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By now you can say that you really know where the Philippines is.

You can now describe its location in two ways: by using latitude and longitude, and by identifying the landmasses and bodies of water that surround it. What then is the use of knowing where the Philippines is located? You will find out in the next section and also in the following module. Are We Lucky in the Philippines? Planet Earth is made up of different things - air, water, plants, animals, soil, rocks, minerals, crude oil, and other fossil fuels. These things are called natural resources because they are not made by people; rather they are gathered from nature. Sunlight and wind are also natural resources. We use all these things to survive or satisfy our needs. The Philippines is considered rich in natural resources. We have fertile, arable lands, high diversity of plant and animals, extensive coastlines, and rich mineral deposits. We have natural gas, coal, and geothermal energy. Wind and water are also harnessed for electricity generation. Why do we have rich natural resources? What geologic structures in the country account for these bounty? Is our location near the equator related to the presence of these natural resources? The next lessons will help you find answers to some questions about natural resources in the country namely, rocks and minerals, water, soil, varied life forms, and energy.

biodiversity in the country? mineral deposits do we have in the country? Where are they located and why only in those places?

Which are not sustainable? ow can we help conserve natural resources so that future generations can also enjoy them? Hopefully, the knowledge and skills acquired in the lessons will help you value your responsibility as a productive citizen so that you can help prevent protected and vulnerable places from being mined, forests from being overcut, and natural resources like metals from ending up in a dumpsite. Water Resources and Biodiversity The Philippines boasts of many different kinds of natural water forms, such as bays, rivers, lakes, falls, gulfs, straits, and swamps. Because it is made up of islands, the country's coastline (seashore) if laid end-to-end, would measure around 17.5 thousand kilometers. And you know how we are proud of our coastlines! The bodies of water and its surrounding environment not only support the survival of diverse organisms for food but are also used for other economic activities. All these you learned in Araling Panlipunan. In the previous activity you identified two big bodies of water on the west and east side of the country: the Pacific Ocean in the east and south China Sea in the west (sometimes referred to as the West Philippine Sea). These bodies of water are the origin of typhoons which on the average, according to Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), is about 20 a year. Typhoons and the monsoons (amihan and habagat) bring lots of rain to the Philippines. What is your association with too much rainfall? For some, rain and typhoons result in flooding, landslides, and health related-problems. But water is one of natures gifts to us. People need fresh water for many purposes. We use water for domestic purposes, for irrigation, and for industries. We need water to generate electricity. We use water for recreation or its aesthetic value.

Many resorts are located near springs, waterfalls or lakes. Where does water in your community come from? You collect them when the rain falls or get them from the river, deep well, or spring. But where does water from rivers, lakes, and springs originate? They come from a watershed an area of land on a slope which drains its water into a stream and its tributaries (small streams that supply water to a main stream). This is the reason why a watershed is sometimes called a catchment area or drainage basin. It includes the surface of the land and the underground rock formation drained by the stream. From an aerial view, drainage patterns in a watershed resemble a network similar to the branching pattern of a tree. Tributaries, similar to twigs and small branches, flow into streams, the main branch of the tree. Streams eventually empty into a large river comparable to the trunk.

Watersheds come in all shapes and sizes. They cross towns and provinces. In other parts of the world, they may cross national boundaries. There are many watersheds in the Philippines basically because we have abundant rainfall. Do you know that Mt. Apo in Davao-Cotabato, MakilingBanahaw in Laguna and Quezon, and Tiwi in Albay are watersheds? You must have heard about La Mesa Dam in Metro Manila, Pantabangan Dam in Pampanga, and Angat Dam in Bulacan. These watersheds are sources of water of many communities in the area. The Maria Cristina Falls in Iligan City is in a watershed; it is used to generate electricity. Locate these places in your map. Ask elders where the watershed is in or near your area? Observe it is used in your community. But watersheds are not just about water. A single watershed may include combination of forest, grassland, marshes, and other habitats. Diverse organisms in the Philippines are found in these areas! Being a tropical country, the Philippines has abundant rainfall, many bodies of water, and lots of sunshine. The right temperature and abundant rainfall explain partly why our country is considered to be a mega-diverse country. This means that we have high diversity of plants and animals, both on land and in water (Philippine Clearing House Mechanism Website, 2012). Reports show that in many islands of the Philippine archipelago, there is a high number of endemic plants and animals (endemic means found only in the Philippines). The country hosts more than 52,177 described species of which more than half is found nowhere else in the world. They say that on a per unit area basis, the Philippines shelters more diversity of life than any other country on the planet. For now remember that the main function of a watershed is the production of a continuous water supply that would maintain the lifeforms within it and in the area fed by its stream. Later you will learn that besides supporting the survival of varied life forms, abundant water in the country is

important in moderating temperature. This topic will be discussed later. Have you ever asked yourself the following questions? If we have abundant rainfall to feed watersheds, why do we experience drought some parts of the year? What factors affect the health of a watershed? Is there a way of regulating the flow of water in watershed so that there will be enough for all throughout the year? What can people do to keep watersheds healthy? Find out about these in the next activity. Soil Resources, Rainfall and Temperature Recall in elementary school science that soil is formed when rocks and other materials near the Earths surface are broken down by a number of processes collectively called weathering. You learned two types of weathering: the mechanical breaking of rocks or physical weathering, and the chemical decay of rocks or chemical weathering. Let us review what happens to a piece of rock when left under the Sun and rain for a long time. Do the next activity. Soil covers the entire Earth. Temperature, rainfall, chemical changes, and biological action act together to continuously form soil. Climate, expressed as both temperature and rainfall effects, is often considered the most powerful soil-forming factor. Temperature controls how fast chemical reactions occur. Many reactions proceed more quickly as temperature increases. Warm-region soils are normally more developed or more mature than cold-region soils. Mature soils have more silt and clay on or near the surface. Thus, soils in the tropical areas are observed to sustain various farming activities and account for why the primary source of livelihood in the Philippines and other countries in the tropical region is their fertile land. What is the effect of very little rainfall on food production? Climate (temperature and rainfall) is a significant factor not only in soil formation but also in sustaining diversity of plants and animals in the country. On the other hand, water also directly affects the movement of soluble soil nutrients from the top soil to deep under the ground (leaching). These nutrients may no longer be available to shallow rooted plants. Acidic rainwater may also contribute to the loss of minerals in soil resulting in low yield. So rainfall determines the kind of vegetation in an area. In turn, the degree of vegetation cover, especially in sloping areas, determines how much soil is removed. Are there ways to protect soil resources? Rocks and Mineral Resources History tells us that rocks have been used by humans for more than two million years. Our ancestors lived in caves; they carved rocks and stones to make tools for hunting animals, cultivating crops, or weapons for protection. Rocks, stones, gravel, and sand were and are still used to make roads, buildings, monuments, and art objects. The mining of rocks for their metal content has been considered one of the most important factors of human progress. The mining industry has raised levels of economy in some regions, in part because of the kind of metals available from the rocks in those areas. Mineral deposits can be classified into two types: metallic and nonmetalllic. You have already learned the symbols of some metals and nonmetals. Review them before you do the activity. --* TLE-

ANSWER KEYS LESSON 1: USE AND MAINTENANCE OF TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT SELF CHECK 1.1 I. Matching Type II. Picture Gallery 1. J 1. Vacuum Cleaner 2. I 2. Water Hose 3. H 3. Water 4. G 4. Scrubbing Foam 5. F 5. Trash Can 6. E 6. Bucket 7. D 7. Sponge 8. C 8. Gloves 9. B 9. Floor Polisher/Floor Buffer 10. A 10. Cobwebber SELF CHECK 1.2 Safety Measures Protect yourself Checklist for power carrying tips Tough lifting jobs protection; wear gloves to prevent cuts. is firm. load alone. Ask for help. to prevent injury to your feet from a dropped item. clearance at doorways to keep your hands and fingers safe. walk, and lower the load together. hazards. the directions and direct the lift. platforms, loading docks, ramps, and stairs. your shoulders, with front end high. LESSON 2: PRACTICE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PROCEDURES PRETEST LO:1 Identification 1. Executive Order No. 307 6. worker 2. Occupational Health & Safety 7.Technical Assistance & Advice 3. Hazard 8. Biological 4. Client 9. Orgonomic 5. Workplace 10. Risk SELF CHECK 1.1 1. F/situation

2. F/Dormant 3. T 4. T 5. F/negative 6. T 7. F/Physical 8. T 9. T 10. T 11. F/ incident 12. T 13. F/organism 14. T 15. T PRETEST LO:2 I. Identification 1. Clean Air Act 6. Contingency Plan 2. RA 8749 7. Isolation 3. Fire Safety 8. Decontamination 4. Waste Management 9. Evacuation 5. Disaster Management 10. Respiratory Management II. Picture Gallery 1. Sunglasses/sunscreen 2. Ordinary cold weather gear 3. Logging boots 4. Dust mask/respirators used 5. Long sleeve shirts 6. Back belt 7. Non-specialty prescription safety eyewear 8. Non-specialty safety-toe protective footwear 9. Long pants 10. Ordinary rain gear SELF CHECK 2.1 Activity 1 11. Plastic bags - reduce 12. Glass bottles reuse 13. Cans reduce, recycle 14. Paper bags reuse 15. Paper wrappers reuse 16. Old clothes reuse, recycle 17. Candy wrappers recycle 18. Left over foods recycle (fertilizer) 19. Batteries landfill 20. Plastics bottles recycle, reduce PRETEST LO: 3 Multiple Choice 1. C 6. A 2. C 7. D 3. A 8. A 4. C 9. D 5. B 10. D SELF CHECK 3.1 Fire Drill A. Overheated Appliances B. Worn-out electrical connections C. Activated Fire Alarm Earthquake Drill D. Stay inside E. Expect Aftershocks F. Drop, cover and hold on First Aid

G. Assess the situation H. Gladsome I. Gentle J. Immediate action II. JUMBLED LETTERS 1. CUSTOMER 2. WORKPLACE 3. ETHICS 4. PROCEDURE 5. HOUSEHOLD WORKER III. WORD BANK 1. Paraphernalia 2. Uniform 3. Personal Grooming 4. Personal Hygiene 5. Hygiene SELF CHECK 1.1 1. Household Services 2. Service 3. Sexual Relationship 4. Competence 5. Confidentiality 6. Continuity of Service 7. Sexually harass 8. Dignity 9. Integrity 10. Human Relation SELF CHECK 1.3 1. Do 2. Dont 3. Dont 4. Dont 5. Dont 6. Do 7. Dont 8. Do 9. Do 10. Do PRETEST LO:2 1. E 2. C 3. I 4. G 5. D 6. B 7. A 8. J 9. H 10. F SELF CHECK 2.1 I. Matching Type

II. Enumeration 1 5 Cleaning Cooking Child Care Shopping Laundry 6 10

turn mattresses.

SAFETY MEASURES IN DOING HOUSEHOLD TASKS Housekeeping is not just cleanliness. It includes keeping work areas neat and orderly; maintaining halls and floors free of slip and trip hazards; and removing of waste materials (e.g., paper, cardboard) and other fire hazards from work areas. Safe Use Risks can vary greatly. What important is, whoever has to use any tool or piece of equipment as part of their job does so with care. To ensure safe use, employers must orient workers and provide suitable information. They must also check that workers have the appropriate qualifications to use intricate tools and equipment. In addition, as part of their health and safety strategy employers should offer orientation and training. This isnt necessary for basic items, but when certain tools and equipment change, orientation and orientation improves skills and reminds users of safety procedures. Material handling safety Handling material is a daily function in the workplace. All too often it is a task taken for granted, with little knowledge of or attention to the consequences if done incorrectly. The National Safety Council offers tips on the following: Power Lifting Protect Yourself

Size up the Load A. Determine if you can carry a load comfortably; tip it on its side. B. Get help if the load is too big or bulky for one person. C. Check for nails, splinters, rough strapping, and rough edges. Lift It Right

your feet.

Tough Lifting Jobs Oversized Loads a team. Lift, walk, and lower the load together. High Loads

d toward you. Low Loads

ift. Power Carrying Tips Your Checklist

long loads on your shoulders, with front end high.

walk in step, and put the load down as a team.

Back Safety Tips

-ups. regularly to keep your back strong and healthy.

I. MAINTENANCE OF CLEANING EQUIPMENT A vacuum cleaner is a device that uses an air pump to create a partial vacuum to suck up dust and dirt, usually from floors, and optionally from other surfaces as well. The dirt is collected by either a dust bag or a cyclone for later disposal. Vacuum cleaners, which are used in homes as well as in industry, exist in a variety of sizes and models small batteryoperated hand-held devices, domestic central vacuum cleaners, huge stationary industrial appliances that can handle several hundred liters of dust before being emptied, and selfpropelled vacuum trucks for recovery of large spills or removal of contaminated soil. A floor buffer is an electrical appliance that is used to clean and maintain non-carpeted floors, such as hardwood, marble, tile or linoleum. It is also known as a floor polisher or floor burnisher. If it is a high speed floor buffer with a pad it rotates at over 1000 RPM (rotation per minute). It has a large, round scrubbing pad spinning in a circle in one direction which is powered by a small motor, usually directly over the center of the pad. VIDEO PRESENTATION ON HOW TO USE VACUUM CLEANER AND FLOOR POLISHER (refer to references) Correct Maintenance of Tools and Equipment A further part of a health and safety strategy is to maintain tools and equipment regularly. This helps to identify safety problems before they become a serious hazard. Only qualified people should carry out the maintenance. They should also keep records of their inspections. Management There is one important way to follow the rules and to manage the safe use and maintenance of tools and equipment. This is to assess and control the risks. Employers should conduct Risk Assessments that cover the setting up, use and maintenance of tools and equipment at work. The risk assessment process must identify the environments in which workers will use the tools and equipment; any local conditions that may affect safety; and how the workers will actually use each item in practice. Risk assessments such as these let employers know what orientation and training they need to run. The assessments also show what information employers must make available in the form of posters, user guides and Safety Signs. By limiting risks in this way, employers have some control over potential hazards. Specifically, employers should: protect fingers and limbs.

General Rules in the Use of Cleaning Equipment 1. Check electrical appliances and equipment before use. Check if there are frayed wires, loose plugs ad connections. Never use any appliance that is defective. 2. Handle equipment with care and make sure it does not bump on hard surfaces.

3. Clean and store equipment in their custodial room immediately after use. 4. Empty dust bags of dry vacuum cleaners before they overload and after each use. 5. Follow manufacturers operating instruction. 6. Schedule a regular check-up of equipment to prevent serious breakdown. 7. To avoid electric shock or short circuit, do not expose equipment to rain or water. Store them indoors to protect them from getting wet. Electrical equipment should never be used in wet surfaces. Clean Air Act - the constitutional law designed to make sure that all Filipinos have air that is safe to breathe. Corrosive wastes - generally aqueous wastes with a pH less than or equal to two (2) or greater than or equal to 12.5. Earthquake - the shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane or from volcanic activity. Ergonomic Hazards - include improperly designed tools or work areas, improper lifting or reaching, poor visual conditions, or repeated motions in an awkward position which can result in accidents or illnesses in the workplace. Fire drills - intended to ensure by means of training and rehearsal, that in the event of fire. Fire safety - a set of precautionary measures that are taken to prevent or reduce the likelihood of a fire that may result in death, injury, or property damage. First Aid - the provision of initial care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by nonexpert, but trained personnel to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Hazardous equipment - refers to plant equipment which by their very nature has the potential of causing severe or fatal injury to the worker or operator. Hazardous work processes - refer to work operations or practices performed by a worker in the establishment or workplace in conjunction with or as an incident to such operations or practices and which expose the employees to hazards likely to cause any disabling injury, illness, death or physical or psychological harm. Hazardous materials or substances - refers to substances which upon exposure results or may result in adverse effects on health and safety of humans in an occupational setting. Ignitable wastes - liquids with a flash point below 60C or 140F. Imminent Danger - refers to a condition or practice in any workplace that could reasonably be expected to cause death or serious physical harm before abatement until the enforcement procedures can be accomplished. Mitigation activities - done to eliminate or reduce the probability of disaster occurrence, or reduce the effects of unavoidable disasters. Occupational Hazards - refers to various environmental factors or stresses that can cause sickness, impaired health, or significant discomfort in workers and can be classified as chemical, physical, biological or ergonomic. Occupational Health Service - the continuous, systematic use of routinely collected health data to guide OSH decisions and actions. OSH Trainings - interventions conducted to facilitate learning on occupational safety and health, the results of which can contribute to the attainment of better and improved OSH conditions. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) - refers to devices worn by workers to protect them against hazards in the work environment including but not limited to safety helmet, safety spectacles, face shields, ear plugs/muffs, respirators, chemical gloves, safety belt/harness,

working clothes, and safety shoes. Preparedness programs - done to achieve a satisfactory level of readiness to respond to any emergency situation through programs that strengthen the technical and managerial capacity of governments, organizations, and communities. Primary Prevention Program on OSH - the promotion of health by personal, workplace and community-wide efforts. Reactive wastes - those wastes that are unstable, explosive, and capable of detonation or react violently with water. Recovery - a measure that augments the affected population who is capable of undertaking a growing number of activities aimed at restoring their lives and the infrastructure that supports them. Response - aims to provide immediate assistance to maintain life, improve health and support the morale of the affected population. Safety device refers to mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or other device which prevent or restricts the dangerous or harmful influence on a person that can be caused by the machinery, the processed materials and their surroundings. Technical Services - refer to occupational safety and health services extended to workplaces such as but not limited to health examinations, safety audits, work environment measurement, testing of personal protective equipment, environment assessments as these relate to work conditions and procedures. Threshold Limit Value - refers to the Philippine Occupational Safety and Health Standards set for airborne concentrations of substances and represents conditions under which workers may be repeatedly exposed for an 8-hours workday at a total of 48 hours per week, without adverse health effects; (OSHS). Toxic wastes - chemicals that pose a hazard to health or the environment. Waste management - the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials. Work Environment Measurement - shall mean sampling and analysis carried out in respect of the atmospheric working environment and other fundamental elements of working environment for the purpose of determining actual conditions therein.

Section 1. Title. This Act shall be known as the Agricultural Tenancy Act of the Philippines. Section 2. Purposes. It is the purpose of this Act to establish agricultural tenancy relations between landholders and tenants upon the principle of school justice; to afford adequate protection to the rights of both tenants and landholders; to insure an equitable division of the produce and income derived from the land; to provide tenant- farmers with incentives to greater and more efficient agricultural production; to bolster their economic position and to encourage their participation in the development of peaceful, vigorous and democratic rural communities. Section 3. Agricultural Tenancy Defined. Agricultural tenancy is the physical possession by a person of land devoted to agriculture belonging to, or legally possessed by, another for the purpose of production through the labor of the former and of the members of his immediate farm household, in consideration of which the former agrees to share the harvest with the latter, or to pay a price certain or ascertainable, either in produce or in money, or in both. Section 4. Systems of Agricultural Tenancy; Their Definitions. Agricultural tenancy is classified into leasehold tenancy and share tenancy. Share tenancy exists whenever two persons agree on a joint undertaking for agricultural production wherein one party furnishes the land and the other his labor, with either or both contributing any one or several of the items of production, the tenant cultivating the land personally with thed of labor available from members of his immediate farm household, and the produce thereof to be divided between the landholder and the tenant in proportion to their respective contributions. Leasehold tenancy exists when a person who, either personally or with thed of labor available from members of his immediate farm household, undertakes to cultivate a piece of agricultural land susceptible of cultivation by a single person together with members of his immediate farm household, belonging to or legally possessed by, another in consideration of a price certain or ascertainable to be paid by the person cultivating the land either in percentage of the production or in a fixed amount in money, or in both. Section 5. Definitions of Terms. As used in this Act: (a) A tenant shall mean a person who, himself and with those available from within his immediate farm household, cultivates the land belonging to, or possessed by, another, with the latters consent for purposes of production, sharing the produce with the landholder under the share tenancy system, or paying to the landholder a price certain or ascertainable in produce or in money or both, under the leasehold tenancy system. (b) A landholder shall mean a person, natural or juridical, who, either as owner, lessee, usufructuary, or legal possessor, lets or grants to another the use or cultivation of his land for a consideration either in shares under the share tenancy system, or a price certain or ascertainable under the leasehold tenancy system. (c) Agricultural year is the period of time necessary for the raising of seasonal agricultural products, including the preparation of the land, and the sowing, planting and harvesting of the crop: Provided, however, That in the case of coconuts, citrus, coffee, ramie, and other crops where more than one harvest is obtained from one planting, the words agricultural year shall mean the period of time from the preparation of land to the first harvest and thereafter from harvest to harvest. In both cases, the period of time may be shorter or longer than a calendar year. (d) Farm implements include hand tools or machines ordinarily employed in a farm enterprise. (e) Work animals include animals ordinarily employed in a farm enterprise. The words include carabaos, horses, bullocks, etc. (f) Pulling of the seedlings is a phase of farm work in which seedlings are uprooted from the seed beds immediately before transplanting.

(g) Final harrowing in the last stage in pulverizing the soil into fine particles in readying the field for the transplanting of the seedlings. (h) Reaping is the cutting of rice stalks. (i) Harvesting shall mean the gathering of the fruits or produce of a crop other than rice. (j) Piling into small stacks used as a term in rice share tenancy shall mean the piling into several small stacks within the tenants holdings of reaped and bundled stalks containing the grain, preparatory to their transportation to the place designated for their threshing. (k) Piling into big stacks used as a term in rice share tenancy shall mean the piling into one huge stack of the several small stacks of reaped and bundled stalks containing grain, which constitute the entire harvest of the tenant from his holdings, preparatory to threshing. (l) Proven farm practices include those sound farming practices which have attained general acceptance through usage or are officially recommended by the Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources. (m) Fair rental value is an amount of money not in excess of allowable depreciation plus six per cent interest per annum on the investment computed at its market value: Provided, however, That the fair rental value for the work animal or animals and farm implements required to produce the crop shall not exceed five per cent of the gross harvest for the animal or animals and five per cent for implements: And, provided, further, That whenever a tractor or power and the necessary implements are utilized interchangeably with work animals in the same holding during the same agricultural year the rental shall not exceed ten per cent for the combined services. (n) Immediately after as used in this Act shall be inclusive of the last day of harvesting, threshing or processing and the next five days thereafter. (o) Immediate farm household includes the members of the family of the tenant, and such other person or persons, whether related to the tenant or not, who are independent upon him for support and who usually help him operate the farm enterprise. (p) Incapacity means any cause or circumstances which prevents the tenant from fulfilling his contractual obligations and those imposed by this Act. (q) Inspect means to examine and observe. However, such examinations and observations shall not include any acts of intimidation or coercion. (r) Auxiliary crop is any product raised other than the crop to which the cultivation of the land is principally devoted; and excluding the produce of the lot referred to in Section twenty-six.