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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION PORTION OF 9/16 DISCUSSION PROBLEM

Newtons second law (F = ma) gives us (1) where E is Qqz z. 4 o R3 Using the fact that acceleration is the second time derivative of position transforms (1) into (2) d2 z(t) Qq z(t) = m . 4 o R3 dt2 QE = ma,

Dividing by m and bringing everything to the right gives (3) d2 z(t) Qq + z(t) = 0. 2 dz 4 o mR3 d2 z(t) + 2 z(t) = 0, dz 2 2 =

Lets call the coecient of z(t) 2 (the reason for this will become clear), so that our equation is (4) where Qq . 4 o mR3 This is a second order homogeneous dierential equation. There are many ways to solve it, but the method well use is called the Method of Undetermined Coecients (sometimes called the Lucky Guess Method). Its based on guessing the right form of the solution, then solving for the coecients using the given initial and boundary equations. 2 z(t) By examining (4), we see that we need 2 z(t) to be equal to d dt2 . Lets try z(t) = A cos(t) + B sin(t). Plugging this into (4) gives A2 cos(t) B2 sin(t) + A2 cos(t) + B2 sin(t) = 0, so our assumed form of the solution works. You might be curious as to why our guess was a linear combination of sine and cosine when just a sine or cosine would have worked. We chose a linear combination because its the most general form of the solution, and weare not sure yet whether a sine or cosine will solve out problem (this will be clear soon). We now need to nd A using our initial conditions. According to our coordinate system, z(t = 0) = 0. Plugging 0 into our solution gives A cos(0) + B sin(0) = A = 0. Clearly, if we had only used a cosine for our guess, we would be stuck. Moving on, we also know dz (t = 0) = vo , dt where vo is our initial velocity of 200m/s. Taking the derivative with respect to time of our assumed solution (keeping in mind that A = 0) and plugging in our initial velocity condition gives vo B cos(0) = B = vo B = .
1

Now that weve solved for the coecients, our position function is vo (5) z(t) = sin(t). The problem requires us to nd zmax . To nd the maximum of a function (that has one variable for its argument), one takes its derivative and sets it to zero. This makes intuitive sense, as zmax occurs where the velocity ( dz ) is zero. Applying this to (5) gives dt vo cos(t) = 0.
We know that vo isnt zero, so cos(t) must be. This means that t = 2 . This is the time where zmax occurs. All we need to do now is plug in the time we found into (5). Doing so gives vo vo (6) zmax = z t = = sin = . 2 2 Replacing with the variables associated with our problem and plugging in the numbers gives

zmax =

vo = vo

4 o mR3 Qq

4 8.85 1012 C 2 /N m2 6.7 1027 kg (0.03m)2 = 0.56m < 2.5mm. 2 1.6 1019 C 8 106 C So the ion doesnt reach the sample. There are many quicker ways to solve this problem, but they require knowledge of higher math, such as multivariable calculus or integral transforms. In summary, you arent expected to know this stu, but it wouldnt hurt, as you will have to learn it eventually if you go into math, science, or engineering. = 200m/s