Anda di halaman 1dari 27

EARTHING OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Introduction Definition of Earthing and Grounding: Grounding implies connection of power system neutral to ground (earth). e.g. neutral grounding / system grounding. In grounding current carrying parts are connected to ground. Earthing implies the connection of non current carrying parts to ground e.g metallic enclosures. Another term for earthing is equipment grounding. Earthing is done for human and equipment safety.

GENERATOR

TRANSFORMER

NG

NG

EARTHING
Human Element Electric 'shock' is possible only when the human body bridges two objects of unequal potential. Current flows when potential difference exists between hand and feet (touch potential), or between feet (step potential).

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 1 of 27

Maximum tolerable current for a human body is approximately 160 mA for one second duration (i.e. if current through body exceeds about 160 mA, for more than a second, almost certain death, due to ventricular fibrillation or heart attack).

Allowable body current B below:

(Ampere) as per IEEE Standard 80 is as given

B = 0.116 / TS, for a body weight of 50 Kg B = 0.157 / TS, for a body weight of 70 Kg where TS is the duration of current exposure (fault clearance time). For various exposure times, the withstand currents of human body are as follows: B (50 Kg) 259 mA 164 mA 116 mA B (70 Kg) 351 mA 222 mA 157 mA

TS 0.2 sec 0.5 sec 1 sec

Thus human body can withstand higher current for shorter time duration. The advantage high-speed protection is evident from human safety point of view. Average value of human body resistance RB is approximately 8000 to 9000 (under dry conditions). For standards purposes, RB is taken as 1000 as per IEEE Std 80. Use of lower RB value results in conservative values for allowable touch and step potentials.

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 2 of 27

Soil Resistivity Resistivity ( ) of element: R = L / A = R A / L M / M = M ; where - Resistivity of element, R Resistance of element, L Length, A Area, Earth is a not a good conductor. In fact it is one of the worst equipmentgrounding conductors. The comparison of resistivity is given below: Material Earth GI Copper Resistivity 100 M 10 M 1.7 x 10 M
-8 -7 2

Soil resistivity ( in M ) is value of resistance in of 1M cube. Soil resistivity for different types of soil is given below:

Type of Earth Resistivity ( - M )

Wet Soil 10

Moist Soil 100

Dry Soil 1,000

Bed Rock 10,000

Effect of moisture on soil resistivity: Soil resistivity rapidly increases for moisture content of less than 10 % of soil weight. There is marginal decrease in soil resistivity for moisture content exceeding 25% of soil weight.

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 3 of 27

Effect of salt on soil resistivity: Minute amount of salt causes sharp decrease in soil resistivity provided there is moisture content of say 10%. Salt when added to dry soil gives hardly any improvement in the resistivity value.

Substances used for improving soil resistivity are sodium chloride (common salt), copper sulphate, calcium chloride and magnesium sulphate. To account for corrosion, electrode size is increased from calculated value.

Corrosion intensity: Soil classification based on corrosion intensity is given below:

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 4 of 27

of virgin soil M Corrosion Intensity

<25 Severe

25 to 50 Moderate

50 to 100 Mild

> 100 Very Mild

Alternative substances used for earthing are coke or wood charcoal and Bentonite. Coke is less corrosive compared to salt. Bentonite is a natural clay and non-corrosive and needs watering periodically.

Performance over time for earth resistivity is shown below:

After treatment there is initial decrease in . However there is gradual increase in soil resistivity with time as the salt is washed away by continual water seepage. Hence, re-treatment is typically required to be carried out once in 3 years. Effect of Temperature on Soil Resistivity: Soil resistivity decreases with increase in temperature. In summer is less and in winter it is more. However, effect of temperature on is not serious until freezing point is approached. Near 0C, abruptly rises to a very high

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 5 of 27

value. It is preferable to place electrodes well below ground level. Surface temperature may be freezing but below 1M, soil temperature will be higher.

Soil resistivity measurement: Soil resistivity measurement setup is as shown below. AC supply source is preferred for the set up as compared to the DC supply source.

Resistivity measured for spacing A represents apparent soil resistivity to depth of 'A'. Measurements are made with different spacings. Rapidly increasing value of with spacing 'A' indicates underlying stratum is rock and it is difficult to install earth electrodes to great depths.

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 6 of 27

Resistance to earth Resistance between metal of electrode in question and general mass of earth is known as earth resistance. It is resistance between specific electrode and imaginary electrode of zero resistance placed at infinity. 90% of resistance is contributed by earth within 5 meters distance.

Resistance vs Distance:

Resistance to earth of hemi-spherical electrode is shown below:

A X dX

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 7 of 27

R = L / A; RX = dX / 2 X

Resistance area of tube or rod electrode: Resistance area is the region of earth that immediately surrounds the electrode and contributes to practical value of resistance.

Current flows away from electrode in all directions and through a series of shells of earth of continuously increasing cross section. At sufficient distance from earth electrode, shells approach hemi-spherical shape. Hence results given earlier for hemi-spherical electrode are also nearly valid here. Resistance of electrode to earth here also is predominantly influenced by earth with in the vicinity of electrode. This justifies artificial treatment of soil in the immediate neighborhood of soil to achieve low resistance between electrode and earth.

Resistance of Driven Rod or Pipe Electrode: L : depth of Driven Rod in met : diameter of Driven Rod in met R = ( / 2 L ) [ LN (8L /{ x 2.7183 })] R ( / 2 L ) [ LN (4L / )]

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 8 of 27

Length / diameter of rod vs Resistance is given below:


RESISTANCE OF ROD ELECTRODE
300 2.5 CM 250

RHO - 100 OHM-MET DIAMETER : 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 CM

RESISTANCE, OHMS

200

150

ROD LENGTH: 6M
100

R2.5 = 16.4 R10 = 15.3

300%
R 7%

50 10 CM 0 0 1 2 3 4

10

LENGTH OF ROD, MET

The diameter of the rod has minor influence on the resistance. Length of the rod has major impact. For lengths more than 3M, resistance is almost the same even if diameter is increased by four times. Resistance of Horizontal Wire (Strip) Electrode: If excavation is difficult beyond a meter due to underlying rock, strip electrode is the alternative. The earth electrode is as shown below:

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 9 of 27

Exact Formula (RYDER) R = ( / 2 L) [LN(8L/T) + LN(L/h) 2 + (2h/L) (h2 / L2)] Where, h is depth in Met, L is length in Met. T : width in Met (for strip) : 2 x diameter in Met (for wire) Approximate Formula: R = ( / 2 L) [LN( 2L2 / hT )] { IS 3043 }

Length / diameter of wire Vs Resistance variation is shown below,

The diameter of the rod (width in case of strip electrode) has minor influence on the resistance. Length of the rod has major impact on resistance value. For length more than 50M, resistance is almost the same even if diameter is increased by four times.

Resistance of electrode to earth is only influenced by maximum dimension of electrode, i.e. depth in case of rod electrode and length in case of wire electrode. It is not much influenced by minor dimensions like diameter or width. It is not dependent on material of electrode. It is the function of physical dimensions of the electrode and not its physical properties.

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 10 of 27

The cross section of strip with width 'W' is approximately equivalent to round conductor with diameter of 'W / 2'.

W W/2 Plate electrode: In early days only plate electrode were used. It was assumed that to get low resistance, surface area of electrode be increased. The fallacy of increased electrode surface area persisted for a long time. But as can be seen from following figures, plate electrode is very inefficient. It is rarely used in modern times.

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 11 of 27

Two electrodes in parallel To obtain low effective earth grid resistance, earth rods are connected in parallel. For achieving minimum resistance, resistance area of each electrode must be clear of one another. Theoretically, the effective resistance shall be half of one electrode. If electrodes are well separated, this can be achieved. The figure below shows the relation between percentage effective resistance and separation between electrodes in meters.

If rod length is 'L' meters, spacing between electrodes shall be greater than 2L meters, as shown below.

L 2L

Three electrodes in parallel Theoretically, the effective resistance shall be 33% of one electrode. If electrodes are well separated, this can be achieved. The figure below shows the relation between effective resistance and separation between electrodes in meters.
Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 12 of 27

If rod length is 'L' meters, spacing between electrodes shall be greater than 2L meters. 2 L 1 1 2 3 3

> 2L

Grounding Grid Resistance Previous discussions centered around resistance to earth from individual electrodes. Present discussion is on resistance to earth from entire grounding grid.

Sverak formula C1 = 1 / L ; C2 = 1/(20A); C3 = 1 + h (20A) RG = [ C1 + C2 {1 + (1 / C3)} ] Where, RG h A L = = = = = Grid resistance to earth in Depth of grid in m Average earth resistivity in Area of grounding grid M
2

Total length of buried conductor, including rod electrodes in meters

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 13 of 27

Example of rectangular grounding grid is shown below:

Area of Grounding grid = A = 80 x 50 = 4000 M2 Horizontal electrodes length = LH = (9 x 50 ) + (6x 80) = 930 M Vertical rods length = LV = 18x 6 = 108 M L = LH + LV = 930 + 108 = 1038 M H = depth of grid = 0.5 M = soil resistivity = 100 - M Applying Sverak Formula, RG = 0.79 Caution in using formula for individual electrodes is illustrated below:

For Vertical rod electrodes:

Soil resistivity = 100 M ; L = 6 M; = 0.05 M ( 2") Formula for individual vertical rod: R = ( / 2 L ) [ LN (8L /{ x 2.7183 })] = 15.5625 For 18 rods in parallel, RV = 15.5625 / 18 = 0.8646 For Horizontal Electrodes: Soil resistivity = = 100 M; L = LH = (9 x 50 + 6 x 80) = 930 M T = 0.1M ; h = 0.5 M Applying Ryder's formula for horizontal electrodes R = ( / 2 L) [LN(8L/T) + LN(L/h) 2 + (2h/L) (h2 / L2)] = 0.2866
Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 14 of 27

Thus effective Grid Resistance = R'G = RV in parallel with RH R'G = ( RV RH ) / ( RV + RH ) = 0.2152

But as per Sverak formula for entire grid, equivalent resistance = RG = 0.79 . Thus RG is very much greater than R'G. This is due to the fact that resistance areas of electrodes are not independent and partially overlap. Sverak formula for grounding grid resistance does not involve conductor size or material at all. It involves only linear dimension (length of horizontal or vertical electrodes) that makes it very special. Measurement Of Earth Electrode Resistance by Fall Of Potential method. It is also called Two-current and one potential electrode method.

In the above figure,

C_E_T implies current electrode under test. It can be a single electrode or earthing grid whose resistance to earth is to be measured. Test current ('') enters C_E_T.

C_E_R implies reference electrode placed at sufficient distance ('L') from test electrode. Test current ('') leaves C_E_R.

V_E implies Voltage electrode.

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 15 of 27

Voltage ('V') between C_E_T & V_E measured Electrode (grid) resistance is given by R = V / Take three measurements with, L_P = L / 2 L_P = L / 2 + D L_P = L / 2 D L = 100 to 500 M, D = 5 to 10 M If three readings agree within tolerable accuracy, electrode (grid) resistance is the mean of the three readings. If the three readings are not sufficiently close, increase spacing 'L between test electrode and reference electrode and repeat the test.
X Y1 Y Y11 Z

Effective Resistance Areas (Overlapping)


Resistance

Reading Variation

X-Y Distance

Overlapping resistance areas


X Y1 Y Y11 Z

Resistance

Effective Resistance Areas (No Overlap) Reading Variation


X-Y Distance

Non-overlapping resistance areas

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 16 of 27

Electrode Sizing Materials generally used for earth electrodes are Galvanized Iron, Copper and Aluminum. Current ratings for above materials are given below in A / mm (as per IS 3043): Material 0.5 sec Rating 1 sec Rating 3 sec Rating GI 113 80 46 Copper 290 205 118 Aluminum 178 126 73
2

For EHV switchyards, electrodes are designed for 0.5 sec duty. Primary protection clears fault within 0.1 sec. Back up protection operating time is about 0.5 sec. For electrodes other than those in EHV switchyards, design duty is for 1 sec. Rating of 3 sec is rarely used. Example The fault current magnitude is 40 kA. The duration of fault is 0.5 sec. The electrode material is GI. Minimum cross section: 113 A 40 KA 1 mm2 40,000 / 113 = 353 mm2

Taking corrosion allowance as 10%, Desired cross section = 353 x 1.1 = 388 mm2 Chosen size: 50 x 8 mm General Formula for Electrode rating in Amps / mm2 is K / T Where, K implies constant defined for 1 sec duty (e.g. 80 for G ) T implies time considered for grid design (e.g. 0.5, 0.7, 1, 3 Sec ) Considering mechanical strength and ruggedness requirements, minimum electrode size shall be greater than 50 mm for G and 25 mm for Copper. Resistance of electrode to earth (REL) is independent of electrode material (G, CU, AL). It is hardly influenced by cross section (e.g. REL not much different if cross
Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 17 of 27
2 2

section is 400mm or 600 mm ). In fact, Sveraks formula for ground grid resistance does not even involve diameter or cross section!. Earthing in LV & MV Systems Following three cases have been considered for illustrating the concepts of earthing in LV and MV systems. Case 1: Source grounded Equipment ungrounded For easy conceptualization, single-phase network is shown below.

In the above figure, AB indicates source of supply. C indicates equipment. Point B is earthed through earth electrode 'E' RC indicates equipment load resistance (e.g. 230 / 1000 = 53) R indicates equipment insulation resistance (M) RH indicates resistance of a person (e.g. 2000 ohms) Under normal conditions, R is very high. Even if a person touches the body, very little current flows through him. Under the condition of insulation failure of equipment, R reduces to 0. Current through body is given by, H = V / (RH + RE1) = 240 / (2000+1) 120 mA
2

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 18 of 27

This current is small and not sufficient to blow the fuse, but it can be dangerous to a person (IEEE Std- 116 mA for 1 sec). Case 2: Source grounded Equipment grounded

In the above figure B & C are earthed trough earth electrodes E1 & E2. In the event of insulation failure of equipment R reduces to 0. Equivalent resistance REQ = RE2 RH = 1 2000 1 Fault current, F = V / (REQ + RE1) = 240 / (1+1) = 120 A Current through body, H = {1/(1+2000)} x 120 60 mA F is significant but not very high. Fuse may or may not blow. But current H, through body, though low, is not insignificant. Case 3: Source grounded Equipment grounded With Bonding

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 19 of 27

Bonding conductor, which is the physical connection between equipment casing and source, is also called earth continuity conductor. Bonding conductor resistance is indicated as RB, which is very small. Even assuming RB = 0.01 , Fault current, F = 240 / 0.01 = 24 kA F is high enough to cause instantaneous fuse blowing. Thus the human safety is inherently achieved. Hence, it is not reliable to depend solely on earth for return of fault current. Physical earth continuity conductor (bonding) that runs from equipment to source is the most reliable conductor for return of earth fault current. Low Voltage System (415V) Generally Low Voltage System is solidly grounded as per IE rules. return of fault current, MAX (415/3) / 1 240 A If fault current is limited to 240A, neither over current relay nor fuse will ever operate. Hence, earth shall not be treated as sole equipment grounding conductor for return of fault current. We can make many supplementary connections to earth from equipment. But metallic connection (bonding conductor) must exist between equipment and source neutral. Majority of fault currents shall be carried by grounding grid conductor and very little by earth. Best earth

electrode resistance is approximately 1. on 415 V system. If only earth is used for

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 20 of 27

EARTHING IN LV SYSTEM CORRECT METHOD

EARTHING IN LV SYSTEM WRONG METHOD

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 21 of 27

Unsafe earthing is shown below where no earth continuity conductor is provided.

Safe Earthing is shown below where earth continuity conductor is provided.

MV (Resistance Grounded System) is shown below:

Even here, earth conductor must run all over the plant and must carry return current back to NGR. MV (Ungrounded System) is shown below:

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 22 of 27

Even for ungrounded system earth continuity conductor is recommended to be provided.

`Clean Earth: Correct method of electronic equipment earthing is shown below:

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 23 of 27

Wrong method of electronic equipment earthing is indicated below:

Monitoring currents through neutral and ground is recommended:

High neutral current indicates unbalance load. High current through ground conductor indicates earth fault.

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 24 of 27

Two cardinal principles of electronic earthing are as follows: Neutral conductor and ground conductor are connected only at the service entrance. From this point on, neutral and ground conductors should not be bonded together. i.e. neutral and ground conductors should never touch each other after leaving service entrance panel board. Unbalanced load currents shall return only through the neutral back to the service entrance. Ground shall carry only fault current and not unbalanced load currents. UPS Configurations and its earthing Configuration - I

In this configuration neutral and ground is bonded only at the service entrance. Bypass input neutral and UPS module neutral is solidly bonded and therefore UPS module is not considered as a separate source. Neutral and ground should not be bonded at any other point either at UPS or distribution board. Ground shall be used only for body earthing. Configuration II In this configuration bypass transformer is used to feed bypass input of UPS. The bypass transformer and UPS module is considered as a separately derived source
Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 25 of 27

since there is no electrical connection between the UPS and input service supply. Therefore in this particular configuration it is imperative to bond the neutral and ground at the UPS module. After this point, neutral and ground should not be bonded further in the distribution circuit.

Configuration - III

Similar to Configuration I, in this configuration also, UPS is not considered as separately derived source. However distribution board is provided with an

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 26 of 27

isolation transformer and is considered a separately derived source. Therefore in this configuration distribution board neutral shall be bonded to ground. Neutral to ground voltage It is very important to check the integrity of the neutral to ground bonding for critical loads. Many electronic systems need ground wire as the signal reference for the electronic signal. System can malfunction if there is potential difference between neutral and ground. It is necessary to measure the voltage between neutral and ground points. Ideally this voltage should be zero, which is practically not achievable. Maximum acceptable value is typically 2 volt. The presence of voltage between neutral and ground is because of the impedance in the length of the cable. During normal operation, the ground wire will have no current flow while there will be return current flow in the neutral wire. It is often recommended to use higher cross section for neutral wire (twice the cross section of phase conductor) for reducing the neutral cable impedance. Eg.: If a five core 16 sq. mm cable is used, three core is used for phases and two core is used for neutral. In practice neutral potential should never be zero in anywhere in the distribution except near the legitimate neutral to ground bond at the source point. If it is found zero all along the neutral circuit, it implies that there is a illegal bond between neutral and ground. Neutral to ground potential of few hundred millivolts is a sign of healthy distribution and earthing system. References IEEE std 80 : Guide for safety in AC substation grounding IS 3043 : Code of practice for earthing IEEE -1100: Guide for Powering and Grounding Electronic Equipment Earthing principles and practices: R W RYDER Electrical earthing and accident prevention: Edited by M G SAY

Reliance Energy Center, Santacruz, Mumbai 400 055, Tel (022) 3009 9999 27 of 27