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Allen Dulles - Powerbase

Allen Dulles
From Powerbase Allen Welsh Dulles was director of the CIA from 26 February 1953 to 29 November 1961.[1]

Contents
1 Background 2 State Department 3 1930s 4 World War Two 4.1 Century Group 4.2 Fight For Freedom 4.3 Co-ordinator of Information 4.4 OSS 5 Postwar 6 CIA Deputy Director for Plans 6.1 Project Ultra 7 CIA Director 7.1 Congress for Cultural Freedom 7.2 Iran 7.3 Guatemala 7.4 Syria 7.5 Hungary 7.6 Indonesia 7.7 Japan 7.8 Cuba 7.9 Tibet 7.10 Congo 7.11 Dominican Republic 8 Affiliations 8.1 Connections 8.1.1 OSS Geneva contacts 9 External Resources 10 Notes

Allen Dulles

Background
Dulles was born in Watertown, New York in 1893. His grandfather and uncle had both served as US Secretaries of State.[2]

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State Department
Following the First World War, Dulles served as an American diplomat with the American Commission to Negotiate the Peace at Versailles. In the 1920s, he served as the chief of the Near Eastern Division at the State Department, and as US representative on various arms conferences.[3] In that capacity, Dulles carefully monitored negotiations over Iraqi oil. In 1924, he told Standard Oil's Walter Teagle that the concession claimed by the European-backed Turkish Petroleum Company was invalid.[4]

1930s
Kees van der Pjil argues that Dulles brothers, along with the Rockefellers, were part of a pro-German statemonopoly tendency within American capitalism, which came to the fore in the interwar-period at the expense of a previously prevailing liberal-internationalist tendency: Sullivan & Cromwell, the Wall Street law firm in which they were partners and which they turned into a financial group in the 1930s, was the American agent for IG Farben and the Vereignigte Stahlwerke, while the brothers were also directors of IG Chemical Corp. Sullivan & Cromwell had further links with the German Schroder Bank and with Lazard Frres; Allen Dulles was a director of the J. Schroder Banking Corporation in New York.[5] In 1935, Dulles and Hamilton Fish Armstrong published Can We Be Neutral, an examination of US neutrality legislation.[6]

World War Two


In September 1939, Dulles and Fish Armstrong published Can America Stay Neutral, which warned that "no neutrality legislation can give us the advantages of an isolation that does not in fact exist."[7]

Century Group
At a meeting of the Century Group on 5 September 1940, Dulles was detailed to chair a committee looking at ways to better co-ordinate British and American production.[8] Dulles drifted away from the Group after the US-UK Destoyers for Bases Agreement that month, apparently feeling it had served its purpose.[9]

Fight For Freedom


Dulles was a member of the Executive Committee of Fight For Freedom drawn up at the Century Club on 22 April 1941.[10] Dulles was among the speakers at the Fight For Freedom Continental Congress on 9-10 October 1941.[11]

Co-ordinator of Information
Dulles headed the New York office of William Donovan's Office of the Coordinator of Information, an intelligence agency established in July 1941. Dulles worked out of the same building as British Security Coordination (BSC), 630 Fifth Avenue. His assistant was De Witte Poole.[12]
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According to one BSC document, Dulles intervened in March 1942 to have the British hold their American propaganda campaign against I.G.. Farben, on the grounds that "this might involve large American companies like Standard Oil of New Jersey, etc., thereby perhaps impairing the war effort." Thomas Mahl's account of this episode notes that Dulles was himself a former attorney for Standard Oil.[13]

OSS
As head of the OSS station in Berne, Dulles met in February 1943 with Frederick Vanden Heuvel and Walter Schellenberg of the Sicherheitsdienst to discuss peace proposals by elements in the SS. Dulles allegedly told Prince Max Hohenlohe that a 'Greater Germany' and a 'Danubian conferederation' would provide a bulwark against Bolshevism.[14] In April 1943, the exiled Russian nationalist Prince Anton Turkul attempted usuccesfuly to make contact with Dulles.[15]

Postwar
At the end of World War Two, Dulles rejoined Sullivan & Cromwell, the New York law firm where his brother John Foster Dulles was a partner.[16] According to Carmel Offie, Dulles represented Nicholas Malaxa, a Romanian fascist, who sought German citizenship in 1946.[17] Dulles briefed a Congressional Committee considering the formation of the CIA on 27 June 1947.[18] In early 1948, Defence Secretary James Forrestal asked Dulles to compile a secret report on the CIA.[19] Forrestal also backed Dulles in calling for CIA control of covert action, in opposition to George Kennan at the State Department.[20] The Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) emerged as a compromise. Dulles passed up the opportunity to head this body in the belief that he would be appointed CIA director in a Republican administration following the 1948 election.[21] In April 1948, Dulles helped Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi set up the American Committee for a Free and United Europe.[22] Dulles later abandoned Coudenhove-Kalergi and backed Joseph Retinger, becoming vice-chair of the American Committee for a United Europe (ACUE), which was incorporated in February 1949, and launched a month later. [23] In May 1949, Dulles' law firm drew up the legal papers for the creation of the National Committee for a Free Europe.[24] In the same month, he authored an article in the New Leader calling for a new internal security commission in the United States.[25]

CIA Deputy Director for Plans


CIA director Walter Bedell Smith appointed Dulles Deputy Director of Plans, responsible for covert operations,
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on 4 January 1951.[26] Shortly afterwards, he met Jay Lovestone who obtained funds for operations in Finland and Indonesia.[27] In March 1951, Jay Lovestone met Dulles in a failed attempt block grants for the Free Trade Union Committee (FTUC), thereby strengthening its independence.[28] In the same month, Dulles visited London where he urged MI6 to abandon support for Stepan Bandera's Ukrainian guerrilas, something which Harry Carr, head of MI6's Northern Division, refused to do.[29] In April 1951, Dulles appointed Thomas Braden head of the International Organizations Division, taking control of labour affairs from Frank Wisner. He told the FTUC to sack Carmel Offie in return for continued funding.[30] In May 1952 Dulles held a secret conference at the Princetown Inn to consider the scope for covert action in Eastern Europe. Charles Bohlen was among those present.[31]

Project Ultra
Dulles and Frank Wisner were briefed on Project Artichoke, the CIA's experimental program on the use of LSD and other drugs for interrogation purposes on 12 May 1952. Dulles approved an expanded program, Project Ultra, a few months later.[32]

CIA Director
Dulles was appointed Director of the CIA in the new Dwight D. Eisenhower administration on 26 February 1953.[33][34] Dulles gave James Angleton responsibility for two areas in addition to his counterintelligence responsibilities, liason with Israel and running Jay Lovestone.[35] In a letter to Eisenhower in May 1954, CIA officer Jim Kellis wrote that Dulles was "a ruthless, ambitious and utterly incompetent government administrator.[36] Dulles was reappointed as CIA director following the election of John F. Kennedy in 1961. According to Tim Weiner, this was influenced by Joseph Kennedy's awareness that Dulles had been told by J. Edgar Hoover about a World War Two-era sexual relationship between the new president and a suspected German spy.[37] Dulles retired as head of the CIA in September 1961.[38]

Congress for Cultural Freedom


In late 1954, Sidney Hook obtained $10,000 for the American Congress for Cultural Freedom after a meeting with Dulles.[39]

Iran
On 18 February 1953, Dulles met the new British MI6 chief, Sir John Sinclair, who briefed him on Operation Boot, Britain's plan to overthrow the Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh. Sinclair proposed Kim
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Roosevelt as field commander for the project, which Dulles renamed Operation Ajax.[40] Dulles' warning of a communist threat in Iran was initially rebuffed by Eisenhower at a National Security Council meeting on 4 March. However, on 18 March Frank Wisner, passed on Dulles' initial approval to Roosevelt and Montague Woodhouse. Dulles dismissed the CIA station chief in Tehran, Roger Goiran, for opposing a coup.[41] Dulles was among those present at the meeting chaired by his brother, John Foster Dulles which gave final approval for the coup.[42] Dulles travelled to Europe during the operation itself, where he bumped into the Shah, who had fled to Rome.[43] Following the coup, Dulles' law firm Sullivan & Cromwell negotiated the redivision of Iran's oil reserves to the advantage of US companies. British Petroleum, an old client of the firm, was assisted with the takeover of Standard Oil of Ohio by way of compensation.[44]

Guatemala
Dulles approved Operation Success, the CIA plan to overthrow the government of Guatemala, on 9 December 1953. He appointed Al Haney as field commander and Tracey Barnes as head of political warfare.[45]

Syria
In October 1956, Dulles and Richard Helms met Dick White and George Kennedy Young in London to discuss plans for a coup in Syria. White and Young did no mention Britain's impending attempt to retake the Suez canal.[46]

Hungary
On 1 November 1956, during the Hungarian uprising, Dulles wrongly briefed Eisenhower that "armed force could not effectively be used" by the Soviet Union.[47] On 5 November, however, he told the president that the Soviets were ready to send 250,000 troops to Egypt to defend the Suez Canal.[48]

Indonesia
Eisenhower ordered the CIA to overthrow the Sukarno government on 25 September 1957.[49]Dulles failed to obey the President's order that no American personnel were to be involved, and CIA pilots began bombing in support of US-backed rebels on 19 April 1958. Hower, American pilot Al Pope was captured on 18 May. Dulles ordered the operation stood down the next day.[50]

Japan
Dulles had a secret meeting in his office 6 February 1959 with Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi, a convicted war criminal, and according to Tim Weiner, a recruited CIA agent.[51]

Cuba
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On 11 September 1959, Richard Bissell sent Dulles a memo proposing the elimination of Fidel Castro. Dulles crossed out the word elimination, replaced it with removal from Cuba and approved the proposal.[52] On 8 January 1960, Dulles ordered Bissell to organise a task force to overthrow Castro.[53] Dulles briefed Vice-President Richard Nixon on the CIA's covert operations in Cuba on 2 March 1960.[54] He and Bissell presented detailed plans to Eisenhower and Nixon on 17 March. These called for the infiltration of agents into Cuba rather than an outright invasion.[55] Eisenhower agreed to train a covert paramilitary unit to overthrow Castro at a meeting with Dulles and Richard Bissell on 18 August 1960.[56] In the same month, Dulles allowed Bissell to take out a Mafia contract on Castro.[57] At a meeting with President-Elect Kennedy on 18 November 1960, Dulles and Bissell failed to tell Kennedy that Eisenhower had not given final approval for an invasion of Cuba.[58] On 22 April 1961, following the the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion, Kennedy ordered Dulles to step up coverage of Cuban operations in the United States, an activity outside the CIA's charter. Dulles told the Taylor inquiry the same day: "I'm first to recognize that I don't think that the CIA should run paramilitary operations."[59] A report by the CIA Inspector General Lyman Kirkpatrick concluded that Dulles had failed to keep Eisenhower or Kennedy accurately informed about the operation. Dulles destroyed all but a single copy of the report, which was locked away for 40 years.[60]

Tibet
Eisenhower approved an operation to support Tibetan guerrillas against the Chinese following a briefing by Dulles and Desmond FitzGerald in February 1960.[61]

Congo
At a meeting of the National Security Council on 18 August 1960, Eisenhower ordered Dulles to eliminate the Prime Minister of the Congo, Patrice Lumumba.[62] At another NSC meeting on 21 September, Dulles told Eisenhower that Joseph Mobutu was "the only man in the Congo able to act with firmness".[63]

Dominican Republic
In January 1961, Dulles presided over a special group within the US government which agreed to support the assassination of Rafael Trujillo, the US-backed dictator of the Dominican Republic.[64]

Affiliations
Sullivan & Cromwell IG Chemical Corp J. Schroder Banking Corporation Century Group
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Fight For Freedom Committee Office of Strategic Services American Committee for a United Europe National Committee for a Free Europe Overseas Consultants Central Intelligence Agency Council on Foreign Relations

Connections
John Foster Dulles - Brother Eleanor Dulles - Sister Fritz Molden - Son-in-law OSS Geneva contacts Noel Field - Contact with German Communists. Gero von Schulze-Gaevernitz Dr Wilhelm Hoegner Hans Bernd Gisevius Adam von Trott du Solz Prince Max von Hohenlohe Fritz Kolbe Eduard Waetjen Theodor Struenck

External Resources
NameBase DULLES ALLEN WELSH (http://www.namebase.org/cgi-bin/nb01?Na=Dulles,+Allen+W.) History Commons Profile: Allen Welsh Dulles (http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp? entity=allen_welsh_dulles)

Notes
1. Allen Welsh Dulles (https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csipublications/books-and-monographs/directors-and-deputy-directors-of-central-intelligence/dulles.html) , Directors and Deputy Directors of Central Intelligence, CIA, accessed 23 February 2010. 2. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.26. 3. Mark Lincoln Chadwin, The Hawks of World War II, University of North Carolina Press, 1968, p.60. 4. Daniel Yergin, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power, Pocket Books, 1993, p.201. 5. Kees van der Pjil, The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class (http://www.theglobalsite.ac.uk/atlanticrulingclass/) , Verso, 1984, p.82. 6. Mark Lincoln Chadwin, The Hawks of World War II, University of North Carolina Press, 1968, p.60. 7. Mark Lincoln Chadwin, The Hawks of World War II, University of North Carolina Press, 1968, p.60. 8. Mark Lincoln Chadwin, The Hawks of World War II, University of North Carolina Press, 1968, p.110. 9. Mark Lincoln Chadwin, The Hawks of World War II, University of North Carolina Press, 1968, p.113.
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10. Mark Lincoln Chadwin, The Hawks of World War II, University of North Carolina Press, 1968, p.169. 11. Mark Lincoln Chadwin, The Hawks of World War II, University of North Carolina Press, 1968, p.229. 12. Thomas E. Mahl, Desperate Deception: British Covert Operations in the United States 1939-44, Brassey's, 1999, p.51. 13. Thomas E. Mahl, Desperate Deception: British Covert Operations in the United States 1939-44, Brassey's, 1999, p.100. 14. Stephen Dorril, MI^: Inside the Covert World of her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service, Touchstone, 2000, p.168. 15. Stephen Dorril, MI^: Inside the Covert World of her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service, Touchstone, 2000, p.198. 16. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.13. 17. Ted Morgan, A Covert Life - Jay Lovestone: Communist, Anti-Communist and Spymaster, Random House, 1999, p.223. 18. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.26. 19. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.40. 20. Hugh Wilford, The CIA, the British Left and the Cold War: Calling the Tune? Frank Cass, 2003, p.84. 21. Hugh Wilford, The CIA, the British Left and the Cold War: Calling the Tune? Frank Cass, 2003, p.85. 22. Hugh Wilford, The CIA, the British Left and the Cold War: Calling the Tune? Frank Cass, 2003, p.227. 23. Hugh Wilford, The CIA, the British Left and the Cold War: Calling the Tune? Frank Cass, 2003, p.228. 24. Hugh Wilford, The CIA, the British Left and the Cold War: Calling the Tune? Frank Cass, 2003, p.87. 25. Hugh Wilford, The CIA, the British Left and the Cold War: Calling the Tune? Frank Cass, 2003, p.132. 26. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.59. 27. Ted Morgan, A Covert Life - Jay Lovestone: Communist, Anti-Communist and Spymaster, Random House, 1999, p.218. 28. Hugh Wilford, The CIA, the British Left and the Cold War: Calling the Tune? Frank Cass, 2003, p.98. 29. Stephen Dorril, MI6: Inside the Covert World of her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service, Touchstone, 2000, p.245. 30. Hugh Wilford, The CIA, the British Left and the Cold War: Calling the Tune? Frank Cass, 2003, p.98. 31. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, pp.70-71. 32. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, pp.73-74. 33. Allen Welsh Dulles (https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csipublications/books-and-monographs/directors-and-deputy-directors-of-central-intelligence/dulles.html) , Directors and Deputy Directors of Central Intelligence, CIA, accessed 23 February 2010. 34. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, pp.78-79. 35. Ted Morgan, A Covert Life - Jay Lovestone: Communist, Anti-Communist and Spymaster, Random House, 1999, p.247. 36. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.123. 37. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.191. 38. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.206. 39. Hugh Wilford, The CIA, the British Left and the Cold War: Calling the Tune? Frank Cass, 2003, p.112. 40. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.95. 41. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, pp.96-97. 42. Stephen Dorril, MI6: Inside the Covert World of her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service,
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43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64.

Touchstone, 2000, p.587. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, pp.101-103. Stephen Dorril, MI6: Inside the Covert World of her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service, Touchstone, 2000, p.595. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.107. Stephen Dorril, MI^: Inside the Covert World of her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service, Touchstone, 2000, p.637. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.151. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.152. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.170. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, pp.175-176. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.139. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.180. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.180. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.181. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.181. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.187. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.186. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.191. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.204. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.206. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.349. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.187. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.189. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Penguin, 2007, p.198.

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