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Abstract

Palm vein technologies are one of the upcoming technologies which is highly secure. It is the worlds first contactless personal identification system that uses the vein patterns in human palms to confirm a persons identity. It is highly secure because it uses information contained within the body and is also highly accurate because the pattern of veins in the palm is complex and unique to each individual. Moreover, its contact less feature gives it a hygienic advantage over other biometric authentication technologies. The palm secure works by capturing a persons vein pattern image while radiating it with near-infrared rays. The Palm Secure detects the structure of the pattern of veins on the palm of the human hand with the utmost precision. The sensor emits a near-infrared beam towards the palm of the hand and the blood flowing through these back to the heart with reduced oxygen absorbs this radiation, causing the veins to appear as a black pattern. This pattern is recorded by the sensor and is stored in encrypted form in a database, on a token or on a smart card.

Veins are internal in the body and have wealth of differentiating features, assuming false identity through forgery is extremely difficult, thereby enabling an extremely high level of security. The Palm Secure technology is designed in such a way that it can only detect the vein pattern of living people. The scanning process is extremely fast and does not involve any contact meaning that Palm Secure meets the stringent hygienic requirements that are normally necessary for use in public environments. The opportunities to implement palm secure span a wide range of vertical markets, including security, financial/banking, healthcare, commercial enterprises and educational facilities. Applications for the device include physical admission into secured areas; log-in to PCs or server systems; access to POS , ATMs or kiosks; positive ID control; and other industry-specific applications. and also describes some examples of financial solutions and product applications for the general market that have been developed based on this technology. Typically palm vein authentication technology consists of a small palm vein scanner that's easy and natural to use, fast and highly accurate.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO.

TITLE ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGMENT

PAGE NO. ii iii

1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

ABOUT FUJITSU FRONTECH LIMITED PALM VEIN TECHNOLOGY VEIN PATTERNS TECHNOLOGY ADVANTAGES OF VEIN PATTERN TECHNOLOGY PRINCIPLES OF VASCULAR PATTERN AUTENTICATION PALM SECURE PALM VEIN IDENTITY SYSTEM ACCESS CONTROL UNIT USING PALM SECURE LOGIN UNIT USING PALM SECURE HIGH AUTENTICATION ACCURACY

2 3 5 7 10 11 12 13 14

3. 4.

ADVANTAGES APPLICATIONS

15 16

5. 6.

CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

25 26

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my great gratitude towards our guide, Mrs.E.Gouthami, Assistant professor who has given much suggestions, support and help. He had been very kind and patient while suggesting the outlines of this report and correcting the documents the same with attention and care. He has taken much pain to go through the report and make necessary corrections as when needed.

I would also like to express my gratitude towards our seminar co-ordinator, Dr. M. V. Sharma, Professor, EEE Dept for his guidance.

My sincere thanks to Dr. K.Ramesh Reddy, Dean & HOD, Dept. of EEE for his guidance and support.

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1.INTRODUCTION
In the ubiquitous network society, where individuals can easily access their information anytime and anywhere, people are also faced with the risk that others can easily access the same information anytime and anywhere. Because of this risk, personal identification technology, which can distinguish between registered legitimate users and imposters, is now generating interest.Currently, passwords, Personal Identification Numbers (4-digit PIN numbers) or identification cards are used for personal identification. However, cards can be stolen, and passwords and numbers can be guessed or forgotten. To solve these problems, biometric authentication technology, which identifies people by their unique biological information, is attracting attention. In biometric authentication, an account holders body characteristics or behaviours (habits) are registered in a database and then compared with others who may try to access that account to see if the attempt is legitimate. Fujitsu has researched and developed biometric authentication technology focusing on four methods: fingerprints, faces, voiceprints, and palm veins. Among these, because of its high accuracy, contact less palm vein authentication technology is being incorporated into various financial solution products for use in public places.The Palm Secure sensor developed by Fujitsu is a biometric authentication solution offering optimum levels of security. Palm Secure detects the structure of the pattern of veins on the palm of the human hand with the utmost precision.

1.1About Fujitsu Frontech Limited


As part of the Fujitsu Group, Fujitsu Frontech Limited ties people and IT together through the development, manufacture and sale of front-end technology such as ATMs, operation branch, POS and totalizat or terminals, and public display devices. Fujitsu Frontech also delivers related software, system integration and outsourcing as part of its total solutions offerings. The company supports the security sector by offering products incorporating Fujitsu's latest palm vein authentication technology, and is actively involved in the development of key technologies in various fields, with a current focus on color electronic paper and RFID systems.

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2.PALM VEIN TECHNOLOGY


The palm sure is a palm vein device that captures an individual's palm image with nearinfrared rays.The deoxidised haemoglobin in the palm vein absorbs these rays, thereby reducing the reflection rate and causing the veins to appear as a black pattern. This vein pattern is then verified against the pre-registered pattern to authenticate the individual. As the veins are internal in the body and have a wealth of differentiating features, assuming false identity through forgery is extremely difficult, thereby enabling an extremely high level of security. Fig:2.1

The person, who has my office id card, can. The person, who has my house key, can. The person, who knows my password, can. The person, who knows the pin number of my credit card, can. The person, who is able to forge my signature, can. The person, who steals my passport, can.

The palm vein pattern in an individual's hand is unique from person to person and even between one's left and right hands. As veins are inside the body, a palm vein pattern is extremely difficult to falsify, and there is no need for surface contact thereby enabling hygienic use in public places. Comparing the actual scanned palm vein pattern with the

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registered template archived in the library authenticates the user. Each individual's palm vein pattern is unique, even in the case of identical twins. Besides the high accuracy of a false rejection rate of 0.01% and a false acceptance rate of less than 0.00008 %, the contactless palm vein authentication offers a range of advantages over other biometric technologies. The palm sure vein sensory technology is extremely userfriendly, creating a touch-free, hygienic solution necessary for public use. The user simply places the palm of the hand above the reader and the machine does all the work.

Fig:2.2 Vein matching, also called vascular technology, is a technique

of biometric identification through the analysis of the patterns of blood vessels visible from the surface of the skin. Though used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency, this method of identification is still in development and has not yet been universally adopted by crime labs as it is not considered as reliable as more established techniques, such as fingerprinting. Background:The ability to verify identity has become increasingly important in many areas of modern life, such as electronic government, medical administration systems, access control systems for secure areas, passenger ticketing, and home office and home study environments. Technologies for personal identification include code numbers, passwords, and smart cards, but these all carry the risk of loss, theft, forgery, or unauthorized use. It is expected that biometric authentication technology, which authenticates physiological data, will be deployed to supplement - or as an alternative to these other systems.The Fujitsu Group has developed biometric authentication technologies based on fingerprints, voice, facial features, and vein patterns in the palm, and has also combined two or more of these capabilities in multi-biometric authentication systems.
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Although biometric authentication is already being used to some extent by companies and government authorities, for it to gain wider acceptance, it needs to be considered less intrusive, and concerns about hygiene need to be addressed.For that reason, there is a market need for voice or facial recognition systems and other biometric authentication technology that can read physiological data without requiring physical contact with sensor equipment, and the development of such systems that are both practical and offer greater precision.

2.1Vein pattern recognition:


It is basically recognition of the patterns in veins which are specific to the user even twins have different vein pattern. Vein pattern is recognized using a scanner which has a camera for emitting infrared light. User just has to put his/her finger over the scanner. The camera then takes the digital picture. The hemoglobin in the blood absorbs the light, so veins appear black in the picture. As with all the other biometric types, the software creates a reference template based on the shape and location of the vein structure. After the vein template is extracted, it is compared with previously stored patterns and a match is made. There are different types of vein recognition technology, which include finger vein, wrist vein, palm, and backhand vein recognition.

Fig:2.3 Scanners that analyze vein geometry are completely different from vein scanning tests that happen in hospitals. Vein scans for medical purposes usually use radioactive particles. Biometric security scans, however, just use light that is similar to the light that comes from a remote-control. The most interesting part about the hemoglobin is that it reflects and absorbs light differently, depending on whether its deoxidized meaning its already carried oxygen to the bodys tissues. Deoxidized hemoglobin absorbs the light, reducing the lights
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reflection rate and causing the veins to appear as a black pattern.When the body cools because of a lowered ambient temperature blood vessels, particularly the capillaries, contract, decreasing the blood flow in the body. The slowed flow increases the hands light transmittance, so less light is absorbed by the hemoglobin, allowing light to pass through more easily. The more light, the less heat.

Fig 2.4

2.2Advantages of Vein Pattern recognition:


The benefits of vein recognition in particular are significant - and the system is already proving highly effective in the banking sector in Japan. Palm vein technology was developed by Fujitsu to help combat the increasing incidence of financial fraud and forgery, problems which have plagued many financial institutions in Japan for a number of years - at great cost to the country's economy. One of the main benefits of vein readers is that, unlike fingerprints that change during childhood, the palm and finger vein pattern is established in the womb and is constant throughout a person's life. The scanners operate on near-infrared light to read the palm vein pattern, which lies underneath the epidermis and so can't be distorted by damage to the skin, age or the wearing of gloves. Vein readers also benefit from being non-contact - a particular advantage in environments such as health care, where hygiene may be an issue.Several of Japan's major banks have been using palm and finger vein recognition at cash points, rather than PIN, for almost 3 years now and are confirming extraordinarily high standards of accuracy, with false rejection rates of 0.01% and false acceptance rates of less than 0.00008%. Vein pattern recognition offers an array of advantages over other biometric modalities, especially in the area of people considerations, including the following:

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Small footprint VPR sensors are quite compact and are now approaching the size of the smallest fingerprint readers, and they are continuing to rapidly downsize, increasing portability for use with mobile devices

Fig 2.5 Ease of feature extraction Veins provide large, robust, relatively stable and hidden (to the naked eye) biometric features. Spoof resistance Vein patterns are not easily observed, damaged, obscured or changed. They do not exhibit latency (not yet developed) properties, and they are quite difficult to replicate (make exact copy). This makes them highly resistant to spoofing. High accuracy Vein patterns have very low false acceptance levels (< .0001%) and low false reject levels (< .01%). Further, less than 0.1% of most populations are incapable of enrolling. Vein pattern biometrics can differentiate between identical twins; that claim is shared only by iris and retina recognition and fingerprint modalities. Environmental freedom Vein patterns are much less susceptible to many external factors in the way that fingerprinting, facial recognition, or iris scanning can be. User friendliness Vein pattern technology can be privacy enhancing; it is fast (< 2 seconds), user intuitive regarding the placement of ones finger or hand, hygienic, and is generally bereft of cultural bias and criminal stigmas.
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2.3 Principles of vascular pattern authentication:


Haemoglobin in the blood is oxygenated in the lungs and carries oxygen to the tissues of the body through the arteries. After it releases its oxygen to the tissues, the deoxidized haemoglobin returns to the heart through the veins. These two types of haemoglobin have different rates of absorbency. Deoxidized haemoglobin absorbs light at a wavelength of about 760 nm in the near-infrared region. When the palm is illuminated with near infrared light, unlike the image seen by the human eye, the deoxidized hemoglobin in the palm veins absorbs this light, thereby reducing the reflection rate and causing the veins to appear as a black pattern. In vein authentication based on this principle, the region used for authentication is photographed with near-infrared light, and the vein pattern is extracted by image processing and registered. The vein pattern of the person being authenticated is then verified against the preregistered pattern.

2.4 Palm Secure palm vein identity biometric authentication system:

Fig2.6 A new gadget which has just been developed which is called the PalmSecure palm vein authentication system or simple Vein id is the work of Siemens and Fujitsu, they got together to Collaborate in Biometric Authentication to give us this new technology. The new biometric identity authentication recognizes hand vein patterns, Siemens IT Solutions and Services and Fujitsu Limited have just announced that a new business collaboration is going ahead to expand the market for the new device.

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So with Siemens biometric software called ID Centre and with Fujitsus Palm Secure device we know with two major companies holding hands we can see that this device will be a success. The Palm Secure palm vein identity biometric authentication system works in where you place you hand over the device and then the palm is scanned, the palm of your hand is totally unique to each individual, you do not have to make direct contact with the infrared scanner either. This new device will work very well in hospitals for hygiene procedures and definitely would work well at ATMs

2.5 Access control unit using Palm Secure:


The Palm Secure access control unit can be used to control entry and exit for rooms and buildings .This unit integrates the operation and control sections. The operation section has a vein sensor over which the palm is held, and the control section performs authentication processing and issues commands to unlock the door. The system can be introduced in a simple configuration by connecting it to the controller of an electronic lock. Palm Secure units are used to control access to places containing systems or machines that manage personal or other confidential information, such as machine rooms in companies and outsourcing centres where important customer data is kept. Due to increasing concerns about security, some condominiums and homes have started using this system to enhance security and safety in daily life. For both of these applications, the combination of the following features provides the optimum system: a hygienic and contactless unit ideal for use in public places, user-friendly operation that requires the user to simply hold a palm over the sensor, and an authentication mechanism that makes impersonation difficult.

Fig2.7 : Palm Vein Access Control Unit


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2.6 Login unit using Palm Secure:


The palm vein authentication login unit controls access to electronically stored Information .As with the units for financial solutions, there are two types: a server type and an IC card type. Because the Palm Secure login unit can also be used for authentication using conventional IDs and passwords, existing operating systems and applications can continue to be used. It is also possible to build the unit into an existing application to enhance operability. In the early stage of introduction, the units were limited to businesses handling personal information that came under the Act for the Protection of Personal Information enforced in April 2005. However, use of the units is now expanding to leading-edge businesses that handle confidential information.

Fig2.8 : palm Secure Login Unit

2.7 High authentication accuracy:


Using the data of 140,000 palms from 70,000 individuals, Fujitsu has confirmed that the system has a false acceptance rate of less than 0.00008% and a false rejection rate of 0.01%, provided the hand is held over the device three times during registration, with one retry for comparison during authentication. In addition, the devices ability to perform personal authentication was verified using the following: 1) data from people ranging from 5 to 85 years old, including people in various occupations in accordance with the demographics released by the Statistics Centre of the Statistics Bureau; 2) data about foreigners living in Japan in accordance with the world demographics released by the United Nations; 3) data taken in various situations in daily life, including after drinking alcohol, taking a bath, goinoutside, and waking up.

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3.ADVANTAGES
In addition to the palm, vein authentication can be done using the vascular pattern on the back of the hand or a finger. However, the palm vein pattern is the most complex and covers the widest area. Because the palm has no hair, it is easier to photograph its vascular pattern. The palm also has no significant variations in skin color compared with fingers or the back of the hand, where the color can darken in certain areas.Advantages of reflection photography:There are two methods of photographing veins: reflection and transmission. Fujitsu employs the reflection method.The reflection method illuminates the palm and photographs the light that is reflected back from the palm, while the transmission method photographs light that passes straight through the hand. Both types capture the near-infrared light given off by the region used for identification after diffusion through the hand. An important difference between the reflection method and transmission method is how they respond to changes in the hands light transmittance. When the body cools due to a lowered ambient temperature, the blood vessels (in particular the capillaries) contract, decreasing the flow of blood through the body. This increases the hands light transmittance, so light passes through it more easily. If the transmittance is too high, the hand can become saturated with light and light can easily pass through the hand. In the transmission method, this results in a lighter, less-contrasted image in which it is difficult to see the vessels. However, a high light transmittance does not significantly affect the level or contrast of the reflected light. Therefore, with the reflection method, the vessels can easily be seen even when the hand/body is cool.The system configurations of the two methods are also different. The reflection method illuminates the palm and takes photographs reflected back from the palm, so the illumination and photography components can be positioned in the same place. Conversely, because the transmission method photographs light that passes through the hand, the illumination and photography components must be placed in different locations. This makes it difficult for the system to be embedded into smaller devices such as notebook PCs or cellular phones. Fujitsu has conducted an in-depth study of the necessary optical components to reduce the size of the sensor, making it more suitable for embedded applications.Completely contactless design minimizes hygiene concerns and psychological resistance.
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4.APPLICATIONS
Financial damage caused by fraudulent withdrawals of money using identity spoofing with fake bankcards has been rapidly increasing in recent years, and this has emerged as a significant social problem2. As a result, there has been a rapid increase in the number of lawsuits filed by victims of identity theft against financial institutions for their failure to control information used for personal identification. The Act for the Protection of Personal Information came into effect in Japan on May 1, 2005, and in response, financial institutions have been focusing on biometric authentication together with IC (smart) cards as a way to reinforce the security of personal identification.Vein authentication can provide two types of systems for financial solutions, depending on where the registered vein patterns are stored. In one method, the vein patterns are stored on the server of a client-server system. The advantage of this system is that it provides an integrated capability for managing vein patterns and comparison processing. In the other type, a users vein pattern is stored on an IC card, which is beneficial because users can control access to their own vein pattern. Suruga Bank uses the server type for their financial solutions, and The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi uses the IC card system.In July 2004, to ensure customer security, Suruga Bank3 launched its Bio-Security Deposit the worlds first financial service to use Palm Secure. This service features high security for customers using vein authentication, does not require a bankcard or passbook, and prevents withdrawals from branches other than the registered branch and ATMs, thereby minimizing the risk of fraudulent withdrawals. To open a Bio-Security Deposit account, customers go to a bank and have their palm veins photographed at the counter. In order to guarantee secure data management, the palm vein data is stored only on the vein database server at the branch office where the account is opened.In October 2004, The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi4 launched its Super-IC Card Tokyo-Mitsubishi VISA. This card combines the functions of a bankcard, credit card, electronic money and palm vein authentication. From a technical and user-friendly point of view, The Bank of TokyoMitsubishi arrowed the biometric authentication methods suitable for financial transactions to palm veins, finger veins and fingerprints. The bank then mailed a questionnaire to 1,000 customers and surveyed an additional 1,000 customers who used devices in their branches. Finally, the bank decided to employ Palm Secure because the technology was supported by the largest number of people in the questionnaire.The Super-IC Card contains the customers

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palm vein data and vein authentication algorithms, and performs vein authentication by itself. This system is advantageous because the customers information is not stored at the bank. When a customer applies for a Super-IC card, the bank sends the card to the customers home. To activate the palm vein authentication function, the customer brings the card and his or her passbook and seal to the bank counter, where the customers vein information is registered on the card. After registration, the customer can make transactions at that branchs counter and any ATM using palm vein authentication and a matching PIN number.In 2006, Fujitsu reduced the Palm Secure sensor to 1/4 of its current size for its next generation product. By using a smaller sensor on existing ATMs there will be room on the operating panel for a sensor for Felicia mobiles, a 10-key pad that meets the DES (Data Encryption Standard), as well as an electronic calculator and other devices. The downsized sensor can also be mounted on ATMs in convenience stores. Fujitsu Palm Vein Technology in ATMs Fujitsu Palm Secure Heading for America:

Fujitsu Computer Products of America, Inc., a leading supplier of innovative computer products including hard disk drives, peripherals and biometric security solutions, today announced its Palm Secure(TM) PC Log-In Kit for general availability in North America. The company will demonstrate the biometric authentication solution at the 2008 RSA Conference, April 7-11, at the Moscone Center, San Francisco. The PC Log-In Kit is composed of the award-winning Palm Secure authentication sensor embedded in a PC mouse, and OmniPass(TM) Windows Log-in and Single Sign-On software that eliminates having to remember tedious passwords for entry into Windows sessions and password-protected applications.Palm Secure generates a unique biometric template that is matched against preregistered users palm vein patterns. It is more reliable and easier to use than alternative
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biometric devices, enabling access to PCs and sensitive data records to become more secure, accurate and efficiently accessed. The Palm Secure PC Log-In Kit contains the latest generation authentication algorithm that provides faster authentication speeds with a user guidance software, and greater tolerance for the distance and angle of the hand when it is placed over the device. With a high level of authentication accuracy, competitive price point and powerful log-in management software, the Palm Secure PC Log-In Kit is an ideal solution for small and mid-size businesses identity management needs. Fujitsu palm secure: security technology through blood vessel: We already know through fingerprint security and also the latestfrom Sonyis Mofiria where the blood vessel in the finger. And now, one of the latest security technologies is known as Fujitsu Palm Secure, security through the blood vessel that is in the palm (palm vein). Because using the same technology as Sony Mofiria namely through the introduction of the blood vessel can also have benefits to guess which is faster for scanning, more accurate and safer to use because it is not affected by problems that often occur with the fingerprint scanning, such as through dirty hands or exfoliate the skin. Both Palm and Mofiria Secure system without touching (contactless) so that the scan tool that has its own risks damaged / dirty that much smaller because it is often left out by humans, such as through the fingerprint scanning. One thing that we can, Palm Secure does not seem to be suitable for use in portable devices such as mobile phones because of its size is greater than Sony Mofiria.

But of course they are a technology which would replace through fingerprint scanning.

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Information Technologists Design System to Recognize Palm Vein Patterns High Tech Patient ID A new scanner that analyzes the unique characteristics of the veins under your palm is being used to identify patients when they check-in for doctor visits. This new twist on information technology is helping reduce errors that can lead to potentially deadly medical mistakes. Tom Butz is checking-in for a routine doctor's appointment. He's enrolling in a new patient registry program that will forever make patient identification more accurate. It's the Palm Vein Sensor. "The Palm Vein Scanner is simply a technology that utilizes human factors, which is biometric technology, to assign a unique identity to individuals as they're enrolled in the program," says Jim Burke, Director of Information Services at Carolinas Healthcare System in Charlotte, N.C. An infrared scan of the patient's hand is assigned a number that is instantly matched with the patient's medical record, erasing the need for patients to repeatedly provide confidential information -- like their social security number -- at appointments. "The advantage really comes in three pieces. There's a service component to the advantage, there's an efficiency component and there's a safety component -- the safety being the most important from a clinical point of view," says Roger Ray, M.D., Chief Medical Officer at Carolinas Healthcare System. It's information technology access to accurate ID and medical history in an instant. The Optical Society of America contributed to the information contained in the TV portion of this report.

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Science Insider: A hospital system based in Charlotte, North Carolina, is installing scanners that identify patients by the unique vein patterns in their hands, virtually eliminating the possibility that personal information could be misused during the patent registration process.

Carolina HealthCare System is the first known healthcare provider in the US to use the technology, which pairs a palm scanning device made by Fujitsu with a durable cradle and software system that the hospital designed itself. Incoming patients are asked to place their middle finger between two prongs at the top of the cradle to make sure their palm is properly positioned. The scanner uses near-infrared light to map the vein patterns in a patients palm. The digital image is converted into a number that correlates with the patient's medical records. Vein patterns in a palm are considered more unique than a fingerprint. Since a number, not an image, is stored with the palm scanner, there is no chance an identity could be stolen and illegally reproduced. Currently, it's possible for someone to overhear or see sensitive personal information, or use someone else's Social Security number or health insurance card to receive services. It can also be time-consuming to check in at a hospital, filling out paperwork and waiting for staff to enter the information into a computer before a patient receives care. With the new palm scanning system, once a patient's information is collected on the first visit, it is permanently in the system. On subsequent visits, the patient need only provide a birth date and have their palm rescanned to establish a positive identification. In an emergency, a positive identification can be made even if the patient is unconscious. In hospitals:

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While the healthcare industry has made great strides to ensure patient safety, challenges still remain. Cases of medical identity theft and insurance fraud continue to make headlines, leaving hospitals responsible and exposed. In recent years, new procedures and technologies have emerged to address these challenges and help healthcare facilities protect their patients privacy and well-being. The first step in patient safety is correctly identifying patients at the point of entry to the healthcare facility (including matching them to the correct medical record). As the increasing number of cases of medical identity theft has shown, however, conventional identification processes are no longer adequate and present numerous issues that continue to put a patients safety at risk. These include simple clerical errors, technological failures and even dishonest hospital employees intending to commit fraud. Patient Secure Identity biometric patient identification system Bay Care was the first healthcare system in Florida to implement palm vein recognition for patient identification, and though the technology is cutting edge, it has been proven to be extremely accurate. Bay Cares existing information system Siemens OAS Gold (Siemens Invasion, Signature and EAD) was enhanced to support the Fujitsu Palm Secure palm vein biometric technology to link patients unique palm vein pattern to their EMRs. In addition, the Patient Secure Identity (PSI) biometric patient identification system helps improve patient care. Not only does the clinician work with a complete medical history, but patient satisfaction is increased by making the identification at front-end registration more timely and accurate without having to request sensitive personal information (such as a social security number). With a project budget of approximately $1 million (including labour and training) the first facility was live with the palm vein technology within 60 days of the project kick-off. Bay Care completed the rollout of the entire health system within six months. BayCare installed the system in hospitals, outpatient centres and outreach lab locations. The PSI system also links Bay Care to its other facilities. Once a patient is enrolled in the system, the associated medical record can be identified by the unique vein pattern anytime
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the patient is present at any of Bay Care Health Systems nine hospitals or numerous outpatient facilities. Patient response has been overwhelmingly positive, and a 99 percent acceptance rate has been realized with 300,000 patients enrolled as of January 2010. The Fujitsu Palm Secure biometric technology and our PSI system not only improve patient safety associated with identification, but they also increase our overall administrative efficiency and customer satisfaction, said Jarrell. The system protects patient privacy and safeguard electronic medical records while streamlining the registration process, meeting compliance requirement and, most importantly, providing the highest-quality care and service possible to patients. We all realize that we have to constantly improve patient safety, and Palm Secure and the PSI system continue to help us achieve this goal. Product development for general market: In addition to product development for financial solutions, Fujitsu has started to develop product applications for the general market .Two products are in great demand in the general market. One is for a physical access control unit that uses Palm Secure to protect entrances and exits, and the other is a logical access control unit that uses Palm Secure to protect input and output of electronic data. This section describes the features of these applications. Other product applications: Because of the importance of personal identification, we can expect to see the Development of new products for various applications, such as: Management in healthcare Access control to medication dispensing Identification of doctors and nurses when accessing protected health records Patient identification management Operator authentication Settlement by credit card Obtaining various certificates using the Basic Resident Register Card Owner authentication Retrieval of checked luggage Driver authentication Attendance authentication Checking attendance in schools Clocking in and out of the workplace.

Conclusion:
This report explains palm vein authentication. The Fujitsu Palm secure is a palm-vein based authentication system that utilizes the latest in Biometric Security Technology. Answering a worldwide need from governments to the private sector, this contactless device offers an easy-to-use, hygienic solution for verifying identity. This technology is highly secure because it uses information contained within the body and is also highly accurate because the pattern of veins in the palm is complex and unique to each individual. Moreover, its contactless feature gives it a hygienic advantage over other biometric authentication technologies. This

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report also describes some examples of financial solutions and product applications for the general market that have been developed based on this technology.

References:
[1] Palm Vein Authentication Technology white paper, Bioguard, Innovative Biometric Solutions, March, 2007. [2] Yuhang Ding, Dayan Zhuang and Kejun Wang, A Study of Hand Vein Recognition Method, The IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics & Automation Niagara Falls, Canada, July 2005. [3] Shi Zhao, Yiding Wang and Yunhong Wang, Extracting Hand Vein Patterns from LowQuality Images: A New Biometric Technique Using Low-Cost Devices, Fourth International Conference on Image and Graphics, 2007. [4] Masaki Watanabe, Toshio Endoh,Morito Shiohara, and Shigeru Sasaki, Palm vein authentication technology and its applications, The Biometric Consortium Conference, September 19-21,

Deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood flowing through the veins in the palms absorbs nearinfrared rays, illuminating the hemoglobin, causing it to be visible to the scanner. The scanner makes use of a special characteristic of the reduced hemoglobin coursing through the palm veins it absorbs near-infrared light. The Bank of Tokyo launched its Super IC Card. This card combines the functions of a bankcard, credit card, electronic money and palm vein authentication. HOW SECURE IS TECHNOLOGY? On the basis of testing the technology on more than 70,000 individuals , Fujitsu declared that the new system had a false rejection rate of 0.01%. In addition the devices ability to perform personal authentication was verified using the following: 1. Data from people ranging from 6 to 85 years old including people in various occupations. 2. Data about foreigners living in Japan in accordance with the world demographics released by the united nations. 3. Data taken in various situations in daily life including after drinking alcohol, taking a bath, going outside and waking up. FALSE REJECTION RATE (FRR): EQUAL ERROR RATE OR CROSSOVER ERROR RATE (EER OR CER). RECEIVER OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS (ROC).

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WHAT HAPPENS IF THE REGISTERED HAND GETS DAMAGED? There may be a chance that the palm we had registered may get damaged then we cannot use this technology. During the time of registration we take the veins of both the hands so that if one gets damaged we can access through the second hand. When hand get damaged up to large extent we can get veins because deeper into the hand veins are obtained. CONTACT LESS PALM VEIN AUTHENTICATION DEVICE (HYGIENE CONCERN): The completely contactless feature of this Device makes it suitable for use where high levels of hygiene are required. It also eliminates any hesitation people might have about coming into contact with something that other people have already touched. In addition to being contactless and thereby hygienic and user-friendly in that the user does not need to physically touch a surface and is free of such hygiene concerns. ATM AND BANKING This system is advantageous because the customers personal information is not stored at the bank. To activate the palm vein authentication function, the customer brings the card and his passbook and seal to the bank counter where the customers vein information is registered on the card . PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT FOR FINANCIAL SOLUTIONS
use of PVT (a) in ATM (b) in personal computers.

PERSONAL COMPUTERS In personal computers palm vein technology can be applied by inserting the vein sensor inside mouse or on the keyboard. When power is supplied to system the mouse/keyboard also gets power and the sensor in the mouse/keyboard will be ready to sense palm veins. IN HOSPITALS AND LIBRARYS Palm Secure device can also be used in hospitals for doctor and patients identification and where the high level of security is required.

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PVT used in (a) Library (b) Hospitals for authentication.

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