Anda di halaman 1dari 6






S S shokrolla N T Twieg Menoufiya University, Egypt

U Sharaf New Brunswick University, uK

In maxlmum power operatlon 15-61. For the system whlch conslsts of t h e photovoltalc generator ,the d c motor and the water pump The operatlnq polnt of t h e system Is found t o be far f r o n the maxlmun power polnt of t h e photovoltaic generator a t a l l lnsulatlon levels Added t o thls the utlllzatlon efflclency Is observed t o be very low 151.


The paper presents a photovoltalc (PV) powered pump d r l v e scheme conprlslng a neparately exclted d c motor and dc/dc converter , T h e c o n t r o l s t r a t e g y ensures maxlmun solar energy utlllzatlon and effectlve load control Bconomlc s l z e s from 1 k w - 30 k w c a n be utlllzed Wlth the advent of s e p a r a t e l y exclted d c r o t o r s It Is advantageous t o utlllze solld s t a t e converter d c chopper for technology t o ensurlnq scheme coaprlses t h e follovlng : (1)Photovoltalc s o l a r a r r a y wlth serles / parallel conflguratlon and topology svltchlng ( 2 ) D C lnput lov-pass L C fllter (3)The dc/dc one quadrant chopper uslng n o s f e t translstor. ( 4 ) ~ e p a r a t e l y exclted D C motor ( 5 ) T n e pump load The paper presents the full unlfled model development and control strategy for maxlmlzlng solar energy utlllzatlon and ensurlnq maxlmum KIIH energy used by the pump load , T h e proposed scheme c a n be utlllzed In spray irrlqatlon and Green-House water supply management .In addltlon t h e paper preaents the dlqltal slmulatlon model development , component slzlng pv array swltchlnq and tracklnq controller t o lnsure on - llne maxlmum solar energy utlllzatlon Laboratory testlng o f the drlve scheme 1s a l s o Included

In order t o solve thls problem ,two alternatlves a r e generally avallable t o the system deslqner :(l)CareEully select the d c motor and the pump s u c h that t h e y match closely the maxlmum pover llne of photovoltalc generator. (2)Uslng an as a peak power electronlc control tracker,vhlch contlnuously matches the output characterlstlcs o f the photovoltalc t o the lnput CharaCterlBtlCS of the motor .For t h e . flrst optlon a comprehenslve s t u d y of the startlng and steady-state characterlstlcs of d c motors powered dlrectly by a photovoltalc generator 1s q l v e n In reference Il1.It was found that a s e p a r a t e l y exclted d c motor drlvlng a centrlfugal pump 1s t h e best candldate a s far a s better matchlng t o the photovoltalc generator 1s concerned A5 for the second alternatlve , a peak power tracklnq la achleved either by d l a c r e t e l y lnterchanqlnq the serles-parallel connectlons of c e l l modules wlthln the photovoltalc array 1 7 1 ,or by uslng controlled d c - d c converters ( c h o p p e r s ) In the normal mode , or In the set-up node I 5 1


hs t h e SOUKCIS of conventlonal e n e r g y a r e dwlndllng fast wlth a correspondlng rlse In cost,conslderable attentlon Is belng pald t o other alternatlve sources Solar energy whlch 1 s f r e e and abundant In most parts of the world h a s proven t o be a n economlcal source of energy in many Industrial appllcatlons (11. Dlrect current motors a r e used In photovoltalc drlve system 121,for example,ln coollnq appllcatlon and In water pumping s y s t e m s O K lrrlgatlon O K Water supply , In dlrcct coupled photovoltalc systems,the s o l a r c e l l array Is dlKeCtlY connected t o motor-load couple These systems are relatlvely slmple.and lnexpenslve t o operate 13-41. The loads s u c h a s water pumps a r e used on noncrltlcal loads , whlch d o not need contlnuously operatlon and the water output c a n be stored easlly. Thls arrangement 1s commonly used for water pumplng In rural vlllages a l l over the world vhere no qrld electrlclty exlsts. Wlth the Increased use of these systens,more attentlon Is pald to thelr deslgn and optlmum utlllzatlon In order t o achleve the most rellable and economlcal operatlon Because of the relatlvely hlgh cost of a photovoltalc generator , t h e system deslgner 1s lnterested

In the present paper a photovoltalc powered pump drlve scheme comprlslnq a separately exclted d c motor and d c/d c step-down chopper 1s conslderod .The paper presents t h e f u l l unlfled model developmentand control strategy f o r maxlmlzlnq solar energy utlllzatlon and ensurlng maxlnum KWH energy use by t h e P u m p load .The proposed s c h e m e Is beneflt and can be utlllzed In several purposes s u c h a s s p r a y lrrlgatlon and GreenHouse water s u p p l y management In addltlon, the paper presents the component slzlng Pv a r r a y svltchlng and tracklnq controller t o Insure on llne maxlmum solar energy utlllzatlon .Laboratory testlng of the drlve scheme 1s a l s o Included t o emphaslze the valldlty of the numerlcal slmulatlon when the system 1s fed from constant d c voltage source


The schenatlc diagram of the system analyzed In thls paper 1s s h o w n In Flgure (1) It conslsts of a photovoltalc a r r a y wlth aeries/ parallel conflguratlon and topology swltchlng , d c lnput low pass L c fllter, a d c / d c s t e p d o w n chopper uslng rosfet


translstor and a separately exclted d c motor d r l v e n pump load The d c / d c converter wlth variable d u t y cycle vhlch regulates t h e power eupplled t o the motor 1s a step down converter Between the photovoltalc s o u r c e a n d the d c / d c converter a l o w pass ( L - C ) fllter t o s m o o t h out the current from the a r r a y into t h e d c / d c converter 1s a l s o connected The fllter 1 s deslgned for , R . H . 8 . fundamental current t o be alloved In the s u p p l y , 1s less t h a n 1 0 % o f the d c component of the s o u r c e current 1 8 1

number of parallel strlng ( N P Several attempts have been made t o obtaln the most sultable comblnatlon of the strlngs In order t o verlfy the maxlmum solar energy utlllzatlon The photovoltalc generator consldered in t h l s s t u d y Is chosen such that It h a s 12 parallel s t r l n g s , where e a c h strlng contalns 4 8 6 c e l l s The over a l l voltage of the photovoltalc generator a r e expressed by the follovlnq form 12,51 :

and the


V = (


Z1 1


I )

D r i v e Circuit T h e H o s f e t translstor a r e flred by a n Impulse generator o t llnear tlmlng voltage The pulses a r e generated vhen the control voltage ( F C R ) equals the tlmlng voltage ( wa ) as

Z 1= L n vhere;

I X X - I t Y Y l / Y Y



= 1 ph


0 lnsolatlon

s h o v n In f l g u r e (2). T h e pulse d u t y ratlo Is set a t the deslred value by adjustlng the V. lue ( F C R )

P ,I are the current f r o m c e l l s




termlnal voltage and I p h Is the photo current lnsolatlon

= 0.8 A.

vhlch 1s p r o p o ~ t l o n a l to

and the open clrcult 100 % ( 1000 w/m2) voltage = 0 . 5 4 V , Flgure ( 3 ) s h o w s the V - I characterlstlc of the photovoltalc generator Curve of maxlmum c h o s e n In t h l s s t u d y pover delivered 1s obtalned by uslng the deflhltlon ( d / d I ) ( V I 1 = 0 T h e low pass fllter c o n s l s t s of L C components T h e correspondlng equatlons a r e a s follovs :

V - E

= L

d l / d t

( 2 1

Flgure 1:Schematlc diagram of the system.




. o

PV Generator Current (A)

Flgure 3 1 1 - V characterlstlcea of the P.V. generator, vhere,l 1s the lnstantaneous photovoltalc current and 1 le the H O S f e t (supplyllnput current. Modelling of the mtor There a r e three modes of operatlon performance equatlons for each m o d e expressed In the follovlng form I

Photovoltalc Array and Filter Modelllng

T h e photovoltalc generator 1s generally conslsts of a n a r r a y of photovoltalc c e l l s modules connected In serles-parallel comblnatlons t o provlde the deslred d c Voltage and c u r r e n t T h e ternlnal voltage , current and lnternal reslstance of a r r a y d e p e n d s on the number oE c e l l s In serles (NsI

The are


Modecl) Duty Interval. Thls lnterval s t a r t s vhen the control voltage equals the tlmlng voltage T h l s lnterval terminates a t the end of period T T h e correspondlnq dlfferentlal equatlons a r e a s follovs :

La d l m / dt and

t Ra


K w = Es

( 0
( 5 ) as


J d w / d t

w t

TL = K lm equatlon 0.001 motor


T h e pump load torque f 0 1 l0VS :

T~ = 0 . 5
t 0.004 w t

1s 1.e









l m 1s the motor current


the motor speed In rad./sec. , K Is the back e.m.f. c o e f f l c l e n t volt / (rad/sec) , f 1s t h e vlscous frlctlon coefflclent N.m / (rad/sec) , J 1s the moment of lnertla , T; 1s the load torque N.m , 1s the motor lnput voltage T h e parameters motc,r and the system a r e s h o v n appendlx

of In

the the

motor and d c / d c converter w l t h low pass filter fed from a constant d c source and for a constant load torque , a n experlmental set-up 1s bullt T h e c o m p a r l s o n betveen both the experlnental a n d slmulatlon results shoved a good correlatlon betveen them FlgUKeS ( 4 , s ) B h o v the s t e a d y s t a t e computed and experlmental r e s u l t s of motor voltage current and llne ( s u p p l y ) lnput c u r r e n t vltli tlme In c a s e o f motor fed from c o n s t a n t d c SUPPlY and load torque = 4.0 N.m Flgures ( 6 , l ) s h o v the varlatlon o f the average photovoltalc voltage and current respectlvely wlth the percent solar lnsolatlon for dlfferent values of (FCR = K or the It 1s observed system s h o v n In F1glJre ( 1 ) that the average photovoltalc voltage atid current a r e Increased wlth the lncrease of Llie d u t y ratlo and/or the percent solar lnsolatlon Figures (8,9,10)shov the Varlatlon o f motor average voltage,average torque and the motor speed respectlvely wlth the percent solar lnsolatlon vlth respect t o d i f f e r e n t values of (FCR = KI for the system s h o w n In Figure ( 1 ) It lS observed that the average motor voltage,torque and the speed a r e Increased vlth lncreaslng the d u t y ratlo O K the percent solar lnsolatlon

Closed Loop Control M o d e (21 Freerheellng Interval s T h e lnterval s t a r t s vhen the mosfet translstor 1s turned oEf. T h l s lnterval 1s termlnated when the dlode current equals to zero. The correspondlng dlfferentlal equatlons In thls mode a r e a s follows : La and

d l m / d t t R a l n t K W d o / d t t f w t T L =

= O

( 7 )


( 8 )

T h e lnterval M o d e <a> Codasting Interval s t a r t s when t h e diode current e q u a l s t o zero. Thls lnterval 1s terminated vhen the control voltage e q u a l s the tlmlng voltage and the Hosfet 1s turned o n T h e correspondlng d l f f e r e n t l a l equatlons In t h l s mode a r e a s follows :

T h e proposed mathematical almulatlon of the system has proved to be a beneflt tool for studylng the behavlour of the system O K translent and s t e a d y state c o n d l t l o n s Thlg slmulatlon has the a b l l l t y of detelmlnlng the sultable c o n f l q u r a t l o n o f s e r l e s and parallel photovoltalc generator for a n y load In addltlon to a n y lnsolatlon level Control o f the converter d u t y ratlo Is essentlal In order t o obtaln the maxlnum K W H utlllzatlon. Thus the control s t r a t e g y for maxlmlzlnq solar energy utlllzatlon and ensurlnq maxlmum power use by the pump load a r e determlned I Flgure ( 1 1 ) s h o v s the proposed on-llne tracklng controller d y n a m l c loops for the reference calculator , voltage and pover tKaCklng

Dynarni c Control 1e r Equations


= O



d w / d t

f w

t T L = O didn't


Kpl ( V - V ) t K I 1

For t h l s system , mode ( 3 for frequency more t h a n . 5 0 0


K p 2 ( P -eL) t K 1 2 I (P -PL)dt = F C R 2 where ; P * l s t h e m a x l m u m photovoltalc voltage

( V -V)dt = F C R l

(121 (13) power and (14)

Modelling of


I ~ V ~ U ~Generator SR

and V ,I Is the photovoltalc current a t the maxlmum power FCR = FCRO tFCR1

FLOm FlgUKe (2). the eqUatlOn WhIch represents the tlmlng voltage Is glven by the followlng expresslon


= A ( l - x / l l )


vhere A 1s the maxlmum voltage of tlmlng voltage and x 1s the lnstant radlans vhlch c h a n g e s from 0 t o n , S i m u l a t i o n and Experimental R e s u l t s

the In

By selectlng the proportlonal lntegral controller (Kp1,KIl) for the master loop and (Kp2,K12) for the supplementary loop The controller parameters a r e s h o v n In the appendix

In order t o be sure that the numerlcal for a system c o n p r l s e s of a separately exclted d c

FOC the PV generator consldered In thls s t u d y the s u l t a b l e control for maxlmun power a r e made for the t v o lnsolatlon levels ( 2 0 : 3 0 ) % Flgure ( 1 2 ) s h o v s the varlatlon o f maxlnum pover d u e t o posltlve step change In lnsolatlon level from 20% t o 30% I t Is notlced that the system 1s operatlng under


these clrcumstances a t maximum power for the t w o level o f insolation The response tlme 1s t o has t h e value of 0 . 5 5 seconds f o r the chosen controller parameters

Iv, 1



IIn 1



2 50.00 0


Time (Sec.)


li6 1
notor SoPPlr Current
scale :IO0 Voll/div.

, In.sec./div.

, I anpere /div.

Flgure 5:Experlmental waveformes f o r the IyStein fed from constant d.c. voltage vlth T L = 4 N . H .



2 (30.80

= 1.00


Solar Insolation

Flgure 6:Photovoltalc voltage versus percent solar lnsulatlon.


ai w o

0.2Time (Sec.) 0 0.2 0

E 0.000.W
Flqure 4:Computed vavpformes f o r the s y s t e m fed from constant d . r . voltage v l t h T - ~ N . H .

Solar Insolation

Flgure 7:Photovoltaic current versus percent solar lnsolatlon.




$ am.00

2 a l


I 4m.00 0


E 200.00
0.00 I



-0 .0 6

Solor Insolation

Solar Insolation

F l g u r e a:notor average voltage versus percent solar lnsolatlon.

Flqure 10:liotor speed versus percent solar lnsolatlon.

Solar Insolation
Flgure 9:liotor a v e r a g e torque versus percent solar lnsolatlon.

T h e proposed system considered In t h l s paper conslsta of a s l n q l e power Hosfet and a low pass fllter Thla system 1s lnterfaclnq the P . V . generator and a s e p a r a t e l y exclted d.c. The motor drlvlnq a c e n t r l f u q a l water pump c h o s e n c o n f l g u r a t l o n for s e r i e s parallel comblnatlon h a s a c e r t a i n Insolation level In vhlch the s t e p d o w n converter a l l o w s the obtalnlng o f the maxlmum power output from the P . V . generator .Thls paper d e v e l o p s a complete d l g l t a l s l m u l a t l o n of the proposed s Y s t e l t o predlct the behaviour of thls system under transient and s t e a d y state condltlons T h e r e s u l t s obtalned s h o v that the a v e r a g e motor voltage , torque and speed a r e Increased vlth the Increasing of the d u t y ratlo a s well a s percent solar 1nsolation.The proposed s l m u l a t l o n h a s the a d v a n t a g e o f predlctlnq t h e control range for the lnsolatlon level a c c o r d i n g to the s u l t a b l e conflquratlon.The proposed o n llne tracklnq



?Cl tD.1:l p.u.1

To the drive cod control circuit.

lret at 0.1

F l g u r e 1l:Referance calculator and voltage / power tracklnq loops

41 1

1 4 ) Appelbaum,J. and Slnger,S.,"StartIng characterlstlcs of permanent magnet and S e r l e s exclted motors powered by solar cel1s:varlatlon wlth solar r a d l a t l o n and temperature"E1ectrlc Hachlne and Pover Systems ,June , 1 9 9 2 ,pp. 173-181

1SlAlghuwalnem,S,H.,"Steady state performance o f d. C. motors supplled from photovoltalc generators vlth set - up converters" I E E E Trans. on E.C. ,Vol. 7 , No. 2 ,June ,1992 , pp. 267-272



o f d.c. motors to photovoltalc qenerators for maxlmum d a l l v gross mechanical energy '',lEEE Tran. on E: C . ,Val 3 , NO. 3 , September 1988 , pp. 465-472

1 6 1 Saled,H,H.,"Hatchlng

F i g u r e 12:Load pover response d u e t o s t e p change In lnsolatlon level.

Zlnger,Z.,and Braunsteln,~., "Dynamlc matchlnq of solar electrlcal ( p h o t o v o l t a l c ) system A n estlmatlon of the mlnlmum requlrements o n the matchlnq system "IEEE Tran. on P.A.S.,Vol.PAS-lOO ,No.3,Harch 1981.pp.1189-1192 +


I 8 1 Sen,P,C.,"Thyrlstor WIley 6 S o n s ,Inc.,Nev

d.c. dr1ves"John York ,1981

controller dynarnlc loops for the voltage and paver tracklnq a r e made for maxlmlzlnq solar e n e r g y utlllzatlon and e n a u r l n g n a x l m u n pover output. It Is recommend that the hybrid P.V. Battery s u p p l y system m a y be used In order t o ensure c o n t l n u e s utlllzatlon and lrradlatlon levels vhsre It presents a n economlc alternatlve to d l e a e l d r l v e n or a n alternatlve t o the e n e r g y sour !OS.

T h e motor and fllter parameters: D.c. s e p a r a t e l y exclted motor , 2 3 0 volt,6.6 ampere,w =l47 rad./sec.,Ra=3.2 ohm,La =0.057 henry, J = 0.12 kg ,in2,f = O .02 N.m2/(rad.sec1)

K.1.49 volt/(rad/sec1),L=0.12 henry,C = 3 0 jIf ,Chopper perlod (T)=0.004 Sec., A = 1 2 Volt. Controller parameters: Kpl=lO





1 1 1 Ojo,O.,"Analysls of current source lnductlon motor drlve fed from photovoltalc energy source" , IEEE Trans. pn E.C. , vol. 6, NO. 1 , H a t c h 1991, pp. 99 - 1 0 6

121 Appelbaum,J.,"startlng and s t e a d y state characterlstlcs o f d.c. m o t o r s powered by s(i'.ar cell generators" I E E E T r a n s . on E.C. '01. 1 . ~ o . l ,January ,1986 , pp. 17-25
I 3 1 i'nger,e,,Braunsteln,A., "The maxlmum paver .:ransfer from nonllnear e n e r g y source t o a n a r h l t r a r y ioad"1EE eroc. Vol.134,No 4 , 1 9 8 7 , pp. 281-287