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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources 1802 caricature of Jenner vaccinating patients who feared it would make them sprout cowlike appendages. Digital image. Smallpox in Ewell. Epsom and Ewell History Explorer, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.epsomandewellhistoryexplorer.org.uk/SmallpoxEwell.html>. This is a cartoon depicting what would happen to people who got vaccinated. This shows how, at first, vaccination was not accepted as a method to prevent smallpox. Arm of Sarah Nelmes. Digital image. Smallpox: A Great and Terrible Scourge. National Library of Medicine, 18 Oct. 2002. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/smallpox/sp_vaccination.html>. This is a picture of milkmaid Sarah Nelmes, who was infected with cowpox at the time. Assembly Aims for Eradication. Perf. D.A Henderson. The History of Vaccines. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/smallpox>. In this video, D.A Henderson explains why smallpox was a good candidate for eradication. A surveillance team member questions a family about a potential smallpox case, Brazil, 1960s. Digital image. Surveillance. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.who.int/features/2010/smallpox/surveillance/en/index2.html>. This is a picture of a surveillance team member asking a family about a potential case of smallpox. This method helped the eradication process immensely. A Typical Smallpox Infection. Perf. D. A. Henderson. The History of Vaccines. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/smallpox>. In this video, D.A. Henderson explains the symptoms of a typical smallpox infection.

Aztecs dying of smallpox. Digital image. The True Story of The Great Gift Of The Christian Faith To The Peoples Of This Continent." N.p., 10 June 2007. Web. 1 Nov. 2012. <http://revcom.us/a/091/pope-en.html>. This is a picture of the Aztecs dying from smallpox. It shows what the land must have looked like after the epidemic. Boswell, Victor R., Jr. African Smallpox Idol. Digital image. African Smallpox Idol. National Geographic, n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/enlarge/african-smallpox-idol.html>. This is a picture of the smallpox god of the Yorubas, Sopona. Buckley & Curtin. Smallpox: Keep out of this house. No date. Online image. History of Medicine. 9 October 2012. < http://www.nlm.nih.gov> This is the poster the Board of Health would affix on your door if any member in the household had smallpox. This helped me understand how measures were being taken to contain smallpox. Davies, Peter. Smallpox is dead! May 1980. Online image. University of Pittsburgh. 9 October 2012.<http://www.pitt.edu/news2009/henderson-smallpox/Smallpox_WHO_mag.jpg> This is the cover of the May 1980 issue of World Health, the magazine for the World Health Organization, which announced smallpox had been eradicated. It was a picture that showed WHOs mission had been accomplished. Ethiopian poster illustrating the activities of the Smallpox Eradication Programme, 1970s. Digital image. Posters. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.who.int/features/2010/smallpox/posters/en/index5.html>. This is a picture of a poster that shows the activities of the Smallpox Eradication Programme in Ethiopia. Fenn, Elizabeth A. Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001. Print. This book is about the history of smallpox, focusing on smallpox in the Revolutionary War. This book had lots of concise information about the history of smallpox and its eradication. Elizabeth Fenn is a modern historian who has put a lot of time researching the impact of smallpox.

Fenner, Frank et. al. Smallpox and its eradication. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1988. This report is a complete look at smallpox and its eradication. I used this to learn more about the history of smallpox and to see how smallpox wiped out some of the greatest civilizations in history, such as the Aztecs and the Incas. Gathany, James. A vial of Dryvax dried calf lymph type smallpox vaccine, which is reconstituted with a diluent prior to vaccination. Digital image. PHIL Image 2677. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/details.asp>. This is a picture of a smallpox vaccine vial. I used this to show what the vaccine looks like before its in the needle. Gathany, James. CDC Clinician demonstrates the use of a bifurcated needle during the 2002 Smallpox Vaccinator Workshop. Digital image. PHIL Image 2841. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/details.asp>. This is a picture of a bifurcated needle- the needle used for vaccinating. I used this to show what a bifurcated needle looks like. Gathany, James. Components of a smallpox vaccination kit including the diluent, a vial of Dryvax smallpox vaccine, and a bifurcated needle. Digital image. PHIL Image 2674. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002. Web. 25 Dec. 2012. <http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/details.asp>. This is a picture of a smallpox vaccination kit. Gauch, Rene. Poster produced by WHO in mid-1978, publicizing the reward of US$ 1000 for finding a confirmed case of smallpox. Digital image. Posters. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.who.int/features/2010/smallpox/posters/en/index3.html>. This is a picture of a poster publicizing the reward of $1000 for finding a confirmed case of smallpox. Heat stable, freeze-dried vaccine for smallpox. Digital image. Pfizer. Pfizer Inc., n.d. Web. 25 Dec. 2012. <http://www.pfizer.com/health/vaccines/legacy_of_achievement.jsp>. This is an image of the freeze-dried vaccine used for vaccination in tropical countries.

Henderson, Donald Ainslie. Smallpox: The Death of a Disease. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2009. Print. From the point of view of one of the directors of WHOs smallpox eradication plan, Donald Ainslie Henderson tells us about the situations he faced, and also more general information, such as the history and physical features of smallpox. This was a book that helped me touch up my facts by adding details that make my information more detailed. Hernando Cortes. Digital image. BBC History. British Broadcasting Company, 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/cortes_hernan.shtml>. This is a picture of Hernan Cortes, the man who led the expedition in 1519 to Tenochtitlan. Hopkins, Donald R. Princes and Peasants: Smallpox in History. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1983. Print. This book is about the history of smallpox and its eradication. It has thorough information about smallpox in each part of history. Dr. Hopkins was the assistant director for International Health at the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia. Hopkins, Donald R. "Ramses V- Earliest known victim?." World Health 8 May 1980: 22. World Health Organization. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. This article is about how Donald Hopkins examined specimens from the mummy of Pharaoh Ramses V for scientific evidence that would prove he had died of smallpox. This gave me a first-hand account on how Ramses V died. Jenner, Edward. On the origin of the vaccine inoculation. London: D.N Shury, 1801. Print. This book is a description on the way Edward Jenner found the relationship between smallpox and cowpox, and how this lead to the discovery of the smallpox vaccine. This helped me because it was a first-hand account about how Edward Jenner found the vaccine, which I found valuable information since vaccination was one of the key components that lead to smallpoxs eradication. Jenner, Edward. The Three Original Publications on Vaccination Against Smallpox. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 190914; This book is about the three years of extensive research Edward Jenner did into the connection between cowpox and smallpox and how cowpox can be used as a preventive

of smallpox, listing specific examples of cases that correlate to his research. This book helped me because it gave me specific examples I could use in my presentation to show how Jenner supported his findings. Kirtland, G. A watercolour by G. Kirtland comparing the effects of smallpox inoculation (variolation) on left, and cowpox inoculation (vaccination) on right reaction on arm after 14 days. Digital image. Medicine through Time- Smallpox. Timelines.tv, 2010. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. <http://timelines.tv/smPox/more/spread5.html>. This is a picture showing the effects of variolation versus vaccination. This helped show how big an improvement vaccination was compared to variolation. Koplow, David A. Smallpox: The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge. Berkeley: University of California, 2003. Print. This book is about smallpox, its eradication plan, and the now looming threat of bioterrorism. I used this to help me get more information about the eradication program and the steps taken to achieve it. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Digital image. Smallpox: A Great and Terrible Scourge. National Library of Medicine, 18 Oct. 2002. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/smallpox/sp_variolation.html>. This is a picture of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, the woman who brought inoculation to European countries. Last Cases of Smallpox. October 1979. Online image. World Health Organization. 9 October 2012. <http://www.who.int/features/2010/smallpox/last_cases/en/index6.html> This is the logo certifying the last case of smallpox in Somalia and the global eradication of naturally occurring smallpox. It symbolizes WHOs successful attempt at eradicating smallpox. Last Wild Case of Variola Minor. Perf. D.A. Henderson. History of Vaccines. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/smallpox>. In this video, D.A. Henderson talks about Ali Maow Maalin, the last case of variola minor in the world.

Mlingue, Georges Gaston. The First Vaccination- Dr. Edward Jenner. Digital image. The Gjenvick-Gjonvick Archives: Social and Cultural History. Ament-Gjenvick Group, n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://www.gjenvick.com/Biography/EdwardJenner/1894DrEdwardJenner--Smallpox-Physician.html>. This is a painting of Edward Jenner testing his theories of smallpox on an eight-year-old boy named James Phipps. Parchment signed at Geneva on 9 December 1979, by the members of the Global Commission for Certification of Smallpox Eradication 9 December 1979. Online image. World Health Organization. 14 October 2012 <http://www.who.int/archives/fonds_collections/bytitle/fonds_6/en/> This is the parchment signed to certify the eradication of smallpox. Pizarro looks less like a conquering hero and more like the adventurer he was. Digital image. The Producer's Story. PBS, n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/inca/prod-04.html>. This is a picture of Francisco Pizarro, the conquistador who led an expedition to Cuzco and then conquered the Incan empire. Poster commemorating the eradication of smallpox in 1979. 26 October 1979. Online image. World Health Organization. 14 October 2012. < http://www.who.int/archives/fonds_collections/bytitle/fonds_6/en/> This is a poster that is celebrating the eradication of smallpox. Schwartz, Michael. Shown here in her mothers arms, 3 year old Rahima Banu was the worlds last recorded case of the most virulent form of smallpox, Variola major. Digital image. PHIL 1191. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1975. Web. 2 Jan. 2013. <http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/details.asp>. This is a picture of 3-year-old Rahima Banu, the last case of variola major. Sitala Mata, the Hindu goddess of smallpox, from India. Digital image. DEFENDING THE BODY FROM WITHIN: The Worldwide Eradication of Smallpox. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/museum/exhibit99/3_5.html>.

This is a picture of Sitala Mata, the Hindu goddess of smallpox from India. This showed how the impact of smallpox on human culture around world was reflected in the practice of worshipping gods/goddess associated with the disease. Smith, John Raphael. Edward Jenner. Digital image. Wellcome Images. Wellcome Library, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://images.wellcome.ac.uk/>. This is a portrait of Edward Jenner. Spanish School. Genealogy of the Inca rulers and their Spanish successors from Manco Capac, the first Inca king, to. Digital image. Art Prints On Demand. Art Prints On Demand, n.d. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. <http://www.art-prints-on-demand.com/cgi-bin/apod>. This is a picture of the genealogy of the Inca rulers from the first king to the Spanish successors. I used this to help illustrate the abrupt change to Spanish rule after Pizarros conquest. The Histologic Changes in Human Skin That Has Been Infected with the Smallpox Variola Virus. Digital image. Public Health Image Library (PHIL) 3351. CDC, n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2012. <http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/details.asp>. This image shows the changes in the skin once infected with smallpox. That was then: In April 1947, people stand in line waiting to be inoculated against smallpox at the Morrisania Hospital in New York. Digital image. The How and Why of Smallpox Shots. NBCNews.com, 2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3076449/ns/health-bioterror_news/t/how-whysmallpox-shots/>. This is a picture of the line in New York in 1947 for smallpox vaccinations. The Ped-o-Jet, an automatic vaccination device, 1970s. Digital image. Vaccination. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 25 Dec. 2012. <http://www.who.int/features/2010/smallpox/vaccination/en/index3.html>. This is an image of the Ped-O-Jet, an automatic vaccination device used during the eradication program. The Variola Virus. Digital image. Smallpox. National Geographic, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. <http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/humandiseases/smallpox-article/>.

This is an image of the variola virus. Traces of smallpox pustules on the head of a 3000 year-old mummy, that of the Pharaoh Ramses V, show that smallpox has been a scourge of mankind since time immemorial. No date. Online image. World Health Organization. 14 October 2012. < http://www.who.int/archives/fonds_collections/bytitle/fonds_6/en/> This is a picture of Ramses Vs skull that has proof of him dying of smallpox. I used this to show how smallpox has made a profound impact on history, from to1800s to 3000 B.C. Tucker, Jonathan B. Scourge: The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2001. Print. This book is mainly about smallpox and the threat of bioterrorism that looms even though smallpox was eradicated three decades ago. This book had great information about the history of smallpox and also a great comparison of smallpox to a prisoner awaiting execution. Variolated hand from An inquiry into the causes and effects of the variolae virus by Edward Jenner. Digital image. Smallpox: A Great and Terrible Scourge. National Library of Medicine, 18 Oct. 2002. Web. 19 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/smallpox/sp_variolation.html>. This is a picture of a variolated hand that shows the effects of variolation. Wickett, John F. Ali Maow Maalin, the last case of smallpox in Somalia, 1978. Digital image. Last Cases of Smallpox. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.who.int/features/2010/smallpox/last_cases/en/index1.html>. This is a picture of Ali Maow Maalin, the last man on the planet to have smallpox. Secondary Sources A doctor examines the pustules that formed after vaccination with cowpox. Digital image. Google Books. Google, n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2012. <http://books.google.com/books?id=v0zEiM_hijsC&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=A+doctor+ examines+the+pustules+that+formed+after+vaccination+with+smallpox&source=bl&ots =z4ppyD2Jbq&sig=SnXXpUpquhX9Oi4YmSbB64b1Ebc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rtGqUJmGF8jyq wHvyIGYCw&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ>. This is a picture of a doctor examining the pustules that formed after a vaccination.

A View of Smallpox Progression. The History of Vaccines. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/smallpox>. This video shows the stages of smallpox in the first two weeks. Collier, James Lincoln. Vaccines. New York: Benchmark Books, 2004. Print. This book is about the history of smallpox. I got a detailed description about history and how smallpox has influenced some major parts of history. Hayes, Holly. Stained Glass: Martyrdom of Saint Nicaise. Digital image. Art History Images. Art History Images, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://art-history-images.com/photo/777>. This is an image of St. Nicaise, the European patron of smallpox. "History of Smallpox." Smallpox - Timelines -History of Vaccines. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 2012. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/smallpox>. This is a timeline that shows major and minor events in smallpox's history, giving a brief explanation of each one. I used this to get some more pictures related to smallpox and also to get a concise explanation of smallpox's history. How Variolation Worked. Perf. Dr. Robert Hicks. The History of Vaccines. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/smallpox>. In this video, Dr. Robert Hicks explains how variolation works. Inoculation in the Continental Army. Perf. Dr. Robert Hicks. The History of Vaccines. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 2012. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. <http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/smallpox>. In this video, Dr. Robert Hicks explains how inoculation was used in the Continental Army. Orthopox viruses that can infect humans. Digital image. The History of Vaccines. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 2012. Web. 5 Nov. 2012. <http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/smallpox>.

This is a chart of the orthopox viruses that affect humans. Phelan, Glen. Killing germs, saving lives: the quest for the first vaccines. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2006. Print. This book has some brief information about Edward Jenners discovery of vaccination and Edward Jenners life. I learned a lot about Edward Jenners life, and how he came one step closer to world-wide eradication.

Peters, Stephanie True. Epidemic!: Smallpox in the new world. New York: Benchmark Books, 2005. Print. This book describes how smallpox has affected history in many ways; from destroying some of the greatest civilizations the world had seen to almost changing the outcome of a war. It also discusses how Edward Jenners discovery of vaccination was one of the key steps to the world-wide eradication of smallpox. This gave me key information about smallpoxs history, and how smallpox has impacted the world in several different ways. Reingold, Adam. Smallpox: Is It Over?. New York, N.Y.: Bearport Pub., 2011. Print. This book gives a brief description of smallpox throughout history, talking mostly about Ali Maow Maalin, the man with the last case of naturally occurring smallpox. I learned how smallpox affects the body and also many famous people who had smallpox. Results of Variolation. Perf. Robert Hicks. History of Vaccines. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 12 Apr. 2010. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/results-variolation>. In this video, Dr. Robert Hicks explains what the results of variolation are. Santos, Francisco. Omolu. Digital image. Tanzbrasil. Tanzbrasil, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. <http://www.tanzbrasil.de/eng/orixas.html>. This is a picture of Omolu, the Brazilian god of smallpox. "Smallpox: Variolation." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 09 Dec. 2011. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/smallpox/sp_variolation.html>. This website is just a brief telling of smallpoxs history. I used this site for a quote by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and also for information about variolation.

Smallpox in the Revolution. Perf. Dr. Robert Hicks. The History of Vaccines. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 2012. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. <http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/smallpox>. In this video, Dr. Robert Hicks explains how smallpox changed the way the war was conducted. Tou Shen. Digital image. A Goddess a Day. A Goddess a Day, 2007. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goddessaday.com/southeast-asian/tou-shen-niang-niang>. This is a picture of Tou Shen Niang-Niang, the Chinese goddess of smallpox. Yoshitoshi. Tametomo No Bui Toukigami Wo Shirizoku Zu. Digital image. Japanese Buddhist Statuary. Mark Schumacher, 1995. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/color-red.html>. This is a picture of Tametomo, the fabled Japanese warrior who killed a smallpox demon.