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The Truth about Polio Vaccine

What is Polio?
Polio is an infectious disease caused by a virus that lives in the throat and intestinal tract. It is most often spread through person-to-person contact with the stool of an infected person and may also be spread through oral/nasal secretions. Most people infected with the polio virus have no symptoms, however for the less than 1% who develops paralysis it may result in permanent disability and even death.

Symptoms of Polio
Up to about 72% of susceptible persons infected with polio have no symptoms. However, infected persons without symptoms can still spread the virus and cause others to develop polio. About 24% of infected susceptible persons have minor symptoms such as fever, sore throat, upset stomach, or flu-like symptoms and have no paralysis or other serious symptoms. About 1-5% develop aseptic meningitis with stiffness of the back, or legs, and in some persons increased or abnormal sensations a few days after the minor illness resolves. These symptoms typically last from two to ten days, followed by complete recovery.

Polio in the United States

The last cases of naturally occurring paralytic polio in the United States were in 1979. From 1980 through 1999, there were 162 confirmed cases of paralytic polio cases reported. Of the 162 cases, eight cases were acquired outside the United States. The remaining 154 cases were caused by the polio vaccine itself. This vaccine has been discontinued in the United States since 2000, but it is still being used in most parts of the World, including Pakistan.1

The Truth about Polio Vaccination

It has been confirmed scientifically that Polio Vaccination is the leading cause of Poliovirus and one of the sources for a multitude of other illnesses in the developing world. As the governments and relevant authorities try to push immunization programs across the globe, volumes of scientific research demonstrating the devastating effects of vaccination are kept hidden from the public. In this study we will try to present some of that research as well as an overview of what many scientists and doctors are saying about vaccinations. We hope that this information will help concerned parents make an informed decision regarding vaccinations. It is a decision that ought not to be taken lightly, for It may very well affect the health, safety and future of our society.

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases []

History of the Polio Vaccination

In 1947, Jonas Salk, a Jewish-American physician and microbiologist, became head of the Virus Research Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh. He was interested in developing a polio vaccine. In 1952, Salk combined three types of polio virus grown in cultures made from monkey kidneys. Using formaldehyde, he was able to kill or inactivate the viral matter so that it would trigger an antibody response without causing the disease. That year he began his initial experiments on human subjects. In 1953, his findings were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. And in April of 1954 the nations first polio immunization campaign, directed at school children, was launched.2 However, shortly thereafter hundreds of people contracted polio from Salks vaccine; many died. Apparently, his killed-virus vaccine was not completely inactivated3 In 1957, Albert Saperstein, another Jewish-American physician and microbiologist, developed a live-virus (oral) vaccine against polio [OPV]. It was tested in the United States in 1958 and in 1963 it was made available to the general public. Research conducted at the time showed a few cases of children contracting the Poliovirus due to this vaccine4 and that this vaccine was indeed capable of developing paralysis in patients5. In 2000, the Centre for Decease Control pulled the vaccine from general administration.6

A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries. Salk produces polio vaccine. 3 Okonek BM, et al. Develop ment of polio vaccines. Access Excellence Classic Collection, February 16, 2001:1. www.acce 4 The Associated Press. Polio cases caused by vaccine. The Santa Fe New Mexican, January 31, 1997. 5 Shaw D. Unintended casualties in war on polio. Philadelphia Inquirer June 6, 1993:A1. 6 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR): CDC. 2000; 49:122.

Is Polio Vaccination Safe?

A report by Health Research, California Published in 1957 declared: The cases of polio increased, in some cases to more than 600% after the introduction of the Polio vaccine. Doctors and scientists on the staff of the National Institutes of Health during the 1950s were well aware that the Salk vaccine was causing polio. Some frankly stated that it was worthless as a preventive and dangerous to take. They refused to vaccinate their own children. Health departments banned the drops. But the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, and drug companies with large investments in the vaccine coerced the U.S. Public Health Service into falsely proclaiming the vaccine was safe and effective 7 In 1976, Dr. Jonas Salk, creator of the killed-virus vaccine used in the 1950s, testified that the live-virus vaccine (used almost exclusively in the U.S. from the early 1960s to 2000) was the principal if not sole cause of all reported polio cases in the U.S. since 1961.8 In 1992, the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published an admission that the live-virus vaccine had become the dominant cause of polio in the United States. In fact, according to CDC figures, every case of polio in the U.S. since 1979 was caused by the oral polio vaccine.9 Today, fact sheets on polio published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, warn parents that polio vaccine can cause serious problems or even death...10 Yet, like the days of old, despite these danger alerts, medical authorities continue to assure parents that the currently available inactivated polio vaccine is both safe and effective.
7 8

McBean E. The Poisoned Needle . Mokelumne Hill, California: Health Research, 1957:116 Page 140. Washington Post, September 24, 1976. 9 Strebel PM., et al. Epidemiology of poliomyletis in U.S. one decade after the last reported case of indigenous wild virus associated disease, Clinical Infectious Diseases CDC, February 1992:56879. 10 U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. Polio: What You Need to Know, Atlanta, GA: CDC, October 15, 1991:3.

Look at the following real life case and witness account collected through unsolicited emails received by Think Twice Global Vaccine Institute: Four months ago my son was taken to a local clinic for his polio vaccine. I wasnt aware that he was going to have one, and would have prevented it if I had known. Unfortunately, he changed from that day high-pitched screaming, smelly stools, non-stop crying, difficulty in breathing, high temperature, and lethargy. He also lost weight. Weeks of sleepless nights for all of us followed. His development ceased. He had been able to stand and move around, but he went back to remaining in basically whatever position we left him in My wife was six months pregnant at the time, and about a week after our sons polio vaccine, she began to have headaches, loss of balance, muscular weakness, and frequent tiredness. I panicked because everything seemed to be pointing to polio infection. Then, a week after her continuous headaches began, she had to go to the hospital because there was something wrong with the pregnancy; she lost our daughter.11

If Vaccine is ineffective, how did Polio vanish?

One may wonder that after the introduction of the Polio vaccine, polio was almost entirely eradicated from United States. If the vaccine was ineffective, how did Polio disappear? Here is the truth of what happened: From 1923 to 1953, before the Salk vaccine was introduced, the polio death rate in the United States and England had already declined on its own by 47 percent and 55 percent, respectively. 12 After the vaccine was introduced in United States, many countries in Europe refused to administer the vaccine to its populations. Yet Polio endemic also ended in these countries without the Vaccine.13

11 12 Alders on M. International Mortality Statistics, Washington, DC: Facts on File, 1981:1778. 13 Mendelsohn R. How to Raise a Healthy Child...In Spite of Your Doctor. (Ballantine Books, 1984:231

Another sinister game was played by the authorities in order to declare the killer vaccine a success. They changed the definition of Polio in order to make it appear as though the cases of Polio had reduced. The new definition of a polio epidemic required more cases to be reported. Paralytic polio was redefined as well, making it more difficult to confirm, and therefore tally, cases. Prior to the introduction of the vaccine the patient only had to exhibit paralytic symptoms for 24 hours. Laboratory confirmation and tests to determine residual paralysis were not required. The new definition required the patient to exhibit paralytic symptoms for at least 60 days, and residual paralysis had to be confirmed twice during the course of the disease. Also, after the vaccine was introduced cases of aseptic meningitis (an infectious disease often difficult to distinguish from polio) and coxsackie virus infections were more often reported as separate diseases from polio. But such cases were counted as polio before the vaccine was introduced. The vaccines reported effectiveness was therefore skewed. 14 By redefining Polio, the authorities made it appear as though Polio vaccine had indeed cured Polio. The fact that dubious tactics were used to fabricate efficacy rates was corroborated by Dr. Bernard Greenberg, chairman of the Committee on Evaluation and Standards of the American Public Health Association during the 1950s. His expert testimony was used as evidence during Congressional hearings in 1962. He credited the decline of polio cases not to the vaccine, but rather to a change in the way doctors were required to report cases. 14


Hearings Before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, 87th Congress, 2nd Session on HR 10541. May 1962:94112.

Polio Vaccine and Cancer

In 1959, Bernice Eddy, a scientist working in Biologics at the National Institutes of Health, discovered that polio vaccines being administered throughout the world contained an infectious agent capable of causing cancer.15 When Eddy attempted to report her findings and halt production of these contaminated polio vaccines, her government superiors barred her from publicly revealing the problem. Instead, her lab and equipment were taken away and she was demoted. In 1960, Drs. Ben Sweet and M.R. Hilleman, pharmaceutical researchers for the Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, were credited with discovering this infectious agent CSV-40, a monkey virus that infected nearly all rhesus monkeys, whose kidneys were used to produce polio vaccines. Hilleman and Sweet found SV-40 in all three types of live oral polio vaccines in circulation at the time, and noted the possibility that it might cause cancer, especially when administered to human babies.16 First, we knew that SV-40 had oncogenic (cancer-causing) properties in hamsters, which was bad news. Secondly, we found out that it hybridized with certain DNA viruses... such that [they] would then have SV40 genes attached [to them]... When we started growing the vaccines, we just couldnt get rid of the SV-40 contaminated virus. We tried to neutralize it, but couldnt... Now, with the theoretical links to HIV and cancer, it just blows my mind Dr. Ben Sweet 17


Curtis T, Manson P. Scientists Polio Fear Unheeded: How U.S. Re-searchers Warning Was Silenced. The Houston Post 1992:A1 and A12. 16 Sweet BH, Hilleman MR. the Vacuolating Virus: SV-40. As cited in The polio vaccine and simian virus 40 by Moriarty, T.J . 17 Moriarty T.J. The polio vaccine and simian virus 40. Online News Index.

What is more disturbing is the fact that experts estimate that between 1954 and 1963, 30 million to 100 million Americans and perhaps another 100 million or more people throughout the world were exposed to SV-40 cancer-causing virus through ill-conceived polio eradication campaigns.18 The story does not end in America. Even though now banned in America, research shows that the same tainted polio vaccine continues to threaten the lives of millions of people around the world. 19 More recently, in 1996, Michele Carbone, a molecular pathologist at Chicagos Loyola University Medical Center, was able to detect SV-40 in 38 percent of patients with bone cancer and in 58 percent of those with mesothelioma, a deadly type of lung cancer.20&21 Human body contains a protein that normally protects tumors from becoming malignant [active]. Research conducted at Loyola University Medical Center also showed that SV-40 blocks this proteins action and as a result it disables human bodys natural defenses against cancer.21 Studies published in eminent journals throughout the world appear to confirm that SV-40 is a catalyst for many types of cancer. It has also been proven to be linked to leukemia and brain tumors in humans. Some of these research papers are listed below: Innis MD. Oncogenesis and poliomyelitis vaccine. Nature , 1968; 219: 9723. Soriano F, et al. Simian virus 40 in a human cancer. Nature, 1974; 249:4214. Weiss AF, et al. Simian virus 40-related antigens in three human meningiomas with defined chromosome loss. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 1975;72( 2) :60913. Scherneck S, et al. Isolation of a SV- 40-like papovavirus from a human glioblastoma. International Journal of Cancer, 1979;24:52331. Stoian M, et al. Possible relation between viruses and oromaxillofacial tumors . II. Research on the presence of SV40 antigen and specific antibodies in patients with oromaxillofacial tumors. Virologie , 1987;38:3540. Stoian M, et al. Possible relation between viruses and oromaxillofacial tumors . II. Detection of SV40 antigen and of anti-SV40 antibodies in patients with parotid gland tumors. Virologie , 1987;38:416. Bravo MP, et al. Association between the occurrence of antibodies to simian vacuolating virus 40 and bladder cancer in male smokers. Neoplasma, 1988;35:2858. OConnell K, et al. Endothelial cells transformed by SV40 T-antigen cause Kaposis sarcoma- like tumors in nude mice. American Journal of Pathology, 1991;139( 4) :7439. Weiner L P , et al. Isolation of virus related to SV40 from patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy . New England Journal of Medicine , 1972;286:38590. Tabuchi K. Screening of human brain tumors for SV- 40-related T-antigen. International Journal of Cancer 1978;21:127. Meinke W, et al. Simian virus 40-related DNA sequences in a human brain tumor. Neurology 1979;29:15904.

18 19

Shah K, Nathanson N. Human exposure to SV40. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1976;103:1-12 Bookchin D, Schumaker J. Tainted Polio Vaccine Still Carries Its Threat 40 Years Later. The Boston Globe, January 26, 1997. 20 Carbone, M., et al. SV- 40 Like Sequences in Human Bone Tumors . Oncogene , 1996;13( 3) :52735. 21 Pass, HI , Carbone, M. , et al. Evidence For and Implications of SV-40 Like Sequences in Human Mesothelioma s. Important Advances in Oncology, 1996:89- 108.

Krieg P, et al. Episomal simian virus 40 genomes in human brain tumors . Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 1981; 78:6446- 50. Geissler E. SV40 in hum an intracranial tumors: passenger virus or oncogenic hit-and-run agent? Z Klin Med , 1986;41:4935. Geissler E . SV40 and human brain tumors . Pr ogress in Medical Virology , 1990;37:21122. Bergsagel DJ, et al. DNA sequences similar to those of simian virus 40 in ependymomas and choroid plexus tumors of childhood. New England Journal of Medicine, 1992;326:98893. Martini, M. , et al. Human brain tumors and simian virus 40. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 1995;87( 17):1331. Lednicky JA, et al. Natural Simian Virus 40 Strains are Present in Human Choroid Plexus and Ependymoma Tumors . Virology , 1995;212( 2) :7107. Tognon M, et al. Large T Antigen Coding Sequence of Two DNA Tumor Viruses, BK and SV- 40, and Nonrandom Chromosome Changes in Two Gioblastoma Cell Lines. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenics , 1996;90( 1) : 1723. Vilchez RA, et al. Association between simian virus 40 and non-hodgkin lymphoma. Lancet, ( March 9, 2002) , 359: 81723.

Even with such a strong body of evidence, medical authorities around the world, under pressure from the World Health Organization [WHO], turned a blind eye to the dangers posed by Polio vaccine. In 1998, a national cancer database was analyzed: 17 percent more bone cancers, 20 percent more brain cancers, and 178 percent more mesotheliomas were found in people who were exposed to SV-40tainted polio vaccines.22 Despite official denials of any correlation between polio vaccines, SV-40, and increased cancer rates, by April 2001, 62 papers from 30 laboratories around the world had reported SV40 in human tissues and tumors. The virus was also discovered in pituitary and thyroid tumors, and in patients with kidney disease. Even the National Cancer Institute issued a statement that SV-40 may be associated with human cancer22 Perhaps the most alarming aspect of this ongoing simian virus debacle can be found in other studies suggesting that SV-40, introduced to humans through the polio vaccine, can be passed from human to human and from mother to child. A study of nearly 59,000 women found that children of mothers who received the polio vaccine between 1959 and 1965 had brain tumors at a rate 13 times greater than mothers who did not receive those polio shots.23 Research also shows that mothers who received the vaccination can transmit the SV-40 virus to their children even if the child remains unvaccinated. 24


Carlsen, W. Rogue virus in the vaccine: Early polio vaccine harbored virus now feared to cause cancer in humans. San Francisco Chronicle, July 15, 2001:7. Research by Susan Fisher, epidemiologist, Loyola University Medical Center. 23 Rosa FW , et al. Absence of antibody response to simian virus 40 after inoculation with killed-poliovirus vaccine of mothers offspring with neurological tumors . New England Journal of Medicine, 1988;318:1469. 24 Rock, Andrea. The Lethal Dangers of the Billion Dollar Vaccine Business, Money, December 1996:161.

Polio Vaccine and AIDS

According to Harvard Medical School professor Ronald Desrosier, the practice of growing polio vaccines in monkey kidneys is a ticking time bomb and he also warns that testing can only be done for known viruses, and that our knowledge is limited to about 2 percent of existing monkey viruses24 Craig Engesser, a spokesman for Lederle Laboratories, a large vaccine manufacturing company, made the excuse that you cant test for something if you dont know its there25 Virus detection techniques were crude and unreliable during the 1950s, 60s, and 70s when polio vaccines were initially produced and dispensed. It wasnt until the mid 1980s that new and more sophisticated testing procedures were developed. That was when researchers discovered that about 50 percent of all African green monkeys - the primate of choice for making polio vaccines - were infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a virus closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the infectious agent thought to precede AIDS.26&27&28 Research conducted after that discovery concluded that either HIV was simply SIVs adaptation to human hosts29 or that SIV may have mutated into HIV AIDS once it was introduced into the human population by way of contaminated polio vaccines.30&31 This research was so profound that the World Health Organization [WHO] set up two meetings of experts in 1985 to analyze the data. In the end, the findings were ignored and WHO concluded that the vaccines were safe and insisted that the global vaccination campaigns should continue unabated.32 In 1990, wild chimpanzees in Africa were found to be infected with a strain of SIV that was nearly identical to HIV.33 Scientific concerns were also heightened when researchers found some West Africans who were infected with an SIV-like virus that was a fundamental twin to HIV. They called it HIV-2, and like the initial HIV subtype, it was implicated in the development of AIDS. 34


Curtis T. Expert says test vaccine: backs check of polio stocks for AIDS virus. The Houston Post, March 22, 1992:A- 21. 26 Essex M, et al. The origin of the AIDS virus. Scientific American, 1988;259:6471. 27 Kyle WS. Simian retroviruses, poliovaccine, and origin of AIDS. Lancet , 1992; 339:6001. 28 Elswood BF, Stricker RB. Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS. Medical Hypothesis, 1994:42:34754. 29 Myers G, et al. The emergence of simian/human immunodeficiency viruses. AIDS Res Human Retro 1992:8:37386. 30 Work shop on Simian Virus-40 (SV-40): A Possible Human Polyomavirus. National Vaccine Information Center, January 27-28 , 1997. (Includes a summary of evidence presented at the Eighth Annual Houston Conference on AIDS.) 31 Curtis T. Did a polio vaccine experiment unleash AIDS in Africa? The Washington Post, April 5, 1992:C3+. 32 World Health Organization. T-lymphotropic retroviruses of nonhuman primates. WHO informal meeting. Weekly Epidemiology Records, 1985; 30:26970. 33 Huet T, et al. Genetic organization of a chimpanzee lentivirus related to HIV-1. Nature, 1990; 345:3569. 34 Plotkin SA, Koprowski H, et al. Clinical trials in infants of orally administered poliomyelitis viruses. Pediatrics 1959;23:104162.

In May 1991, virus-detection techniques were improved once again, and researchers found SIV DNA in the kidneys of infected monkeys.35 Minced monkey kidneys were (and still are) used to produce the live polio vaccine.36 Here is a small list of internationally recognized publications of research showing links between polio vaccine contaminated with SIV and AIDS in Humans: Bohannon RC, et al. Isolation of a Type D retrovirus from B-cell lymphomas of a patient with AIDS. Journal of Virology, 1991;65( 11):566372. Gao F, et al. Human infection by genetically diverse SIVsm -related HIV-2 in West Africa. Nature, 1992;358:4959. Giunta S, et al. The primate trade and the origin of AIDS viruses. Nature, 1987;329:22 Seale J. Crossing the species barrier: viruses and the origins of AIDS in perspective. J R Soc Med, 1989;82:51923. Lecatsas G. Origin of AIDS. Nature, 1991;351:179. Gilks C. Monkeys and malaria. Nature, 1991;354:262.

But didnt AIDS originate in Africa?

Most historians agree that AIDS originated in Africa. But polio vaccinations were tested in the United States and Eastern Europe. If tainted polio vaccine is responsible for introducing SIV and HIV into humans, why did the initial cases of AIDS show up on this remote continent? In March 1951 Dr. Hilary Koprowski announced at a medical conference that he had become the first doctor in history to test a polio vaccine on humans. His volunteers included several institutionalized children with mental handicaps. They drank the vaccine in chocolate milk.37 From 1957 to 1960, after years of tinkering with monkey kidneys and polio germs, Koprowski tested his own experimental polio vaccine on 325,000 equatorial Africans, including 75,000 citizens of Leopoldville, Belgian Congo (now Kinshasa, Zaire)37 Drums were used to call rural natives to local villages where they had the vaccine squirted into their mouths. 38 In 1959, Dr. Albert Sabin reported in the British Medical Journal that Koprowskis polio vaccine used in the African trials contained an unidentified cell-killing virus.39 In 1986 the earliest known blood sample containing antibodies against HIV was traced back to 1959. The serum came from a patient visiting a clinic in Leopoldville (the same place where polio vaccinations were first tested)40 . There is no evidence that HIV infected humans before 1959.41

Hirsch VM, Zack PM, Vogel AP, Johnson PR. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques: Endstage disease is characterized by wide-spread distribution of proviral DNA in tissues. Journal of Infectious Disease, 1991; 163( 5) :97688. 36 Physicians Desk Reference (PDR); 5 5th edition. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics, 2001:778 37 Koprowski H. Historical aspects of the development of live virus vaccine in poliomyelitis. British Medical Journal, 1960;ii:8591. 38 Lebrun A, et al. Vaccination with the CHAT strain of Type 1 attenuated poliomyelitis virus in Leopoldville, Belgian Congo. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1960;22:20313. 39 Sabin AB. Present position of immunization against poliomyelitis with live virus vaccines. British Medical Journal, 1959;i:66380. 40 Mahmias AJ, et al. Evidence for human infection with an HTLV III/LAV-like virus in Central Africa, 1959. Lancet, 1986;i:127980. 41 Huminer D, et al. AIDS in the pre- AIDS era. Rev Infect Dis, 1987; 9:11028.

In fact Gerald Myers, a genetic sequencing expert with Los Alamos National Laboratories in New Mexico, tracked the evolution of HIV and confirmed that todays major subtypes of the AIDS virus in humans appear to have arisen as recently as 1960 around the time when the first polio vaccine was tested.42 Disease experts believe that the average time between HIV infection and the development of AIDS is 810 years.43 If the African polio vaccine was indeed contaminated with SIV/HIV, initial outbreaks of AIDS would have occurred from the mid-1960s to early 1970s. This period accurately coincides with the emergence of AIDS in equatorial Africa. 44 Authorities are reluctant to acknowledge the possibility that polio vaccines may have been responsible for the introduction of the AIDS pandemic. Here are the excuses: Dr. David Heymann, who heads the World Health Organizations Global Program on AIDS, flatly stated that the origin of the AIDS virus is of no importance to science today 45 William Haseltine, a Harvard pathology professor and AIDS researcher also believes that any discussion about the origin of AIDS is distracting and nonproductive. Its not relevant, and Im not interested in discussing it45 Jonas Salk the Jewish inventor of the Polio vaccine wont discuss the subject either. He is now working on an AIDS vaccine.45

In fact when AIDS researchers formally requested a sample of the original polio vaccine seed stocks, the government denied the request by stating that there are only a small number of vials of the material, and tests might use it all up. 45 A Case against Polio Vaccine: On February 12, 1994, Bruce Williams filed a civil suit against the American Cyanamid Company, claiming its polio vaccine caused his daughters illness. The lawsuit also asserts that the product was FDA approved despite the known presence of contaminants, including retroviruses such as HIV.46 Walter Kyle, the Williams lawyer, identified the specific lots of vaccine the child received, but the Center for Decease Control and Prevention [CDC] and federal health officials have refused to test them. . Kyle believes The CDC could disprove my entire hypothesis by testing the vaccines they have in their possession. The fact that they havent done so is evidence theres something wrong with the vaccine.47


Cohen J. Debate on AIDS origin: Rolling Stone weighs in Controversial article angers vaccine experts by claiming AIDS could have been spread by polio vaccines in Africa. Science, March 1992:1505. 43 Elswood BF, Stricker RB. Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS. Medical Hypothesis, 1994:42:34754. 44 Sonnet J, et al. Early AIDS cases originating from Zaire and Burtundi (1962-1976). Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Disease, 1987;19:5117. 45 Curtis T. The origin of AIDS: A startling new theory attempts to answer the question: Was it an act of God or an act of man? Rolling Stone , March 19, 1992:57. 46 Extracted from a copy of the civil tort claim (U .S . District Court, New Jersey ) 47 Korn P. T h e New AIDS Mystery. Redbook, July 1994:82

What else does Polio Vaccine contain?

Thousands of viruses and other potentially infectious microorganisms thrive in monkeys and cows, the preferred animals for making polio vaccines. SV-40, SIV/HIV, and BSE (mad cow decease) associated transmissible agents are just three of the disease-causing agents researchers have isolated. Scientists have known since 1955 that monkeys host the B virus, foamy agent virus, haemadsorption viruses, the Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, arboviruses, and more.48 Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) In 1956, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was discovered in chimpanzees.49 According to Dr. Viera Scheibner, who studied more than 30,000 pages of medical papers dealing with vaccination, RSV viruses formed prominent contaminants in polio vaccines, and were soon detected in children50 . In 1961, the Journal of the American Medical Association published two studies confirming a causal relationship between RSV and relatively severe lower respiratory tract illness51 The virus was found in 57 percent of infants with bronchiolitis or pneumonia, and in 12 percent of babies with a milder febrile respiratory disease. Infected babies remained ill for three to five months.52 . RSV was also found to be contagious and soon spread to adults where it has been linked to the common cold.53 RSV remains highly contagious and results in thousands of hospitalizations every year; many people die from it.54 Ironically, scientists are now developing a vaccine to combat RSV the infectious agent that very likely entered the human population by way of a vaccine.50 Simian Cytomegalovirus (SCMV) Dr. John Martin, a professor of pathology at the University of Southern California, has been warning authorities since 1978 that other dangerous monkey viruses could be contaminating polio vaccines. In particular, Martin sought to investigate simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV), a stealth virus capable of causing neurological disorders in the human brain. The virus was found in monkeys used for making polio vaccines. In 1995, Martin published his findings implicating the African green monkey as the probable source of SCMV isolated from a patient with chronic fatigue syndrome.55


Rustigan R, et al. Infection of monkey kidney tissue cultures with virus-like agents. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 1955; 88:816. 49 Morris JA, et al. Recovery of cytopathogenic agent from chimpanzees with coryza ( 22538) . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 1956;92:5449. 50 Scheibner V. Vaccination: 100 Years of Orthodox Research Shows that Vaccines represent a Medical Assault on the Immune System. Blackheath, NSW, Australia: Scheibner Publications, 1993153. 51 Parrot RH, et al. I I. Serological studies over a 34- month period in children with bronchiolitis, pneumonia and minor respiratory diseases. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1961;176( 8) :65357. 52 Chanock RM, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus. Journal of the American Medical Association 1961;176( 8) :647 53. 53 Hamparian V, et al. Recover y of new viruses (coryza) from cases of common cold in human adults. Proc Soc Exp Med Biol, 1961;108:44453. 54 The Triplet Connection. RSV a serious subject. 2000. 55 Martin J, et al. African green monkey origin of the atypical cytopathic stealth virus isolated from a patient with chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinical and Diagnostic Virology, 1995;4:93103.

Other Viruses Found in Polio Vaccine In 1996, Dr. Howard B. Urnovitz, a microbiologist, founder and chief science officer of Calypte Biomedical in Berkeley, California spoke at a national AIDS conference where he explained that up to 26 monkey viruses may have been in the original polio vaccines. These included the simian equivalents of human echo virus, coxsackie, herpes (HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8), adenoviruses, Epstein-Barr, and cytomegalovirus. 56&57 Dr. Urnovitz said that contaminated polio vaccines given to U.S. children between 1955 and 1961 may have set this generation up for immune system damage and neurological disorders. He sees correlations between early polio vaccine campaigns and the sudden emergence of human T-cell leukemia, epidemic Kaposis sarcoma, Burkitts lymphoma, herpes, Epstein-Barr and chronic fatigue syndrome. 56 Polio Vaccine can help make new strands of Poliovirus Several years ago, the World Health Organization launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, with 2000 as its target date for eliminating the disease. However, by 2000 it became clear that not only was polio still around, but new strains of the diseasederived from the vaccine itselfwere emerging.58 In 1993, Dr. Radu Crainic of the Pasteur Institute, discovered that strains of the polio virus have the ability to spontaneously recombine with themselves and create new strains. Crainic showed that if you vaccinate a child with polio strains 1, 2, and 3, you can produce a new strain, strain 4, out of the childs stool. 59 In October 2000, virologist Hiromu Yoshida of Japans National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Tokyo reported finding a new infectious polio virus in Japanese rivers and sewage. Genetic sequencing confirmed that the virus had mutated from the polio vaccine and regained much of its original virulence.60


Fisher B. Microbiologist issues a challenge to science: did the first oral polio vaccine lots contaminated with monkey viruses create a monkey-human hybrid called HIV-1? The Vaccine Reaction, April 1996:3. 57 American Journal of Hygiene, 1958;68:3144. 58 World Health Organization. Problems with eradicating polio. Science News, November 25, 2000:348. 59 Crainic R, et al. Poliovirus with natural recombinant genomes isolated from vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis. Virology 1993;196:199208. 60 Yoshida H, et al. Lancet, October 28, 2000.

World Health Organization and the Polio Eradication Initiative

In 2002 scientists had synthesized a chemical called poliovirus in a test-tube with the empirical formula C332,652H492,388N98,245O131,196P7,501S2,340. It has been demonstrated that by positioning the atoms in sequence, a particle can emerge with all the properties required for its proliferation and survival in 61 nature. This can be injected into populations at will in order to boost sales of new polio-vaccinations so that the business of global vaccinations may flourish. The test-tube synthesis of poliovirus has wiped out

any possibility of eradicating poliovirus in the future. Poliovirus cannot be declared extinct because the sequence of its genome is known and modern biotechnology allows it to be resurrected at any time in vitro.62 Eckard Wimmer has noted the WHO's current policy calls for cessation of OPV vaccination three years after the last case of poliovirus-caused poliomyelitis. Injectable polio vaccine (IPV) will replace OPV in countries which can afford it.62 In other words the WHO can continue to push countries from one form of the vaccine to another form back and forth. Just like they had banned IPV for OPV, they will shift it back and continue to make money and weaken the natural immunity of target populations. The debilitating and sometimes deadly side effects of the oral polio vaccine led the U.S. to stop using it in 2000, the New York Times reported63. However, many governments around the world still administer the dangerous vaccine to their citizens under direction from WHO. Despite the grave concerns that have been raised, the vaccine manufacturers and the health agencies they have partnered with around the world are shifting the oral polio vaccination effort into high gear and there are no signs of stopping. The governments in collaboration with WHO have started punishing the parents who refuse to administer Polio vaccines to their children. Unsurprisingly, public trust for the shots is at its lowest ebb, according to Hussain A. Gezari, the WHOs envoy on global polio eradication. Previous attempts by government to financially punish parents who do not subject their children to the government have been made in Australia, where the nation suggested stripping parents of nonvaccination children from tax benefits 64 According to WHO reports, in 2009-2010, 23 previously polio-free countries were re-infected due to imports of the virus. 65 Now the Pakistan government wants to give the same vaccine to their children under pressure from the same criminals. WHO and partner organizations on this point have much to lose if the polio vaccine is truly found to be dangerous. Awareness of this potential threat might undermine their huge project worth. But the big question is: Why has the media not given this issue its due coverage. It is easy to shut the opposition by declaring them to be illiterate or religious fanatics, but what about the large body of credible scientific evidence that has systematically been covered up?


Cello J, Paul AV, Wimmer E. Chemical synthesis of poliovirus cDNA: generation of infectious virus in the absence of natural template.Science. 2002;297:1016-8. 62 Wimmer E. The test-tube synthesis of a chemical called poliovirus: The simple synthesis of a virus has farreaching societal implications.EMBO Rep. 2006;7(SI):S3S9. 63 64 65

Barbara Loe Fisher, co-founder of the National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC), spoke with Voice of America (VOA) about the intensive polio vaccine campaigns in the developing world. Unfortunately, much of Barbara's interview and insights were edited out of the video, as she explains below: "I taped an interview with Voice of America on the subject of intensive polio vaccine campaigns in the developing world. I gave the reporter this Indian journal article and raised the issue of the reported increases in Acute Flaccid Paralysis among Indian children given monthly doses of OPV [oral polio vaccine]. l told him that developed countries like the US had replaced live virus polio vaccine (OPV) with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) more than a decade ago to prevent cases of vaccine-strain polio because OPV, being a live virus vaccine, causes recently vaccinated children to shed vaccine-strain polio virus in their body fluids for a period of time following vaccination. In underdeveloped countries with poverty and poor sanitation (like open sewage), vaccine-strain viruses can contaminate water and facilitate transmission of vaccine-strain paralytic polio. I did question whether repeated mass vaccination campaigns in underdeveloped countries were more a function of pharmaceutical companies seeking to sell product rather than making investments in infrastructure that address the basic causes of poor health. And I also questioned the lack of safety science to demonstrate that it is safe to give children MONTHLY polio vaccinations when children in the developed world only receive 5 doses. We do oppose use of government enforcement mechanisms to aggressively implement mass vaccination campaigns that fail to obtain the voluntary, informed consent of the parents of children being vaccinated. We do this because NVIC defends the ethical principal of informed consent to medical risk taking, which is a human right, and we defend that right without compromise. It is too bad that the VOA report did not address poverty, malnutrition and the root causes of disease versus simply giving these children OPV vaccine over and over again, when the vaccine can cause vaccine-strain polio, there are no safety studies showing that it is safe to give children monthly doses of OPV and the report out of India indicates that increases in Acute Flaccid Paralysis may be associated with repeated OPV vaccination in children." Another Strange Report:
On March 2011, Health-care workers in Somalia began a, United Nations-backed campaign to vaccinate more than 1.8 million young children against polio, four years after the Horn of Africa country was declared to be polio-free.66 Why would United Nations start a vaccination program in an area that has been free from polio for four years?


Why Do They Target Developing Countries?

1 -

According to the Associated Press, Dr. Jonas Salk co-authored a clinical trial that "injected experimental flu vaccine in male patients at a state insane asylum in Ypsilanti, Mich., and then exposed them to flu several months later." AP also reports: "The late 1940s and 1950s saw huge growth in the U.S. pharmaceutical and health care industries, accompanied by a boom in prisoner experiments funded by both the government and corporations. By the 1960s, at least half the states allowed prisoners to be used as medical guinea pigs. Researchers injected cancer cells into 19 old and debilitated 2 - patients at a Chronic Disease Hospital in the New York borough of Brooklyn to see if their bodies would reject them." "In widely covered congressional hearings in 1973, pharmaceutical industry officials acknowledged they were using prisoners for testing because they were cheaper than chimpanzees." Of course, as many of these gross criminal activities came to light, the U.S. government was finally forced to put a stop to it due to public outrage. So the drug companies simply moved their criminal operations offshore where they now engage in routine medical experimentation on children in developing nations such as Pakistan, usually by paying off top government officials in those countries to look the other way while their scientists and researchers unleash "pharma crimes" upon the people there.

Recent Global Statistics on Polio Vaccination

There have been countless cases around the world of the outbreak of Poliovirus in countries where it had previously been declared eliminated but made a comeback after the Polio vaccine was introduced. Research done on a case in Minnesota in 1995 proved that a child had contracted the illness from the vaccine he had received somewhere outside United States67. This OPV vaccine [which has been discontinued in the United States] was the major cause of the outbreak of Polio in many countries around the world such as: 1. Nigeria [2007-2008]: 193 cases reported to have been paralyzed from vaccination. When asked about why World Health Organization did not report this information, Dr. Bruce Aylward, the director of Polio Eradication campaign, said, It was an oversight on our part. 68 2. Dominican Republic & Haiti [2001]: 22 children were reported to have been paralyzed, while the virus has been estimated to have spread to 100,000-200,000 people due to direct result of the vaccination.69 3. Indonesia [June 2005]: 46 paralysis cases reported [More than 100,000 unreported infections] due to vaccination.70 4. Egypt [1993]: 30 paralysis cases reported [12 million unreported cases estimated] due to vaccination.71 5. India [2011]: 47,500 cases on paralysis reported as a direct result of vaccination. The report published in the Indian Journal of Medical Ethics proved that after the vaccine was introduced in India, the cases of acute paralysis have increased by a staggering 1200%.72 Reports also suggest that almost 180 children contract the Polio virus from the vaccine every year. This is 3-4 times higher than naturally occurring Poliovirus.73 6. Pakistan [2010]: 78% of cases of polio in Pakistan were a direct result of vaccinations. Health Ministry official downplayed the issue by explaining that It is a WHO-tested vaccine and we have no doubt about its efficacy, although we have a few issues at the district level related to management74

67 68 New York Times [October 11 2007] - 69 Kew O, Morris-Glasgow V, Landaverde M, Burns C, Shaw J, et al. (2002) Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Hispaniola associated with circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus. Science 296: 356359. [] 70 Estivariz CF, Watkins MA, Handoko D, Rusipah R, Deshpande J, et al. (2008) A large vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreak on Madura IslandIndonesia, 2005. J Infect Dis 197: 347354. [] 71 Yang CF, Naguib T, Yang SJ, Nasr E, Jorba J, et al. (2003) Circulation of endemic type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Egypt from 1983 to 1993. J Virol 77: 83668377. [] 72 Dr. Neetu Vashisht and Jacob Poliyel, Poliio programme: let us declare victory and move on. Report Published in the Indian Journal of Medical Ethics [] 73 74

The Situation in Pakistan

An inquiry report prepared in 2011 by the Prime Ministers Inspection Commission (PMIC) has found that polio vaccines for infants are causing deaths and disabilities in regional countries including Pakistan.75 The PMIC has recommended that the government immediately suspend the administration of all types of imported vaccines. There have been reports of deaths of a number of children and occurrence of other side-effects soon after the vaccination is administered in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Japan.76 Even though PMIC submitted the report to the Prime Ministers Secretariat in June 2011, so far no action has been taken. Instead, the government has started punishing parents who refuse to get their children vaccinated. Anthony Gucciardy, an internationally acclaimed investigative journalist, writes: Despite powerful mainstream evidence showing that 78% of polio cases in Pakistan are among those vaccinated with 74 the polio vaccine , and even the fact that the polio vaccine is now the leading cause of polio paralysis, Pakistan is now moving to slam parents of non-vaccinated children with fees and school bans.77 While attributing the spread and outbreak to unvaccinated children, and demonizing their parents for making such an irresponsible choice, mainstream public statistics have shown that even those who have been administered polio drops on several occasions were still developing the disease. According to the National Institute of Health, whose polio action group compiled the data in the report, 107 polio-affected children out of the 136 total patients had been given the polio drops under a prescribed schedule doctor approved.77 Some of the tricks used by the drug companies and their partner NGOs are as follows: Word Play: Falsely calling it Immunization instead of vaccination to trick people into believing that it immunizes the child from the illness. Rationalizing the spread of decease: If too many cases are reported, they declare The vaccine was not administered properly. If a few cases are reported, they declare We need to vaccinate more people for total effectiveness. Fortune-telling: The media is used to spread rumors of an upcoming endemic, just as it did with the Bird Flu and the Swine Flu. When public fear has set in, they bring in the miracle cure declaring A vaccine has been discovered. Without any tests or research the dangerous vaccine is forced upon the general population.


Published in The Express Tribune, November 17 , 2011. [] 76 77


Harassing: Not just in Pakistan, but all around the world parents report being harassed by medical and policing personnel wishing to vaccinate their children. Scare Tactics: The media is used to scare people by showing them false cases of unvaccinated children. Giant billboards and posters are hung around the country displaying photographs of affected children to play with public sentiments and emotion. Lying: Sometimes the authorities simply lie about the statistics to trick people. Declarations such as Polio is making a comeback and Rubella is spreading are displayed everywhere while in reality none of these deceases are present in any significant amount. Patriotic Duty: Advertisements focus on putting parents through a guilt-trip by accusing those who deny the vaccination of being un-patriotic and lacking social responsibility. Making it Mandatory: Think about this if vaccines are good, why does the government need to mandate them? The simple reason is that mandates are the only way the companies producing the vaccine can get you to bring in your perfectly healthy children to get medicine for a decease they may never contract without vaccination. Suppressing Information: Every approved medicine comes with a list of side-effects attached to it. Vaccines are an exception. One should wonder why the parents are not informed about data showing the side-effects and dangers of Vaccinations and why are the real ingredients kept hidden?

What about other Vaccines?

MMR [Measles Mumps and Rubella] Vaccines
Some Cases: In 1984, the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMRW) of the CDC reported a late 1983 early 1984 Illinois high school/junior high measles outbreak. The total student population was around 400, and ALL of them (100%) had received MMR vaccine.78 University of Helsinki Department of Public Health reported an explosive outbreak of measles in a rural community during 1989. Most of the infected had been vaccinated with the MMR vaccine.79
There was a very large mumps outbreak among teens and preteens, during early 2010 in the New York/New Jersey area. Almost 80% of them had received MMR vaccines. 80

Scientific Evidence Linking MMR Vaccine to Autism: Oleske, J. "Elevated rubeola [measles] titers in autistic children." Abstract presented by D. Zecca and Dr. Graffino at an NIH meeting (September 23, 1997). As quoted by Richard Gallup in "Autism and autoimmunity." (April 15, 2002.) Yazbak, F.E. "Autism: Is there a vaccine connection? Part I. Vaccination after delivery." 1999. "The Status of Research into Vaccine Safety and Autism." Government Reform Committee Hearing, Washington, DC. (June 19, 2002.) Kiln MR, "Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine." Lancet 1998 May 2;351(9112):1358. Selway, "MMR vaccination and autism 1998. BMJ 1998 Jun 13;316(7147):1824. Nicoll A, Elliman D, Ross E, "MMR 3 - Reactions linked to the MMR vaccine. Source: Multiple studies; The vaccine manufacturer; Physician's Desk Reference(PDR); 55th edition, 2001, vaccination p. 1954. and autism 1998," MJ 1998 Mar 7;316(7133):715-716.

78 79 80

Scientific Evidence Linking Measles Vaccine [MMR] to Brain Damage Schneck, S.A. "Vaccination with measles and central nervous system disease." Neurology 1968; 18 (Part 2):79-82. Belgamwar, R.B., et al. "Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine induced subacute sclerosing panencephalitis." Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1997; 95(11):594. Landrigan, P.J., et al. "Neurological disorders following live measles-virus vaccination." Journal of the American Medical Association 1973; 223 (13):1459-62. Roden, A.T. "Fits following immunization." Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 1974; 67:24. Jagdis, F., et al. "Encephalitis after administration of live measles vaccine." Journal of the Canadian Medical Association (April 19, 1975); 112(8):972-75.

Scientific Evidence Linking Measles Vaccine to Blood Disorders Oski, F.A. and Naiman, J.L. "Effect of live measles vaccine on the platelet count." New England Journal of Medicine 1966; 265:352-56. Koch, J. et al. "Adverse events temporally associated with immunizing agents. 1987 report." Canada Diseases Weekly Report 1989; 15:151-58. Nieminen, U., et al. "Acute thrombocytopenic purpura following measles, mumps and rubella vaccination: A report on 23 patients." Acta Paediatrica 1993; 82:267-70.

Scientific Evidence Linking Measles Vaccine to Sensory Impairments [Hearing Loss, Eye Disorders etc.] Kazarian, E.L., et al. "Optic neuritis complicating measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination." American Journal of Ophthalmology 1978; 86:544-47. Marshall, G.S., et al. "Diffuse retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination." Pediatrics 1985; 76:989-991. Brodsky, L., et al. "Sensorineural hearing loss following live measles virus vaccination." International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 1985; 10:159-63 Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. "Unilateral deafness as a complication of the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccination." British Medical Journal 1988; 297:489.

Scientific Evidence Linking Measles Vaccine to Bowel Disease Ekbom, A., et al. "The role of perinatal measles infection in the aetiology of Crohn's disease: a population-based epidemiological study." Lancet1994; 334:508-510. Thompson, N.P., Wakefield, A.J, et al. "Is measles vaccination a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease?" Lancet 1995; 345:1071-1074. Miyamoto, H., et al. "Detection of immunoreactive antigen with monoclonal antibody to measles virus in tissue from patients with Crohn's disease." Journal of Gastroenterology 1995; 30:28-33

Scientific Evidence Showing Measles Vaccine actually causes Measles Fulginiti, V.A., et al. "Altered reactivity to measles virus; atypical measles in children previously immunized with inactivated measles virus vaccines." Journal of the American Medical Association 1967; 202:1075. Cherry, J.D., et al. "Atypical measles in children previously immunized with attenuated measles virus vaccines." Pediatrics 1972; 50(5). St. Geme, J.W., et al. "Exaggerated natural measles following attenuated virus immunization." Pediatrics 1976; 57:148-150.

Scientific Evidence Linking Mumps Vaccine to Meningitis Sugiura, A., et al. "Aseptic meningitis as a complication of mumps vaccination." Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases 1991; 10:209-213. [1 case of meningitis per 2000 doses of mumps vaccine.] Forsey, T., et al. "Mumps vaccines and meningitis." Lancet 1992; 340:980. Miller, E., et al. "Risk of aseptic meningitis after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in U.K. children." Lancet 1993; 341:979.

Scientific Evidence Linking Mumps Vaccine to Diabetes Sultz, H.A., et al. "Is mumps virus an etiologic factor in juvenile diabetes mellitus?" Journal of Pediatrics 1975; 86:654-656. Otten, A., et al. "Mumps, mumps vaccination, islet cell antibodies and the first manifestation of diabetes mellitus type I." Behring Institute Mitteilungen 1984; 75:83-88. Pawlowski, B., et al. "Mumps vaccination and type-1 diabetes." Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 1991; 116:635.

And all of this was just the tip of the iceberg. There is countless more research published in recognized scientific journals proving without a shadow of a doubt that vaccination causes considerably more harm than good. The devastating effects of this cocktail of viruses and illnesses are plain for all to see. Not just polio and MMR, the Hepatitis B vaccine has been scientifically linked to Hearing Loss81 and Vision Loss82 while the Rubella Vaccine has been linked to Arthritis83 and Juvenile-Onset Diabetes84.


Orlando MP, Masieri S, Pascarella MA, Ciofalo A. Filiaci F, et al, "Sudden hearing loss Consequent to Hepatitis B Vaccination: a case report." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1997 Dec 29, 830: 319-321 82 Albitar S, et al. Bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis with hepatitis B vaccination. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1997 Oct;12(10):2169-70. 83 Thompson, G.R., et al. "Intermittent arthritis following rubella vaccination: a three year follow-up." American Journal of Diseases of Children 1973; 125:526-530. 84 Coulter, Harris. "Childhood vaccinations and Juvenile-Onset (Type-1) diabetes." Congressional Testimony. Committee on Appropriations,

Ever since this game of experimenting on humans began, the world has seen a sharp increase in all of these illnesses we have covered. Millions of people around the world continue to suffer simply because of media misinformation, large budget government programs and dirty tactics by the pharmacology companies that manufacture vaccines.

A recent study conducted by the Centre for Decease Control and Prevention [CDC] found that children who were vaccinated tend to come from homes run by poor, unmarried, poorly informed mothers who trust their doctors, whereas children who were never vaccinated tend to come from homes where they are well-provided for, with married parents who possess knowledge and do not permit doctors to influence their vaccination decisions.85 We have presented here just enough information to help concerned parents make an informed choice regarding Vaccinating their children. Will you hold the hand of your unsuspecting healthy child and take him to get vaccinated and become a rat in a cruel experiment, or will you take a stand and defend your family against the sinister plans of vaccine manufacturers. The choice, in the end, is yours.


[Fox, Maggie. "Reasons Differ for Unvaccination and Undervaccination of Children." Reuters. July 6, 2004.]