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Social System org operates is complex system of values and relationships.

. System-whole is greater than source of its part(Aristotle), general laws and concepts evolve from multiple causes and effects(Von Vetalanfy), series of interrelated and interdependent parts. Psychological-biological perspective to study human being. System of roles- each has specific role with more integrated pattern. Role-sum of total behavior patterns Status-position accorded which implies collection of rights&duties(Ascribed-fixed beyond control. Achieved-subject to control) Role conflict-condition when changes in status&roles are disruptive. Orgn-social units constructed&reconstructed to seek specific goals, mechanism/structure to work effectively together, process of identifying and grouping work to be done,etc., human activity and grp of people., structural process in which persons interact for objectives: 1.made up of people 2.people interacts 3.interactions are ordered by some structure that can be described 4.structure interactions are designed to achieve personal objectives 5.interactions result in achievement of personal objectives may not be the same w/ personal objective of any member. Orgl context-specific setting within org behavior is enacted. Subsytem of org: 1.administrative/structural(authority, structure and responsibility) 2.informational decision-making(key decisions and info needs) 3.economic/ technological (work to be done&cost-effectiveness), 4.human/social(motivation,needs,leadership) Human Resource-most impt element/org, 1.as managerial resource (managementmajor determinant in productivity) 2. As non-managerial resource 3.determinants of tech. Features of Org:1.Hierarchy of authority(vertical differentiation) 2.Rules(aswer to governing large scale org), standard operating procedure(standardized way of response to problem) ,controls(summary measure of behavior,means to tell members expectation&ensure they do it),techniques(little method within a method) 3.Formality of communication 4.specialization of functions (perform narrow range of function) and division of labor(lessen burden)-Adam Smith 5.employment of skilled personnel(guiding principle for org) 6.specificity of purpose Informal grp-perpetuate cultural values, gives social satisfaction, social control both internal(make members conform to its culture) and external(outside the grp), serve to preserve org from self destruction(Dubin)

Informal org-social interaction of workers in org. Discipline-employed self-control to meet org standards and objectives. Employment-two way, mutual social transaction(Davis) Orgl culture-system of shared meaning that distinguish org from others, 10 characteristics:member identity(identify with org as whole),grp emphasis(work activities around grps),people focus(considers effect of outcomes),unit integration(operate in coordinated manner),control(rules used to oversee),risk tolerance(aggressive,innovative,risk-seeking),reward criteria(allocated based on perf),conflict tolerance(air conflicts openly),means-ends orientation(focus on result than technique),open sytem focus(respond to changes in extl envt) Dominant culture-core values shared by majority of org members. Culture-boundary defining role(distinction bet orgs), convey sense of identity for members, generate commitment to something larger, enhance social system stability, social glue