,Akola1 materials other than rubber can be used as raw materials with introduction of injection molding, cold flow molding and R.I.M. concept in the fool wear industry.Presently new techniques are adopted which provid es cycle tim ereduction from 35-45 records with increase in number of cavities from two to four.Production efficiency has been improved with the help of new and improved molddesign for longer mold life and better quality parts, improved cooling system. Location of gale, separate core inserts to improve ventilation, reduced thickness of parts without any compromise on quality.The new techniques allows significant cost sa ving intelligence, process innovation, increase productivity.

Preventive maintenance quality control,employment enrichment and site house keeping RUBBER AS A MATERIAL Rubber belongs to the class of substance termed as polymers highmolecular weight compounds predominantly organic, consisting of long chainmolecules made up of repeating units usually on a backbone of c arbon atoms.These high molecular weight polymers have a lower temperature limit to their rubbery state. At the so-called glass transition temperature Tg there is a fairlyabrupt change to a glassy state. Materials in the class of polymers, which are atnormal temperature plastics, become rubber like as the temperature is raised aboveTg. Types of Rubber Various types of rubbers used for sole manufacturinga ) Natural Rubberb) Synthetic Rubber Natural Rubber i ) R i b b e d s m o k e s h e e t i i ) P a l e c r e p e Synthetic Rubber i)Styrene Butadiene Rubber (S.B.R.)ii)Butadiene acrylonitrileiii)Poly chloroprenei v ) P o l y

i s o p r e n e v ) P o l y b u t a d i e n e Physical properties of Rubber M a x . M i n . a ) V i s c o s i t y ( s t o k e s ) 7 3 1 4 b) Ultimate tensile strength ( kg/cm 2 ) 2 0 0 1 6 0 c ) U l t i m a t e e l o n g a t i o n P e r c e n t a g e 1 2 0 0 8 0 0 d ) M o d u l u s 9 6 2 5 Chemical Requirement of Rubber S p e c i f i c a t i o n P e r c e n t a g e b y w e i g h t C.O.E.& T.,Akola3