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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES COLLEGE OF EDUCATION STA.

MESA, MANILA

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES BACHELOR IN BUSINESS TEACHER EDUCATION MAJOR IN BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL YEAR 2012-2013 STUDENT TEACHERS THINKING PROCESSES ON ICT INTEGRATION:
PREDICTORS OF PROSPECTIVE TEACHING BEHAVIOR WITH EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

Submitted by: Caballero, Joyce M. Galande, Ranjen B. Go, Krisha Cassandra L. Gonzales, Sheena Mae V. Martinez, Carl John T. Mayo, Mayrel D. Ogena, Jason A. Rafol, Regina G. Versoza, Joy Marie A. Submitted to: Prof. Michelle Z. Bandola-Sotto

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction


The upcoming of ICT technologies has its implications on school and education. It is not possible to ignore computers anymore. Education is faced with the challenge to incorporate computers and communication possibilities in a meaningful way. Bruno Emans Information and communication technologies, is a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store and manage

information.(Blurton, 2002) These technologies include computers, the internet, broadcasting technologies, etc. Nowadays the use of computers has been a groundswell of interest to the people. The improvement of the technology has a great impact on the efficiency and effectiveness of education at all levels and in both formal and non-formal settings, however the continuous development of the technology has been very fast in the present year and teachers must keep pace with the constantly changing technology, as well as the student teachers for them to qualify the ICT competency of a teacher and to prepare them for their future career. Student teachers must be prepared on the integration of computer technology in education to develop their teaching strategies and improve the transfer of learning.

Today's classroom teachers must be prepared to provide technology-supported learning opportunities for their students. Being prepared to use technology and knowing how that technology can support student learning must become integral skills in every teacher's professional repertoire (OICT, 2010) To make the best use of ICT, teachers must be equipped with adequate ICT competencies. Student teachers are taught how to use different equipments to improve their strategies; it is called educational technology which is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources (Richey, 2008). With the help of educational technology student teachers will be able to use their knowledge to be able to come up with a good teaching performance. Student teachers are the future educators; they are the student who is teaching under the supervision of a certified teacher in order to qualify a degree in education. Student teachers are teaching at the same time studying and preparing themselves for their future career, as a teacher. They undergo in different trainings and preparing for the real classroom situation by observing and participating to different classes depending on the subject they are teaching. The use of information and communication technology is one of the important knowledge a student teacher must learn before they become a teacher, because of the continuous development of technology it should be a big advantage if the teacher is familiar to the use of these technology in teaching. Due to the fact that Computer is one of the major subjects of BBTE-BT students it is imperative that quality education must be maintained at the highest level. This can be possible if

the future teachers will be prepared on the development of the technologies and incorporate it with teaching. This study aims to predict the student teachers behavior with educational technology. How the student teachers think with ICT integration in thinking. In Philippines ICT integration is currently being done, the student teachers are trained in using different instructional materials especially ICT to incorporate in teaching. Not just merely using word processors in doing a lesson plan and power point presentations in discussions but also using different applications and simulations is application on specific lessons. In Polytechnic University of the Philippines, the student teachers of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education major in business Technology have already gone through different trainings with the use of ICT, and as a business technology teacher, the BBTE-BT students must have high ICT competencies.

Theoretical Framework
Office of Information and Communications Technology (OICT, 2009) states that traditional educational practices no longer provide prospective teachers with all the necessary skills for teaching students, who must be able to survive economically in todays workplace. Teachers must teach students to apply strategies for solving problems and to use appropriate tools for learning, collaborating and communicating. The problem is not necessarily lack of funds, but lack of adequate training and lack of understanding of how computers can be used to enrich the learning experience.

Teaching evolves with the world. Today, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is one way by which various sectors keep up with globalization so does Education sector (Montemayor, Abao-ao and Aballear, 2008). The main theory that formed the research is made by Sang, Balcke, Braak, and Tondeur on their study Student teachers thinking processes and ICT integration: Predictors of Prospective Teaching Behavior with Educational Technology The study of Sang, Valcke, Braak,and Tondeur, which centers on the impact of Chinese student teachers attitudes and profile on ICT integration results that all of teacher related variable answers of the respondents correlated and only differs on their beliefs about ICT integration on their teaching based on the student teachers gender.

Fig. 1 Integrated model of the impact of gender and student teacher thinking processes on prospective classroom ICT use. (Sang et al., 2009) Building on the results of a path analysis model, prospective ICT integration could be directly predicted on the base of teacher thinking variables (constructivist teaching beliefs, teacher self-efficacy, computer self-efficacy and computer attitudes in education), and indirectly

by the gender of the student teachers. Implications for teacher education and further research are discussed in the research of Sang, Valcke, Braak,and Tondeur.

Conceptual Framework
This study used the theory of Sang, Valcke, Braak,and Tondeur, about the impact of gender and student teacher thinking processes on prospective classroom ICT use the researchers come up with the concept that will predict the teaching behaviour of PUP BBTE-BT students with educational technology.
Input Gender Student Teachers thinking process on ICT integration
Constructivist Beliefs Teachers Efficacy Educational ICT attitudes Computer selfefficacy

Process
Conduct a Survey through Questionnaire Compare the Gender differences on student teacher thinking on ICT integration Compare the Student teachers thinking process on ICT integration Identify the question that is least and mostly answered by the student teachers on each variables

Output Gender issues on teacher thinking and ICT use Strongest predictor of prospective use of ICT in teaching Prospective Teaching Behavior with Educational Technology

Fig. 2 The schematic diagram of Conceptual Framework

As shown in the paradigm, this study ought to find out what are the variables that mostly influence the student teachers to integrate ICT in their future career as a teacher, variables includes, gender, and teachers thinking process on ICT integration (constructivist beliefs, teachers efficacy, educational ICT attitudes, and computer self-efficacy).

The researchers also sought to find out the difference of thinking process of the male and female student teachers of Polytechnic University of the Philippines taking up the course of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education major in Business Technology school year 2012-2013 by conducting a survey through a questionnaire to the PUP BBTE-BT student teacher and comparing the datas gathered. Each variable questions indicates behavior of the student teachers, this will help the researchers to identify how many student teachers will be doing certain behavior using ICT in teaching.

Statement of the Problem


The purpose of this study is to ascertain the of the student teachers of Polytechnic University of the Philippines, taking up the course Bachelor in Business Teacher Education major in Business Technology prediction on their prospective teaching behavior with educational technology. More specifically, this general question splits into the following sub-questions: 1. What is the Profile of the student teachers? a) Name b) Age c) Gender 2. What are the Student teachers thinking process on ICT integration in terms of: a) Constructivist Beliefs b) Teachers Efficacy c) Educational ICT attitudes d) Computer self-efficacy

3. Is there any difference between the prospective use of male and female student teachers of ICT? 4. What is the strongest predictor of prospective use of ICT in teaching among the following: a) Constructivist Beliefs b) Teachers Efficacy c) Educational ICT attitudes d) Computer self-efficacy 5. What is the Prospective Teaching Behavior of student teachers with Educational Technology in terms of: a) Constructivist Beliefs b) Teachers Efficacy c) Educational ICT attitudes d) Computer self-efficacy

Scope and Delimitations


This study will focus on the predictors of prospective teaching behaviours of the student teachers with the use of educational technology. The researchers limited the period of the study for school year 2012-2013, first and second semester. The survey included the fourth year level students taking up the course of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education major in Business Technology, in Polytechnic University of the Philippines Sta. Mesa, Manila, composed of male and female students that are enrolled in Observation, Participation and Community Immersion (Practicum 1) and Practice Teaching (Practicum 2) subject.

Significance of the Study


Although this study was contrived primarily to the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Bachelor of Business Teacher Education major in Business Technology student teachers, to some extent, this would serve as an eye-opener for other universities and colleges administrators, teachers and teacher education students under similar conditions. To the administrators, they would appraise the ICT competencies of the student teachers as well as the faculty. This would hopefully assist selection in training their respective faculty members. It will also serve as baseline information on how they will construct a curriculum for ICT integration development. To the teachers, the findings of this study will give the insight into the aspect of their own ICT competencies they need to improve. They will also be familiarized what patterns and qualities they should develop and stimulate them to apply methods they neglect to use. To the teacher education students, they will be prepared on their future career by knowing the qualities they need to acquire in order to have the competencies for a better teacher. Lastly, this could be of national significance, as this study gauge also other schools in relation to the performance of their students as well.

Definition of Terms
The conceptual operational definition is used within the context of this research. Competency. Knowledge, skill, ability, or characteristic associated with high performance on a job. Some definitions of competency include motivates, beliefs, and values. Competencies can also help distinguish high performance from average and low performance; a desirable quality or behavior; a performance indicator.

Computer Self-efficacy. Compeau and Higgins (1995) defined computer self-efficacy as a judgment ofones capability to use a computer Constructivism. This theory states that learning is an active process of creating meaning from different experiences. In other words, students will learn best by by trying to make sense of something on their own with the teacher as a guide to help them along the way. Educational Technology. Field of study concerned with the practice of using educational methods and resources for the ultimate goal to learning process. It confines technology to the educational field and includes educational hardware or devices and the application of scientific knowledge to the teaching process by way of conceptual bases and methods of designing, developing, and evaluating instructional process. Efficacy. Is the capacity to produce an effect. Efficacy has to do with how a teacher feels about his or her ability to do their job. Gender . Culturally and socially constructed difference between men and women (as indicated by terms such as 'gender affairs' and 'gender politics') that varies from place to place and time to time. In comparison, 'sex' denotes biologically determined, thus unchangeable, difference between them.

ICT. Information and Communications Technology" (ICT) is defined as the totality of electronic means to collect, store, process and present information to end-users in support of their activities. It consists, among others, of computer systems, office systems and consumer electronics, as well as networked information infrastructure, the components of which include the telephone system, the Internet, fax machines and computers.

ICT Competency. The knowledge and skills an individual must possess at a recognized level of competence in specific ICT fields/areas. Knowledge and skills in competency areas are presented generally with specifics on essential areas of learning and performance indicators, but avoid reference to specific vendors, versions or equipment. Thus, it allows flexibility in the adoption of the standard while preserving the general requirements for competence. Student Teacher. Is a college student who is teaching under the supervision of a certified teacher in order to qualify for a degree in education. Teacher efficacy. Is sometimes considered to be an indicator or prediction of teaching effectiveness. A more contemporary word for efficacy could be confidence. Self-efficacy. Bandura (1986) defined self-efficacy as peoples judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances.

CHAPTER II Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents the literature and related studies which have direct bearing on this study. Synthesis was also created based from the gathered information and facts in literature and studies.

Foreign Literature

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can contribute to universal access to education, equity in education, the delivery of quality learning and teaching, teachers professional development and more efficient education management, governance and administration.

UNESCO takes a holistic and comprehensive approach to promoting ICT in education. Access, challenges they can address. The Organizations Intersectoral Platform for ICT in education focuses on these issues through the joint work of three of its sectors: Communication & Information, Education and Science. UNESCOs global network of offices, institutes and partners provide Member States with resources for elaborating ICT in education policies, strategies and activities. In particular, the UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education (IITE), based in Moscow, specializes in Information exchange, research and training on the integration of ICT in education while UNESCOs Bangkok office is strongly involved in ICT for Education in Asia and the Pacific (UNESCO, 2012).

In educational reforms the teacher is the last but most crucial chain in the process of educational change. However when considering ICT related innovations in education we cannot conceive teachers as isolated actors. Teachers follow routines that they have learnt during pre-

service training and on the job, they are required to implement curricular objectives and contents that quite often are formally established, they work within the constraints of the school organization having fixed lesson tables, etc. Innovations that require teachers to change may aspects of their daily routines are very demanding for them. Complex innovations can only be successful if a number of interacting conditions are met. (Pelgrum, 2002)

The results on teacher education effectiveness suggest that what we want student teachers and in-service teachers to learn about ICT may have the same disappointing fate as many other earlier endeavours to educate them. With this caution in mind, we present ICT-related benchmarks for teacher education programs.

Benchmarks

We formulated nine benchmarks for teacher education programs on the pedagogical use of ICT. The first four benchmarks concern the what of teacher education programs; the last five concer the how.

Benchamark 1- Personal ICT Competencies

A prerequisite for using ICT as a pedagogical tool is that the teachers themselves can use ICT as a work tool (e.g., positioning course materials in an electronic learning environment), a communication tool (to liaise between school, parents, local community, and beyond) and an administration tool (Thomas and Knezek, 2008). Teacher education programs, pre-or in-service, should thus facilitate teachers to become competent personal users of ICT. Minimally, presentday teachers require basic competencies with:

office applications word processing, spreadsheets, databases, drawing packages, and a simple web page editor;

resource tools CD-ROMs, Internet, web-portals, different types of search engines, and communication tools email, discussion lists and synchronous chat. Further, these programs should develop the learners ability to use ICT effectively for:

communicating between and within student groups; communicating with other teachers, and lifelong learning, including self-assesment of learning and learning needs.

Some countries have introduced an ICT driving license for these competencies (e.g., Turcsnyi-Szab, 2008, in this book). Benchmark 2 ICT as a Mind Tool

Mind tools are computer applications that, when used by learners represent what they know, necessarily engage them in critical thinking about the content they are studying. Learning with mindtools depends on the mindful engagement of learners in the tasks afforded by these tools and that there is the possibility of qualitatively upgrading in the performance of the joint system of learner plus technology (Jonassen et al., 1998, p.30). Mind tools scaffold different forms of reasoning about content; they require students to think about what they know in different meaningful ways. For instance, using databases to organize students understanding of content organization necessarily engages them in analytical reasoning since creating the rule base requires them to think about casual relationships between ideas. At this point we must make a distinction between learning with ICT (i.e., as a mind tool). In the

former, ICT is the enabler, such as in using a project-planning program to help students plan their projects properly and hand in their projects on time. In learning through using ICT, the expected outcome is for ICT to bring about a change in the way one thinks and works. Going back to the planner, this can happen in the long run when the project planning program has taught the student to organize her thoughts, take critical paths and products into account, and plan her work efficiently (long) after having completed the project.

Programs should train teachers and student teachers to be able to use ICT as mind tools (see for instance van den Berg et al., 2008) to represent what they know as they transform information into knowledge and to engage in, and facilitate, critical thinking and higher order learning. Minimally, teachers should develop basic competence to use mind tools for ordering their own thoughts (e.g., though concept mapping) and those from colleagues, and modelling their own environment for optimal teaching. Benchamrk 3 Social Aspects of ICT- Use in Education

ICT is having a profound effect on society (Thomas and Knezek, 2008). As a socio-cultural phenomenon, ICT changes leadership and roles in organizations (Szewczak and Snodgrass, 2002), as well as teachers and students roles in schools. It creates opportunities for collaborative knowledge production and problem solving, breaking earlier limits of time, distance and possession of knowledge (Boogt and Knezek, 2008).

Foreign Studies

As more technology is placed in school classrooms, the need for knowledgeable teachers to use these stools effectively becomes a pressing issue. Preparing future teachers who know

how to integrate effective use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in their curriculum remains a challenging goal for teacher preparation programs. Teaching with new and emerging ICT is a complex task. Recent frameworks have identified that teaching with technology integration in learning activities demands an understanding of how ICT tools relate to content area topics and pedagogy. In addition to pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), student teachers need opportunities to begin developing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) to understand what technology to use when to use it and how to use it to support student learning.

In addition, recent revisions of National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS for Students 2007) and Teachers (NETS for Teachers 2008) have raised the bar for effective technology use from an emphasis on basic productivity skills to development of creativity and innovation, communication and collaboration, research and information fluency, digital citizenship, critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making with ICT. It is no longer enough to simply teach word-processing, Internet searches or presentation skills. Students need to acquire digital age literacy skills and learn how to responsibly use technology as a learning tool for acquiring content area information, solving problems, sharing knowledge, creating original works and innovative ideas, cultivating higher-order thinking, developing global awareness and communicating and collaborating on learning tasks with multiple audiences beyond the classroom walls (Grove, 2008).

In an increasingly technology- oriented and globalizing world, the use of ICT has become a critical factor in enabling more people to gain an education, which in turn ensures that a countrys workforce is skilled and prepared to meet the challenges of development. Thus, ICTs

are now part of Philippines basic education, workforce competency and capacity building, and special needs education. The latest ICT assisted basic education initiative is the eSkwela Project, a CICT flagship project that aims to make out of school youth and adults globally competitive through the effective use of ICT in alternative learning. The eSkwela centres serve as venues where learners and other community members can gain literacy and life skills and competencies, develop new skills including digital literacy, review for the Accreditation and Equivalency Exam of the DepEd Bureau of Alternative Learning System and prepare themselves to rejoin the formal schools system. The Workforce Mobilization Program is a partnership between CICT, CHED, the TESDA and private training institutions that aims to match workers to jobs and vice versa. In addition, WMP authorities are formulating the ICT competency standards and preparing the competency-based certification examination to professionalized ICT human resources in the Philippines. Other ICT related capacity building programs in 2007-2008 are: The e-learning and technology based distributed learning programs of Open University such as UP Open University and PUP Open University. TESDAs skills upgrading programs, which upgrade the competencies of IT graduates to enhance their chances of being absorbed by the IT and IT-enabled services industry, and training programs for individuals to gain ICT skills for purposes of employment. Ensure Universal Access to ICT

To ensure universal access to ICT, the government shall implement the following: Community e-Center Program, to include projects such as Internet in Schools, e-Care Centers which are specially designed to provide access and training programs for persons with Disabilities, eLGU Cec that enable local government units to deliver services more efficiently, while providing their respective constituents with access to the Internet and other ICT, and Regional ICT Centers to spur regional development through the use of ICT in education, commerce and governance and spearhead the building of local emarket place or a one-stop-shops for e-commerce, e-learning and e-governance services. Low Cost Computing, through the PC ng Bayan initiative, launched by CICT in 2005, low cost computers are to be made available to the population. Free and Open Source software will also be provided as an alternative to pirated commercial software. National Broadband Plan, the government will ensure that adequate bandwith to support widespread and intensive ICT use is available throughout the country. Last Mile Initiative, the Government will take all steps necessary to ensure that all citizens have access to ICT goods and services, and will, principally through Community e-Centers, provide the last mile bridge to these unserved areas. It should be emphasized, nonetheless, the government is fully prepared to yield the delivery of access to ICT once the private sector is ready expand into these areas (Akhtar, Hassan, and Arinto, 2009).

The development of Singapores first and second Masterplan for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education showed that integrating technology into Primary and Secondary education (grades 1-12) was one of the main educational priorities in the

education system. The first Masterplan was launched in 1997 (Singapore Ministry of Education, 2004). It forcused on:

Curriculum and assessment: Include assessments that will measure abilities in applying information, thinking and communication

Learning resources: Acquire and develop a wide range of education software to meet curriculum needs; facilitate use of relevant online resources

Human resource development: Provide training to every teacher in core skills in teaching with and using ICT meaningfully

Physical and technological infrastructure: Provide access to ICT, school-wide network; provide teacher-computer ratio and student-computer ration of 2:1, respectively

Although the first Masterplan for ICT in Education emphasized more on the infrastructure, resources, and teacher training, the second Masterplan in 2002 was geared toward changing the culture of the classroom and school to support and motivate thinking and independent learning among young students (Singapore Ministry of Education, 2006). Some of the intended outcomes for Masterplan 2 are for:

Students to use ICT effectively for active learning Connections between curriculum, instruction, and assessment to be enhanced using ICT

Integration of ICT in curriculum and assessment to be enhanced Teachers to conduct active research in the use of ICT in education

To achieve these intended outcomes, the roles of the teachers are changed from that of the main knowledge provider to that of a facilitator in learning. In addition, students are to become engaged in constructing their own learning process as supportive tools rather than being integrated into the students learning process as supportive tools rather than being used mainly by teachers as presentation tools. The preservice teacher education programs provide foundational knowledge and skills and inspire student teachers to be innovative leaders in schools (Wong, Chong, Choy, Wong, &Goh, 2008). As the sole preservice teacher education provide in Singapore, the National Institute of Education (NIE) plays an integral role in preparing the student teachers for all Singapore schools. More than 2000 student teachers are admitted into five preservice teacher education programs in NIE annually. These programs are postgraduate diploma in education (primary), postgraduate diploma in education (secondary), diploma in education, bachelor of science (education), and bachelor of arts (education). If the student teachers are able to adopt the pedagogical use of ICT learned in NIE in their 10-weeks student teaching and their beginning years of teaching, it is more likely that they will bring new ideas and practices into their classrooms and the schools. In the long run, they may become the change agents in their schools, helping to alter the school culture in the effective use of ICT (Choy, Wong, and Gao, 2009).

As well as being a common scenario within pre-service teacher education courses at universities within Australia, the move away from requiring student to undertake Information and Communication Technology (ICT) subjects, to a model where ICT skills are taught in an integrated way throughout the degree is also occurring in courses within a number of other (non Education) disciplines. The degree to which this adequately prepares students for a

technology rich professional world is an issue of ongoing interest in many professional disciplines and consequently the findings from the study should be of wide interest. Additionally, the issues faced by pre-service teachers as they develop skills in the effective use of technology in their teaching, replicate the issues faced by University lecturers as they shift to technology facilitated flexible and blended models of learning. Consequently, the findings from this study are also likely to be of interest to academic staff developers (Gill and Dalgarno 2010).

A few teachers are experimenting the use of ICT intra and inter-subject to enhance pedagogy. Such practices are likely to take root across the country but in an uneven fashion depending on access individual and group initiative, and support from school administration. The broader institutionalisation of ICT use in teaching and learning will take more time, though the study did reveal the beginning of promising practices for durability of ICT in schools, such as parent involvement and the creation of school committees responsible for ICT integration. An obvious start has to be the issue of teacher skills. In general most teachers are far less competent with ICT than their students. Many of those over the age of 45 have had little exposure to computer until recently and are just leaning to handle email. Concerted training efforts are required to get most academic staff up to a basic standard of computer competence and this should be a priority. In one school studied the administration actually organizes training sessions in which students train group of teachers! (Boakye and Banini, 2008)

Local Literature

Computer assisted instruction is a modern method of teaching. It is where the students are given individualized instructions based on the subject matter presented. An evaluation of the students performance is given after the lesson. (B. Balani Jr., 1993)

Local Studies

Synthesis

What is Information and Communication Technology?

ICT in Education

Preparedness of student teachers in ICT integration

ICT readiness assesment

Chapter III METHODOLOGY


Research Design

Research Locale

Population Frame and Sample Scheme

Sampling Technique

Description of Respondents

Instrumentation

Validation

Data Gathering Procedure

Statistical Treatment of Data

CHAPTER IV Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data CHAPTER V Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
Findings

Conclusions

Recommendations