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Napnapan National High School Tigbauan, Iloilo

Feasibility study of a Solar Energy as a purifier of Contaminated and Salt water

An Undergraduate Research Paper Presented to Mrs. Josephine Impe Napnapan National High School Tigbauan, Iloilo

Stephen T. To-ong

Feasibility study of a Solar Energy as purifier for Contaminated and Salt Water

Napnapan National High School Tigbauan, Iloilo

Acknowledgment The researcher would like to extend his sincere thanks and appreciation to the following people who have contributed, in one way or another, to the realization of this study. Mrs. Josephine Impe, research adviser, for the encouragement and support from the conceptualization to the completion of the study. Mr.Paul T. Tejero, for the assistance and valuable suggestions and for the invaluable tips to improve the quality of the research study; To-ong and Tejero families, the wind beneath my wings as I reach my goals in life, for the unconditional love and prayers, for understanding, and moral support, despite of the challenges that come along; Most of all, to Almighty God, for giving the researcher the courage, knowledge, guidance, love and blessings.

Stephen T. To-ong

Feasibility study of a Solar Energy as purifier for Contaminated and Salt Water

Napnapan National High School Tigbauan, Iloilo

Stephen T. To-ong. Feasibility study of a Solar Energy as a Purifier for a contaminated and salt water. Unpublished Research Paper. Napnapan National High School, Tigbauan, Iloilo.

Abstract Distillation is one of many process available for water purification, and sunlight is one of several forms of heat energy that can be used to power that process. Sunlight has the advantage of zero fuel cost but it requires more space and generally more costly equipment. To dispel a common belief, it is not necessary to boil water to distill it. Simply elevating its temperature, short ofboiling, will adequately increase the evaporation rate. In fact, although vigorous boiling hastens the distillation process it also can force unwanted residue into the distillate, defeating purification. Furthermore, to boil water with sunlight requires more costly apparatus than is needed to distill it a little more slowly without boiling. Many levels of purification can be achieved with this process, depending upon the intended application. Sterilized water for medical uses requires different process that that used to make drinking water.
Feasibility study of a Solar Energy as purifier for Contaminated and Salt Water

Napnapan National High School Tigbauan, Iloilo

For people concerned about the quality of their municipally-supplied drinking water and unhappy with other methods of additional purification available to them, solar distillation of tap water or brackish groundwater can be a pleasant, energy-efficient option.

Feasibility study of a Solar Energy as purifier for Contaminated and Salt Water

Napnapan National High School Tigbauan, Iloilo

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Only a very small percentage of the earths water is available for human use, since most is salty ocean water that cannot be used for drinking, washing, irrigation, or industry. Usable water can be created from salt water in a process called desalination, but the process is controversial which is expensive and requires a lot of energy. Solar evaporation purification (or solar desalination) is a process that is often used to make contaminated or saltwater drinkable. It uses only the sun's energy to generate clean, potable water. Solar desalination plants have been installed in areas that are commonly plagued with potable water shortages, but you can use this technology to make a small solar desalination unit in your own back yard. Unlike other filtration methods, solar desalination does not require expensive equipment or replacement parts, making it an easy and environmentally friendly choice for water purification. Solar water purification involves purifying water for

Feasibility study of a Solar Energy as purifier for Contaminated and Salt Water

Napnapan National High School Tigbauan, Iloilo

drinking and household purposes through the usage of solar energy in many different ways. Using solar energy for water treatment has become more common as it is a usually lowtechnology solution that works to capture the heat and energy from the sun to make water cleaner and healthier for human use and consumption. Solar water treatment is particularly beneficial for rural communities, as they do not have other forms of water purification infrastructure and more importantly, electricity to run such structures. The most positive feature about solar water purification is that there is no requirement of fuel. It's precisely due to the lack of fuel that makes solar applications relatively superior than conventional sources of energy as it does not cause pollution (global warming, acid

rain, ozone depletion) or health hazards associated with pollution.

Statement of the problem Specifically, it would answer the following questions: a) Is the solar energy an effective substitute to purify contaminated water?

Feasibility study of a Solar Energy as purifier for Contaminated and Salt Water

Napnapan National High School Tigbauan, Iloilo

b) Can we develop a cost effective heating and surface water reclamation system necessary to support a greenhouse production while maintaining a zero carbon footprint? Hypothesis a) Solar energy is a best substitute to purify contaminated or salt water. b) Contaminated water or salt water which was later purified through the solar energy is safe to drink. c) I believe that if I design and build and solar powered water purification system, using an evaporator stage and a condenser stage, then the total water productivity of the system will be increased, as compared to a typical passive solar still design.

Significance of the study The importance of this study is to help youth: a) understand how the process of evaporation can be used to purify salt water for drinking; and b) to make them practice contributing to the progress of a group engaged in a cooperative project.

Feasibility study of a Solar Energy as purifier for Contaminated and Salt Water

Napnapan National High School Tigbauan, Iloilo

Scope and limitation This study limits on the study of the feasibility of the solar energy as a purifier of a contaminated or salt water. Solar water purification is a much safer method of water treatment, which has no possibility of chemicals decomposing themselves during the treatment of water, thereby producing products harmful to health. However it should be noted, that this method and its products is relatively less known to the general population. The materials were limited to the 5-gallon transparent plastic bucket, 1-gallon glass jar, Transparent plastic sheeting, Masking tape, waterproof glue, Saltwater or contaminated water. The study was conducted at Napnapan National High School, Napnapan Sur, Tigbauan, Iloilo on January 18-23, 2013. Definition of terms For reasons of clarity and better understanding of the study, certain important terms were defined operationally and conceptually:

Feasibility study of a Solar Energy as purifier for Contaminated and Salt Water

Napnapan National High School Tigbauan, Iloilo

Contaminated water- undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities. Feasibility study- is an evaluation and analysis of the potential of the proposed project which is based on extensive investigation and research to give full comfort to the decisions makers. Purifier- to clear from material defilement or imperfection Salt water- Consisting of or living in salty water, especially seawater. Solar Energy- Solar energy refers primarily to the use of solar radiation for practical ends. However, all renewable energies, other than geothermal and tidal, derive their energy from the sun.

Feasibility study of a Solar Energy as purifier for Contaminated and Salt Water

Napnapan National High School Tigbauan, Iloilo

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE More than a billion people in the world today lack access to clean drinking water and there are more people in the worlds hospitals today suffering from water-borne diseases than any other ailment. As glaciers shrink, droughts increase and salt-water intrusion spreads, the worlds current fresh water shortage is set to worsen. But treating water is a power-intensive and hence expensive business. Its also one that can only become more costly as the price of fossil-fueled electricity in social, political, environmental and economic terms becomes apparent. The world needs to find ways of cleaning, desalinating and distributing water to its citizens. And it is an area for which the use of renewable energy seems particularly apt. However, to talk of renewable generation as a single entity is misleading. Wind and solar power the most likely candidates for water treatment in non-coastal areas are very different beasts. Even within the category of solar power there are myriad technologies. And each one has distinct properties that affect where and how it can best be deployed.
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Naturally, the prevailing weather conditions will be the major factor. There is no point in erecting wind turbines in an area where the wind is but an occasional occurrence. The reality is that the areas where availability of clean water is currently the most pressing issue, and the countries where it is most likely to become one, are best suited to solar power. In particular, concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) may prove to be the likeliest candidate for water treatment. Like other solar technologies, CPV converts the power of the sunlight into usable energy. But the advanced design of its solar cells delivers far higher energy yields than standard photovoltaics. CPV units also have an optics system, which magnifies the power of the sun even further, and a sun-tracker unit so that the cells follow the path of the sun and are able to harvest a larger fraction of the suns rays. The result is a system that is incredibly efficient and capable of delivering far greater levels of power from a single unit than other forms of solar electricity generation. The net result is a system that has the potential to be much more costeffective. The high efficiency of CPV also makes it suitable for micro-generation. In the developed world, micro-generation is
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often seen as a well-intentioned whimsy on the part of wealthy but committed environmentalists. But in the developing world, where significant proportions of the population live in off-grid rural areas or in overcrowded, unplanned urban sprawl, microgeneration has immediate and obvious benefits. Like microfinance before it, thinking small can help solve big problems. But perhaps the biggest advantage of linking technologies like CPV to very specific functions such as water treatment and desalination plant is that they make perfect demonstration projects in which the benefits of renewables can be immediately seen. In an industry that needs to boost its profile, demonstrate effectiveness and encourage greater investment, this is exactly the kind of venture that developers like. It creates something of a virtuous circle where greater investment leads to greater penetration, which in turn leads to lower costs which encourages further deployment. There is no one easy answer to the worlds water problems. And certainly CPV does not provide the complete solution. But it does tick a lot of immediate boxes, and could play a significant role in ensuring that clean, healthy water doesnt become the preserve of the wealthy few. But more than that, it opens the door to a whole host of other renewable energy alternatives.
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Water may look clean, but it can host harmful microbes that cause illnesses. It's easy to purify water, however, with simple materials and solar power. Solar water purification system is a water purification system at household level based on solar radiation treatment and water distillation with additional use of solar heating. It is a combination of two water purification processes, the Solar Water Disinfection System (SODIS)and the solar distillation process. Since SODIS, initiated by Professor Aftim Acra, is only ideal to disinfect small quantities of low turbidity, micro-biologically contaminated water, a solar heated still is added to the system to address the issue of heavily contaminated water( such as sea water, water with high turbidity and water contaminated by heavy metal or pathogenic microorganisms).
For the cases where low turbidity water is not available, contaminated water will be distilled to drinking water using the solar heated still to remove any non-volatile solid impurities such as salts, sediment, heavy metals and microorganisms. Water from some wells or rivulets may be visibly clear, but it may not be drinkable since the water may still contain pathogenic microorganisms. To solve this problem, the contaminated water would be contained in clean, transparent bottles and are exposed to the sunlight for a certain amount time (depending on the intensity of the sunlight) allowing the
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solar radiation to deactivate any waterborne pathogens in the contaminated water. Solar water disinfection is an effective way to disinfect drinking water as it is recommended by World Health Organization. The solar water purification system uses only solar energy and can be built using recycling materials, thus, the system is environmentally sustainable.

Principle Water distillation is a physical process that filter solid impurities out of fluid based on the difference in the volatility. At a given temperature and pressure, substances with higher volatility (water in this case) vaporizes more readily than the substances(solid impurities) with lower volatility. The water vapor is then directed to a cool region which condenses the water vapor back to liquid state, leaving all the nonvolatile solid impurities such as salts, sediment, pathogenic microorganisms and heavy metals behind. However, the distilled water may not be suitable for drinking since it may still contain some volatile organic compounds. The rate of vaporization is proportional to the vapor pressure, fluid surface area and the fluid temperature.

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The principle of SODIS is based on Ultraviolet water treatment . It uses two components of the sunlight for the water disinfection process :Ultraviolet radiationand infrared radiation. UV-A radiation(wavelength 320-400 nm) interacts with the DNA, nucleic acids and enzymes of the organic cell, destroys the cell molecular structures which leads to cell deaths. UV-A radiation also reacts with oxygen dissolved in the water producing highly reactive forms of oxygen (oxygen free radicals and Hydrogen peroxide], that can help the germicidal process. Infrared radiation is a long-wave form of sun radiation, it can be felt as heat, as it is responsible for raising the fluid temperature. Studies had proven that 99.9% of microorganisms in the water are eliminated if the water is heated to 50-60C for one hour. In order to disinfect contaminated water for drinking effectively, it is recommended to expose the contaminated water to full sunlight using clear PET bottles for 6 hours.If water temperatures exceed 50C, one hour of exposure is sufficient to obtain safe drinking water.When the weather is cloudy for more than 50% , the contaminated water need to be exposed for 2 consecutive days. The treatment efficiency can be improved by raising the fluid temperature and exposing the contaminated

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water to additional reflecting surfaces such as aluminium or corrugated iron sheets. Solar Energy Collector The idea is first developed by Cansolair Inc., converting solar energy to house heating energy using aluminum can. Solar energy collector is composed of columns of painted black aluminum can, a frame to house the columns and a ventilation for the heat transportation. Before all the cans are glued together to form a collected column, the top and the bottom of aluminum can is needed to be removed. When placed under the sunlight, the columns absorb the solar radiation and heat is convected to the air inside the columns. Due to difference in the air density , warm air would raise to the top of the columns and cool air would be sucked into the columns from the bottom. The warm air flow is then collected at the top of the columns. The columns are painted in black to enhance the radiation absorbability and the size of the columns can be varied for different requirement. Note that the total height of the column is not equal to the sum of exact height of each can since aluminum cans are designed to fit on top of each other with use of groove.

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Solar Distillation System Solar distillation system is composed of a vaporizer that holds the water, a vapor condenser that collects and condenses steam and a water collector that collects distilled water. The rate of vaporization is proportional to the fluid surface area and the fluid temperature. The improve the performance of the still, the vaporizer should be made as large as possible. Also, at the bottom of the vaporizer, there are some serpentine gas channels where warm air flow from the solar energy collector is directed into. Due to the temperature difference between the water and the air flow, heat is transfered into the vaporizer, causing the water temperature to raise, thus, speed up the vaporization process. Other methods such as using thermal conductive materials, painting the vaporizer to black and using some reflective surfaces to concentrate the radiation can be used to improve the performance of the system. Solar water disinfection system To improve the efficiency of solar water disinfection system , reflective surfaces can be used to intensify the solar radiation toward the contaminated water. Another way to improve
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the system performance is to increase the fluid temperature. According to study, if water temperatures exceed 50C, one hour of exposure is sufficient to obtain safe drinking water. This is when the solar energy comes in place. A portion of the thermal energy collected from the solar energy collector is directed to the heat up the bottled water. SODIS Water Bottle Disinfecter This method, while simple, is effective enough to be used around the world. To disinfect water with the SODIS method, pour untreated water into a clean, clear, plastic bottle and leave it in the sun for at least six hours. It will heat up enough to kill all the germs in the water, making it safe to drink. There are concerns about this method. Some plastic bottles may leach toxic chemicals into the water. In addition, the source water must be relatively clear for solar pasteurization to work. Nonetheless, the SODIS method is considered safe to use and has saved lives in many regions that do not have access to clean water. Solar Box Method Solar box cookers are easy to make and can be used to cook food as well as to purify water. You will need two cardboard
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boxes, one of which fits inside the other with about an inch of space on all sides. Paint the inside of the smaller box black. Line the larger box with newspaper for insulation, and place the smaller box inside. Paint the outside of a covered pot black, and fill it with water. Place it inside the black box, and cover the box with plastic or clear glass. Leave the box in the sun for a few hours. It will heat the water enough to kill any microbes. This method can pasteurize a gallon of water in about three hours in a sunny climate, according to SolarCooking.org. The water must reach 150 degrees Fahrenheit and stay at that temperature for a few minutes. This method, unlike the solar still, doesn't remove chemical contaminants. Design and Compare Water Purifying Methods Design and compare three systems of water filtration. A simple idea would be to compare bottles of water that have been boiled, filtered through a cloth and ionized. Then test the pH balance of the water to determine which method is most effective. At higher grade levels, use more advanced filtration methods such as reverse osmosis and carbon, and ultraviolet purification systems.
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Desalinization vs. Recycled Water Using recycled water continues to be controversial in many countries, and drought-stricken nations such as Australia have long debated the high costs of desalinization. Conduct an experiment wherein waste and salt water are treated with these methods. Test both of these samples for their "purity," meaning the presence of micro-organisms and bacteria, acidity, coloration and even taste. Look further into the costs of each technique and analyze the pros and cons of both. Cost Using solar energy as a source of power for products is currently high on absolute costs compared to other sources of power, say coal or kerosene in some states. Potential users of

solar water purification systems find themselves unable to pay the full price of the solar still as they simply can't afford the higher up-front capital cost. Evaluation issues Even if the design experts of solar water purifiers are fully experienced and possess the expertise in the topic of
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solar water purification, a few of them can understand the conditions under which these purifiers would work in a community. Only a resident could tell if the purifiers were easy to use and what could be done to improve it. Without such crucial inputs, the spread of solar water purification methods is effectively reduced. Make a Water Filter Water filters are typically made with plastic bottles or containers, sometimes with tree bark. A water filtration project may also call for activated charcoal, napkins or paper towels, salt, coarse and fine sand, and cotton and/or pebbles. Nonpoisonous grass can be used for a mesh. Muddy or dirty water, once filtered and running clear, is not necessarily bacteria free. Filter Particle Size Sand particle size may affect the effectiveness of a sand water filter. Grains should not be too soft or fine, nor should they be too large. Grains of sand used in a water filtration system should range from small to medium sized, and the larger particles should be separated from the smaller particles. A
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science project for kids to experiment with different types of sand is to run "dirtied" water through them to see which sediment size makes the clearest water. Dirtied water can be made up by adding mud, cooking oil, or some other non-toxic contaminant. Water Filtration and Purification Clean water is a must for survival. Water that is free of impurities and pollution is called potable water. Filtered water is not bacteria-free and is still capable of making a person ill, sometimes even fatally.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Equipments and materials 5-gallon transparent plastic bucket 1-gallon glass jar Transparent plastic sheeting Masking tape Nontoxic, waterproof glue Saltwater or contaminated water B. General procedure 1)Glue the weight to the base of your glass jar. The weight will be submerged in water, so make sure that you are using nontoxic, waterproof glue that is strong enough to hold both the weight and the glass jar. If possible, find a cylindrical weight that fits the base of your glass jar; 2) Place the glass jar (with weight attached) inside your 5-gallon bucket. The jar should be centered on the floor of the bucket, a few inches below the rim and should allow room for the bucket to fill with water;

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3)Fill the space around the jar with contaminated water or saltwater. Make sure you are not putting any water inside the glass jar; rather, between the outside of the jar and the walls of the bucket. Imagine a moat around your jar. The weight should hold the jar in place; 4)Cover the top opening of the bucket with transparent plastic sheeting. Make sure your piece of sheeting is large enough to fully cover the bucket's opening without leaving any spaces through which water vapor could escape; 5)Secure the sheeting by looping masking tape around the rims of the bucket. The sheeting should be tight, with only a slight bit of give; 6)Place the weight in the middle of the plastic sheeting over your bucket. The weight should slightly curve the plastic sheeting downward toward the center; 7)Leave your bucket in an open area that gets a good amount of sunlight. Solar energy will evaporate the water, which will then condense on the plastic sheeting, roll down the curve created by the weight, and drop into the glass jar, leaving salt and solid contaminants in the bottom of the 5-gallon bucket.
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Feasibility study of a Solar Energy as purifier for Contaminated and Salt Water

Napnapan National High School Tigbauan, Iloilo

Operating Procedures Glue the 1 lb. weight to the base of your glass jar

Place the glass jar (with weight attached) inside your 5-gallon bucket.

Fill the space around the jar with contaminated water or saltwater.

Cover the top opening of the bucket with transparent plastic sheeting.

Secure the sheeting by looping masking tape around the rims of the bucket.

Leave your bucket in an open area that gets a good amount of sunlight.
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CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In this study, the water turned out clear. The sun warmed the water in the bowl until the water evaporated and became gas. When the gas rose and hit the plastic, it condensed there in dropets (just like water vapor condenses into clouds). The droplets rolleddown the plastic toward the weight and eventually fell into the glass (like rain falling from the sky). The salt was left behind in the bowl, making the water in the glass pure enough to drink.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION In conclusion, I know now for sure that water can be purified using solar energy at a temperature less than boiling, as I stated in my hypothesis. But I feel this area of research needs to be recognized by more people. I think more testing is needed for final results to this experiment. So, I hope, by my investigation, I am able to educate these people that can not afford purified water to realize that boiling is not the only way. I want to help thesepeople by finding a new way to purify their water through solar energy. My design can be applicable to modern day water problems. Because it is solar powered, my system can be deployed to remote locations, that do not have a significant power source, to provide fresh water from contaminated or other undrinkable water. A current example is being contaminated by sea water, and there is no fresh water to drink on the island. In addition, the developed system can be deployed in disaster areas to provide purified drinking water. Examples include flooding due to moonsoons, or tsunamis. A pertinent example is the tsunami and subsequent radioactive contamination of water sources.
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Chapter VI Recommendations 1.)The current investigation did not rely on detailed calculations for the sizing of the condenser.improved thermodynamic analysis will likely point to an increase in the size of the condenser to improve efficienc. 2.)Increasing the evaporator contact area between the warmth water and the air will likely improve the amount of water that can be absorbed by the air at a given flow rate.

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REFERENCES http://www.solarknoxville.org/for-students/scienceprojects/ http://www1.eere.energy.gov/education/pdfs/solar_rainmachin e.pdf

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